Op ontdekkingstocht in Cluj county, het unieke natuurgebied van het Apuseni-gebergte en de bezienswaardigheden van de stad Cluj. Een onvergetelijke vakantie.
Het Apuseni Gebergte
Paths and Landscapes in The Apuseni Mountains
The Apuseni Mountains are situated in the north-west of the country. Although the highest peak is only 1848m (Curcubata Peak) the attraction consists in a unique combination of wildness and rural civilitation, the Apuseni Mountains beeing characterized by picturesque landscape with houses and hay piles scaterred on the most often karstic plateaus, many of them split by wild gorges.
Cluj county (hierin ligt het Apuseni natuurgebied)
• geographical situation: it is located in the north-western part of Romania, in the heart of Transylvania, on the basin of Somesul Mic; • neighbours: in the north-Maramures; in the north-west-Salaj; in the east-Bistrita Nasaud; in the west-Bihor; in the south-Alba; • surface: 6,674 square km (respectively 2,8 % of the country’s territory); • population: 727,000 inhabitants; • towns: CLUJ NAPOCA – capital of the county (with 330,000 inhabitants, main industrial and cultural center of the country, situated on the terraces of the Somesul Mic, with a glorious past reflected in the old buildings and streets, nowadays a beautiful town with many attraction points); Campia Turzii; Dej; Gherla; Huedin; Turda. • relief: it is mainly composed of hills (2/3 of the total surface), the rest is covered with mountains (in south – west, they decrease in smooth levels) at the contact point of three main natural units: the Apuseni Mountains (the Gilau-Muntele Mare, Bihor and Vladeasa Massifs – with Vladeasa Peak, 1,838 m, and the lowest one, 227 m, where the Somes leaves the county, the Trascau Mountains – a small area), the Somesan Plateau (in the north – western part of the country with higher hills covered by forests) and the Transylvanian Plain (called “plain” because of the agricultural use and of the rounded hills with smooth slopes and altitudes of 500 m, in the south-western part of the county); • climate: it is moderate continental, with chilly summers and not very cold winters. Here are two main climatic sectors: the mountain and the hill areas, depending on the relief structure, the rainfalls are variable, winds blow from west and north-west; • watercourses: the Somesul Mic crosses the county, flowing from south-west and north-east, it collects many tributaries: Somesul Cald, Somesul Rece, Nadas, Borsa. Also part of the Aries river with its tributaries Iara, Hasdate bathes the earth of Cluj county.
• The Gilau Mountains (The Big Mountains) – first in terms of importance and surface, they are bordered, in the south, by the Aries valley, and the Somesul Mic one, in the north. The main feature is given by the remarkable smoothness of the structures which often appear as real plains, loosely uneven and cut by valleys; • Muntii Bihor-reprezentati de masivul Vladeasa (de 1.838 m), alcatuit predominant din roci vulcanice. Pietrele Albe din acesti munti (de 1.557 m, niste calcare) formeaza abrupturi spectaculoase, constituind o insula de alb în oceanul de padure (declarate rezervatie naturala). Pitorescul locurilor este completat de gospodariile risipite ale satelor ce urca pana aproape de culme.
GORGES AND NARROW PATHS
• The Turda Gorges-(8 km away from Turda), forming a wonderful Karst landscape. The Hasdate river has cut in Jurassic limestone an impressive corridor more than 3 km in length. The corridor is guarded by steep rocks, rising up to 350 m. This rocks host about 60 caves. In the Turda Gorges one can admire various species of butterflies and approximately 1,000 species of plants (greatest number in Romania per surface unit), some of them unique in the world. The Turda Gorges repesent a complex preserve (geological, floristic, faunistic, archaeological) and are declared monuments of nature; • The Tureni Gorges – natural preserve; • The Somesul Cald Gorges – wild gorges, with caves and canyons; • The Dragan Valley – more than 35 km in length; • The Narrow Path of Crisul Repede – starting in the village of Ciucea.
• The Legii Lake (The Law Lake) – faunistic preserve (near the village of Legii), a favourite area for migratory pond birds; • The Pike Lake – ornithological preserve (4-5 km from Gherla), it represents a “Miniature Delta”; • The Geaca Lake – ornithological preserve, (3 km north-east of Mociu), on the Cluj Napoca-Reghin road, with rare species of birds; • The Fantanele Lake – on the upper Somesul Cald, anthropical lake with power purpose; • The Floroiu Lake-(20 km from the Dragan Valley), anthropical lake with power purpose; • The Tarnita lake-anthropical lake with power purpose; • The Turda Lake-anthropical-saline lake, forming lacustrian complexes; • The Cojocna Lake-anthropical-saline lake, forming lacustrian complexes; • The Ocna Dejului Lake-anthropical-saline lake, forming lacustrian complexes; • The Sic Lake-anthropical-saline lake, forming lacustrian complexes.
PRESERVES AND MONUMENTS OF NATURE
• Fanatele Clujului-(3-4 km north of Cluj Napoca), botanical preserve where a complex vegetal steppe world lives (specific to Asiei and Eastern Europe); • Suatu-(26 km east of Cluj Napoca), botanical preserve with steppe elements.
• Belis-Fantanele – permanent spa, (at an altitude of 1,350 m and 25 km away from Huedin, on DJ 161B from Huedin). The dam lake offers many leisure possibilities. The skiers can enjoy the natural ski slopes from the neighbourhood (abundent snow last till late spring). In the village of Belis, tourists can find accommodation in private farms; • Baisoara-(55 km away from Cluj Napoca), on the eastern side of the Muntele Mare massif (with an altitude of 1,385 m altitudine). It usually has 171 days of snow and is popular among winter sports amateurs. Hunting and fishing can be practiced as well; • Salt Baths-Turda, spa, (at an altitude of 350 m, 4 km from Turda and 30 km from Cluj-Napoca); • Baita Baths-spa (1 km away from Gherla and 43 km away from Cluj Napoca); • Cojocna Baths-spa (20 km south-east of Cluj Napoca).
• Tailors’ Bastion-Cluj Napoca, the unique bastion of the old fortress which is completely preserved, the present construction is a repair from 1672; • The Medieval Fortress-Bologa, it is mentioned in a document from 1322. It was in the possesion of the Wallachian voivode, Mircea the Elder, at the end of the 14th century. The surrounding wall has a length of 80 m and a height between 10 and 18 m; • Celtic Settlement-Apahida (3rd-2nd century B.C.); • Roman Camp Potaissa-Turda, the 5th legion Macedonica was quartered here; • Roman Camp-Dej (188-218); • Roman Camp-Gilau, it was built in order to defend the Roman town of Napoca; • Medieval Fortress-Dabaca, it played an important role Transylvanian history during the 10th-14th centuries, main fortress of the county, royal fortress; • The Banffy Castle-Bontida (12th century), it was transformed in several occasions, important architectural monument in the Baroque, Renaissance and Neo-Gothic styles, today only ruins); • The Wass Castle-Gilau (15th-16th centuries), in Renaissance style, temporarily used by the family of Michael the Brave.
• “Saint Michael Church”-Cluj Napoca, the construction started in 1350, and took over two centuries. It is an impressive and valuable monument of Gothic architecture sheltering remarkable interior paintings. The tower, 80 m in height, it was built between the years 1836 – 1862; • Reformed Church-Cluj Napoca, it was built by the King Matei Corvin in 1486; • Calvaria Church-Cluj Napoca, it is mentioned in documents from 1222, rebuilt in the 15th-16th centuries. In 1437, the agreement between the nobles and the victorious peasants from Bobalna was signed here; • Orthodox Cathedral-Cluj Napoca (1921-1933); • Reformed Church-Turda, it was built around the year 1400, with a tower having a height of 60 m; • Roman-Catholic Church-Turda (1498-1504), representative building for the medieval Transylvanian art of the 15th-16th centuries; • Calvinist Church-Turda, important monument of the Gothic architecture in our country, it was erected during the reign of Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437); • Orthodox Church-Feleacu, built by the Moldavian ruler, Stephen the Great, in Gothic style, (1486-1488); • Monastery – Nicula, (8 km from Gherla), manufacturing centre of icons on glass (1552).
• The Banffy Palace-Cluj Napoca, it was built between 1774-1785, in Late Baroque style; it belonged to Count Gheorghe Banffy, the palace has wonderful paintings and sculptures on the front side. Nowadays, it hosts the Art Museum; • Matei Corvin’s House – the oldest building with a floor in Cluj Napoca, it is the birthplace of Matei Corvin (1443), he would become later King of Hungary; • Princely Residence-Turda (15th century), Gothic style, today Museum of the Town; • Ethnographic Museum of Transylvaniei-Cluj Napoca, it offers a complex view over the popular culture of this historical region. The department in open air (on the Hoia Hill) consists in 82 constructions (handicraft complexes, peasant houses, wooden churches); • History Museum of Transylvania-Cluj Napoca, it was founded in 1859 and includes more than 150,000 items (objects from the Dacian civilisation from the Orãºtie Mountains; it is worth to be mentioned the vessel with the inscription “Decebalus per Scorilo” = “Decebalus, Scorilo’s son”); • Memorial House “Octavian Goga”-Ciucea (180 km away from Oradea), poet of the Transylvanian village, politician (prime minister between the two world wars). This is the house of the poet who described the Romanian lands as it follows: “We have green forests of fir-trees / and silk-like plains…”; • Botanical Garden-Cluj Napoca, it represents one of the attraction points of the town and ranges among the most famous gardens in Southeastern Europe. The botanical garden was founded in 1872 and has approximately 11,000 species of plant from all continents. Exotic plants are kept in greenhouses which cover a surface of 2,000 square m.
MONUMENTS AND STATUES
• Saint George Monument-Cluj Napoca, impressive masterpiece made by sculptors Marin and Gheorghe (in 1373). They astonished the entire Europe with this monument. It is a copy of the famous statue from Prague (Hradciani Palace); • The Statue of Matei Corvin-Cluj Napoca, a very valuable artistic work presenting one of the most important personalities of the history, Matei Corvin, king of Hungary (1458-1490), born in Cluj, son of Ioan Corvin of Hunedoara; • Equestrian Statue of Michael the Barve-Cluj Napoca, in honour of ruler who accomplished for the first time in history the union of the three Romanian countries; • Statue of Baba Novac-Cluj Napoca, in memory of this courageous captain of Michael the Brave, killed in Cluj; • Statue of Avram Iancu-Cluj Napoca; • Monument erected on the place where Michael the Brave was killed – on the plain near Turda where he settled the camp, in August 1601, the ruler was assasinated at the order of General Basta; • Bobalna Monument – the peasants’ uprising of 1437 started here, an important monument of the Transylvanian peasants’ fight for social rights.
• The villages of Cluj county preserve unchanged, for many centuries, interesting customs and traditions. The most famous villages are: Izvorul Crisului (folk art), Poieni (wooden gates, costumes), Calatele (houses, folk costumes), Rascruci (wicker works), Panticeu (sheepskin and leather works).
Op ontdekkingstocht in Cluj county (hierin ligt het Apuseni natuurgebied) en de stad Cluj
The great diversity of the relief and the wide range of rare animals and plants create the remarkably picturesque landscape of the county of Cluj. Its geographic location plays a major role in turning the area into a tourist attraction, especially due to its significant resources for leisure. Tourists will admire stern peaks of the Gilau, Vladeasa and Trascau Mountains, the gorges and canyons (Turzii, Turului, Stanciului, Ariesului), the steep rock sides and the dark caves (Varfurasul). The Fantanele, Tarnita and Floroiu dam lakes, the salt lakes in Turda and Cojocna, the pounds of the Transylvanian Plain and the mineral water springs have already been well appreciated by all the visitors of the area. The richness of the environment is enhanced by the historical monuments which date from ancient times, by the works of art and by the traditional folkloric artifacts and customs.
THE BOTANICAL GARDEN IN CLUJ-NAPOCA This is one of the most beautiful and most complex botanical gardens in South-Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920 by the university professor Alexandru Borza. The garden spreads over a surface of 14 hectares in the South of the city, at a height of 400-410 meters. The whole area of the garden is hilly, thus offering a whole variety of landscapes. Trees and plants from all over the world enjoy here optimum conditions for growth, so that the garden becomes a real museum of the environment. The picturesque landscape of the garden is enhanced to a certain extent by the Piriul Tiganilor Stream and by its three affluents which divide the area into several so-called islands.
THE SOMESENI SPA The Someseni Spa is located at 4 km East from the center of Cluj, at a height of 360 meters, on a salt massif situated at small depth. The numerous mineral springs with bicarbonate, chlorosodic and radioactive waters provide possibilities to cure different diseases.
THE COJOCNA SPA The Cojocna Spa is located in the East of the Cojocna village, on the left bank of the Valea Sarata Stream, at a height of 340 meters. The mild climate of the spa, the picturesque landscape, as well as the two dam lakes (Lacul Toroc and Lacul Mare) provide the possibility to cure different diseases. The spa has cold and warm waters. Hot baths can be taken in special pools located on the former salt mines, which were used from the Romans' times until the Middle Ages.
THE BAITA SPA This spa is located at a height of 265 meters, close to the Baita village. The spa has been well-known for 140 years; still, there are traces proving that the mineral waters here had been used even since the Romans' times. The mild climate, the two hypothermic (18-20 Celsius), bicarbonate, low chlorinated, sulphurous mineral springs are mainly indicated for rheumatic conditions and skin diseases.
THE TURDA SPA The spa is located at the South of Turda city, at an average height of 360 meters, in a depression area surrounded by forests. The spa had already been discovered by the Romans; over the Middle Ages and until the end of the 17th century they were mentioned in documents under the name "The Salt Mines in Turda". The most important lakes of the spa are Lacul Roman, Lacul Privighetoarea, etc. The spa is mainly recommended for the cure of different diseases, especially of the locomotor system.
THE CHEILE TURZII GORGES The gorges are a result of the Hasdate river cutting its way through the limy rocks of the Culmea Petridului peak. They spread over 2 km along the river. The site had been appreciated ever since the Romans' times, due to the majestic landscape and to the complex diversity of the flora and fauna. The relief of the gorges is impressive by the vertical mountain sides, the array of rocks and the numerous caves. Pestera Calastur (751 m), Pestera Liliecilor, Pestera Cuptorului are the most important caves to mention. Most of these caves are dry, but they have a significant archeological value, as many stone and bronze tools from the stone and bronze ages were discovered here. In the Middle Ages, the local inhabitants took refuge in these caves whenever the Tartars invaded the area. The Cheile Turzii Chalet is located in this tourist area, at a height of 1385 m.
THE OCNA DEJULUI SPA The spa is mostly appreciated due to the chain of swimming pools, set up on the location of an old salt mine, at a height of 320 meters. The concentration of salt in these waters goes up to 250g/l; therefore, it is especially recommended for the cure of rheumatic conditions.
THE BAISORII MOUNTAINS They are located at 800 meters away from the Baisoara village; their highest peak reaches 1600 meters. The area is mostly appreciated by the skiers; in summer, the conditions are favorable for fishing and hunting as well. The Baisoara tourist complex is a starting point for any hikes to the Muntele Mare Mountains and to the Cheile Runcului Gorges.
THE VLADEASA MASSIF The sides of the mountains descend northwards and the massif is split into two distinct parts by the Dragan river. The eastern part is the most important for tourism; it is confined in the North by the Crisul Repede river, in the West by the Dragan river, in the East by the Hent river and by the Cris -Somes watershed; this area has the appearance of a volcanic plateau. The Vladeasa Massif is mostly appreciated by a great number of tourists due to its hiking itineraries which lead in all directions.
THE GILAU - TARNITA AREA This area is mainly appreciated due to its picturesque landscape, to the dam erected at Tarnita (it is 87 meters high) and to the Tarnita lake which covers a surface of 216 hectares.
THE TRASCAULUI MOUNTAINS These are the most spectacular mountains in the area, due to the relief carved in limestone. The most significant tourist attractions to be mentioned here are the Cheile Turzii and Cheile Turenilor Gorges, cut by the Hasdate and Racilor rivers.
The Hayfields of Cluj is one of the most interesting botanical reservations due to its extremely varied flora. It is located North of the Cluj-Napoca city, on the banks of the Valea Calda Stream, spreading over a total area of 72.5 hectares; the relief is quite hilly all over the area. The specialists identified here over 450 species of plants resembling the flora characteristic for the steppes in southern Ukraine.
The Cheile Turzii Wild Life Reservation It was founded in 1938 and it is one of the most important protected wild life sites within the Cluj county. The diversity of the relief favored the development of a typical flora and fauna; some of the protected plants that grow here are: the hedge garlic, the common iris and several species of ferns.
The Botanical Reservation in Suatu It is located at 26 km North from Cluj-Napoca, covering a total surface of 4 hectares. The specialists discovered here real botanical treasures as early as 1911.
The Lacul Stiucii Reservation This reservation spreads over the surroundings of a sweet and clear water lake which formed as a consequence of a process of salt dissolving. The rich vegetation provides an appropriate environment for the development of a diverse fauna, also offering shelter for the stops of the migrating fen fowls.
The "Lacul si Valea Legii" Ornithological Reservation It is located on the upper basin of the Fizes River and it was established as a protected wild life site in 1967. It spreads over an area of over 45 hectares, encompassing marshy valleys covered by brimstone.
THE FORTRESS AND THE ORTHODOX CHURCH IN CLUJ - MANASTUR - 60, Manasturului Street
A powerful Benedictine abbey stood once at the western gates of the city of Cluj, in the ancient Romanian village of Manastur. The abbey was known under the name MONASTERIUM BEATAE MARIAE de CLUS and it enjoyed outstanding rights and privileges. Consequent to the archeological research, it was stated that the beginnings of the fortress go back to the 9th century. The Benedictine monks settled within the consolidated precincts towards the end of the 11th century. At the beginning of the 13th century, as a consequence of an argument arising between the abbey and the bishop of Transylvania, the abbey was besieged. The Tartars' invasion in 1241 led both to the destruction of the Cluj city and of the abbey; the latter was pillaged and burned down. The building was restored in 1263, upon order given by King Bela the 3rd. The current monastery of Calvaria was built between 1470 and 1508 in gothic style. Along the years, the monastery enjoyed periods of prosperity, but also underwent times of decay. In 1787, after the war against the Turks, Bishop Alexandru Rudnai decided to have both the church and the surrounding fortifications pulled down; only the altar was spared and it was later on turned into a chapel. Nothing was left from the artistic assets of the church, except for a statue of Virgin Mary holding Infant Jesus; the statue is currently placed on a pedestal, under a gothic baldachin, exactly above the entrance door.
ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH - The Unirii Square
This church is one of the most beautiful gothic monuments in Transylvania. The building was erected between 1350 and 1487. On the current location of the church had formerly stood the St. Jacob's Chapel. The altar is the oldest part of the church, as it was built around the year 1390. The most recent part of the church is its tower, erected in neo-gothic style in 1860. The star-shaped vault, the stained-glass windows and the sculptures are impressive through their beauty and grandeur. The repeated restorations revealed mural paintings from the first part of the 15th century. The latest restoration process of the church took place between 1957 and 1960.
THE FRANCISCANS' MONASTERY AND CHURCH - 2, Muzeului Square
The current location of the monastery had formerly belonged to another church, built in Romanesque style between 1270 and 1272. The Franciscans' Monastery is a gothic construction dating from the 15th century; prince Iancu of Hunedoara gave his support to the building of this monastery. The building also hosts a famous library. The church, located at the South of the monastery had initially been a Dominican gothic church; it was offered as a gift to the Franciscans who restored it in baroque style around the year 1728. The complex encompassing the monastery and the church is one of the oldest buildings in Cluj.
THE REFORMED CHURCH - Mihail Kogalniceanu Street
The building of the impressive church on the Kogalniceanu street began in 1486, due to the support offered by King Matei Corvin. The works were completed around the year 1510. The church, oriented on the East-West axis, is a perfect illustration of the late gothic style. Consequent to the struggles that took place during the Reform age, the church was deserted until the mid 16th century. In 1579, Prince Bathory decided that the church should be managed by the Jesuits. In 1662, when the Diet took place in Cluj, it was ruled that the church should belong to the Reformed. The archway of the building was restored between 1638 and 1645. Meanwhile, the tower located on the southern side, as well as the monastery, were destroyed. The church is a unique monument not only due to the fact that it is so old, but also due to its size; it is one of the largest churches in South-Eastern Europe.
THE PIARISTILOR CHURCH - Universitatii Street
This church was erected between 1718 and 1724; it is a very large baroque building.
THE OBELISK OF FRANCISC 1st - Muzeului Square
The monument was completed in 1817, when Emperor Francisc 1st and his wife visited the city of Cluj. The bas-reliefs that decorate it depict the city emblem, the welcoming of the guests, the Emperor's titles, as well as scenes of the visits he paid to different institutions of the city.
THE MINORITILOR CHURCH - Eroilor Boulevard
In 1764, the church was bought by the Franciscan monks living on the outskirts of Cluj. The tower of this church practically crumbled on September 24, 1779, thus destroying the whole frontispiece. The restoration works began in 1783, and the church was rebuilt in baroque style.
THE DIN DEAL ORTHODOX CHURCH - 12, Bisericii Ortodoxe Street
The Church was built between 1795 and 1796 by the local merchants and craftsmen. Greek and Macedonian merchants living in Cluj, as well as Romanian merchants from Brasov, offered the financial means necessary for this building.
THE BOB CHURCH - 5, Prahova Street
The Bob Church is a baroque building, erected between 1800 and 1803, due to the support offered by Bishop Ioan Bob.
THE UNITARIAN CHURCH - 21 Decembrie 1989 Boulevard
It was erected between 1792 and 1796, in late baroque style; the decorations inside the church illustrate the neo-classic style.
THE NATIONAL ART MUSEUM - 30, Unirii Square
This is the most representative baroque building in Transylvania; it was built between 1774 and 1775. The museum was formerly known under the name the Banffy Palace. The palace is a two storey building. The museum has a significant collection of decorative art items (silver-plate, oriental carpets, period furniture), Romanian and foreign contemporary graphics.
ST. PETER AND PAUL CHURCH - 21 Decembrie 1989 Boulevard
The church was built around the year 1850 in neo-gothic style, on the location of a more ancient church.
MATEI CORVIN'S HOUSE - 6, Matei Corvin Street
The house was built in gothic style in the 15th century; it is the last standing building of those times. It is assumed that Matei Corvin was born in this house on February 23, 1440. In fact, the house was erected some time earlier than 1440 and it underwent many changes along the years, so that only the main façade preserves characteristics of the Renaissance.
Monuments of the Modern Age
THE EVANGELIC CHURCH - 21 Decembrie 1989 Boulevard
It is a creation of the architect George Winkler, and it was built between 1816 and 1829. The building harmoniously combines characteristics of the baroque and neo-classic styles.
THE ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUM OF TRANSYLVANIA - 21, Memorandumului Street
It was founded on June 16, 1922, and it currently is of the most important ethnographic museums in our country. The museum is endowed with a collection of over 65,000 items. The several departments of the museum are rigorously structured, thus creating a realistic depiction of the Transylvanian folk material and spiritual culture. Between 1894 and 1895, the building hosted the famous Trial of the Memorandum, which was commented upon in all the European newspapers of the time.
THE PALACE OF JUSTICE - 2, Calea Dorobantilor Street
It was built in 1902.
THE NATIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM OF TRANSYLVANIA - 2, Ctin Daicoviciu Street
The museum was founded on November 23, 1859, being endowed with a patrimony of 336, 130 items that depict the history of Transylvania.
THE TOWN HALL - 3, Motilor Street
Formerly, the building was the headquarters of the county Prefecture. It also used to host the Transylvanian Diet. In 1791, this is where the Romanian nation in Transylvania presented a memorandum claiming their right to equality with the other nations inhabiting the area.
THE BABES-BOLYAI UNIVERSITY - 1, M. Kogalniceanu Street
The construction works were completed between 1893 and 1903, based on the project designed by the architect Carol Meixner.
THE NATIONAL THEATRE AND OPERA HOUSE - Stefan cel Mare Square
This a baroque-rococo building, erected in 1906. The performance hall has 1050 seats.
THE PREFECTURE OF THE CLUJ COUNTY - 58, 21 Decembrie 1989 Boulevard
This building was raised in 1910; it was the first headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Cluj county.
THE NEW SYNAGOGUE - 21, Horea Street
This building, better known under the name the Memorial temple of the Deportees, was erected based on the projects designed by architect Hegner Izidor. It was inaugurated on September 4th, 1887. Unfortunately, on September 27th, 1927, it was ruined by the legionaries; the state financially supported the necessary reparation works afterwards. In September 1944, after the deportment of the Jews to the Nazi concentration camps, the synagogue was severely damaged by an explosion. It was restored in 1951, thanks to the support of the Jew community in Romania.
THE HUNGARIAN THEATRE AND OPERA HOUSE - 26-28, Emil Isac Street
The building was erected between 1909 and 1910, on the former location of an open-air theatre which had been built in 1874. The global capacity of the hall is 1,000 seats and the it has hosted the Hungarian Theatre and Opera House since 1920.
THE EMIL ISAC MUSEUM - Emil Isac Street
The museum was founded in 1955, one year after the poet's death. The museum is located in the house that has been inhabited by Emil Isac's family since 1895; the street where the house is located also carries the poet's name. The museum comprises three rooms: the first hosts an exhibition of the documents concerning the poet's life and work; the second one is dedicated to his father, Dr. Aurel Isac, who was one of the counselors in the Memorandum Trial; the third room used to be the poet's study and it was preserved as such since those times. An impressive book collection of around 1,700 items is to be found in this last room; the books are written in several languages and many of them are autographed by the authors.
THE OPEN AIR ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUM - THE HOIA FOREST
THE NATIONAL ART MUSEUM
30, Unirii Square
THE ZOOLOGICAL MUSEUM
5-7, Clinicilor Street
THE NATIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM OF TRANSYLVANIA
2, C-tin Daicoviciu Street
THE HISTORICAL COLLECTION OF THE PHARMACY INSTITUTE
28, Unirii Square
2, C-tin Daicoviciu Street
THE LABORATORY FOR RESTORATION AND PRESERVATION OF THE NATIONAL CULTURAL HERITAGE
111, Calea Turzii Street
The Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania This is the largest museum of the kind in Romania; its main accomplishment is to have developed a permanent activity for 75 years now. The museum was founded on June 16th, 1922; it was one of the most significant cultural achievements over the period following the unification of Romania on December 1st, 1918.
Even since the very beginning, the research made by the museum's specialists was meant to set up a documented basis that led to the transformation of the museum into an "institution of scientific research, setting as its main objective to study the life and civilization of the Romanian people and of the other peoples inhabiting the area." The substantial results of the 75-year activity are the following: a collection of 43,000 ethnographic items, exhibited in the eight departments of the museum: Trades, Lodging -Specific Dishes, Pottery, Textiles, National Costumes, Customs, the Open-air Section, the International Section; a collection of 50,000 document photographs; 5,000 slides; 12,000 books and specialized magazines; the Ethnographic-Folkloric Archives.
The Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania - the "Romulus Vuia" Ethnographic Park is currently the first open-air museum in Romania and the sixth in Europe. It was founded on April 12, 1929. Nowadays, the park exhibits the following items: 34 peasant technical installations; 5 workshops, 12 households comprising 90 individual buildings featuring the regions of Maramures, Tara Oasului, Nasaud, Secuime, Campia Transilvaniei, Zarand, Podgoria Alba, Mocanimea Muntilor Apuseni, Depresiunea Calatele, Bran, Bistrita (sasi), Gurghiu; 3 wood churches and a cemetery gate. Among this array of exhibits, 19 date from 1678 - 1913.
Dit dorp, gelegen aan de DN1/E60 (de internationale route vanuit Hongarije via de grensplaats Bors bij de stad Oradea), wordt ook wel "De poort naar het Apuseni-gebergte" genoemd.
Het Apuseni-gebergte is onderdeel van de West Karpaten en is een uniek en adembenemend natuurgebied met vele mooie grotten (zelfs een ijsgrot met een gletsjer erin), onderaardse rivieren, onderaardse meren, watervallen, kloven, houten watermolens aan klaterende bergbeekjes, dolines, enz. 's Winters kan men er skieen, in Baisoara is ook een ski-lift. In de bergmeren, die er trapsgewijs boven elkaar liggen, kan men vissen, zwemmen, surfen en een rondvaart maken. Het is een liefelijk gebied met verstilde (Hongaarse) dorpjes met mooie oude kerkjes en boerenhuisjes. De folklore wordt er nog in ere gehouden, in het eerste week-end in juli is er zelfs een groot folkloristisch festival in de bergen bij het dorp Marisel. Men zegt van dit dorp, dat het groter dan Boekarest is. Vanaf de toppen ziet men overal verspreid huisjes, alsof iemand ze met de losse hand heeft uitgestrooid. Hier wandelen lijkt op rondstappen door een vergeeld prentenboek uit vervlogen tijden. Boerenkarren door paarden, ezels, ossen en buffels getrokken, boeren die het gras met de zeis maaien, een herder met een kudde schapen, loslopende koeien en paarden. De paarden uit de dorpen worden in de zomer in de omringende bergweiden losgelaten, om in de herfst terug te keren. 's Avonds maak je in vele dorpen de intocht van de koeien mee. Iedere ochtend vertrekken ze met de dorpsherder naar de grazige bergweiden, om 's avonds in optocht weer terug te komen. Hun geloei en getrappel vult dan de straten en elke koe vindt feillos de poort van haar eigen huis terug. Het nationale park Padis is het hoogtepunt van veel wandelingen in het Apuseni-gebergte. De drie beroemdste dolines van Padis zijn de Cetatile Ponor, de diepste is wel 200 meter. Ook het typisch Hongaarse gebied bij Huedin, de zogenaamde Kalatozseg, is een bezoek waard. Hier wordt thuis veel handarbeid verricht en aan de weg verkocht: houtsnijwerk, aardewerk, prachtig geborduurde kleden. Noemenswaard zijn ook de lokale markten in de dorpen, bijvoorbeeld op de eerste en derde vrijdag van de maand in het dorp Gilau. Bekijk dan meteen de twee op waterkracht werkende authentieke houten wasmachines aan de beek en het kasteel in het dorp met daarachter de resten van een oud Romeins Castellum. Vlakbij is ook nog Cluj, de oude hoofdstad van Transylvanie, met zijn vele bezienswaardigheden te bezoeken.
Aan de rand van Gilau ligt Camping Eldorado, een westerse camping onder Nederlands beheer met alle denkbare voorzieningen. Hier worden ook huisjes en appartementen verhuurd en er is een goed restaurant met ruime menukeuze. Bezoek maar eens de website http://www.campingeldorado.com. Ook kunt u hier boerenkartochten maken in de bergen achter de camping naar de zomerboeren met hun kudden, of gebruik maken van de op de camping aanwezige gids.