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  • Alien life BOMBSHELL: NASA find SECRET 'baby planets' hiding in our Solar System
  • Computing and the Fermi Paradox: A New Idea Emerges—The Aliens Are All Asleep
  • Dubai police announce electric Star Wars-style hoverbikes for officers at Gitex tech conference
  • COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE LOOKS LIKE A GHOST
  • Astronaut wee could show us how the plumes on Enceladus work
  • Star Trek creator’s son discusses UFO and aliens (VIDEO)
  • Searching for ET in our Solar System requires methodical approach
  • 50 Years Later, Wanaque Reservoir UFO Photographer Identified
  • First aliens humans encounter will be immortal robots, billions of years old: scientist
  • Leslie Kean – Former US Government Officials’ New UFO Research Initiative – October 17, 2017
  • Study finds ancient Hydrothermal vents on Mars ‘cradle for alien life’ on Red Planet
  • The truth is out there: the history of Edinburgh’s UFO hotspot
  • UFOs in Glasgow which have left people across the world baffled
  • CLASSIFIED PHOTOS FROM NASA OF BIG EXTRATERRESTRIAL VEHICLES TAKEN BY ASTRONAUTS & ROBOTIC PROBES
  • THE 1954 FRENCH UFO CRAZE THAT LED TO THE WORLD’S WEIRDEST WINE LAW Joshua Malin @joshtext
  • JUST SOME LEAKED NASA UFO PHOTOS
  • UFOS, ANOMALIES, AND MORE: 20 MINUTES NASA FOOTAGE
  • SpaceX Quietly Schedules Launch of Mysterious “Black” Rocket
  • Here’s what space toilets can teach us about finding signs of alien life
  • Life on Mars CONFIRMED? Aliens could be living UNDERNEATH surface in shock discovery
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    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
     
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    UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be. Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com. Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    19-10-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Alien life BOMBSHELL: NASA find SECRET 'baby planets' hiding in our Solar System

    Alien life BOMBSHELL: NASA find SECRET 'baby planets' hiding in our Solar System

    NASA scientists have found several previously hidden “baby planets” that may help solve one of the biggest mysteries in our Solar System. 

    The “moonlets” are forming out of the rings in the same way planets are created around a star – giving a breakthrough insight into the origin of Earth.

    These new moons also appear to contain methane – a red flag space boffins look for when hunting extraterrestrial life.

    Saturn

    GETTY/NASA

    PROBE: Scientists are hopeful of finding more information about Saturn

    There are whole careers to be forged in the analysis of data from Cassini

    Linda Splicer

    Many space boffins believe one of Saturn’s other moons, Enceladus, may be an alien homeland.

    It has vast warm water oceans that could hold mutant fish under a thick ice crust.

    The NASA team left open the prospect the new baby planets could be harbouring life, too.

    The researchers made the discovery after crashing the NASA spacecraft Cassini into the planet's atmosphere.

    RELATED VIDEOS

    Cassini had been probing Saturn for years but scientists have now begun combing through the data collected.

    And what they have found is astonishing.

    Linda Splicer, one of the mission’s project scientists, said: “There are whole careers to be forged in the analysis of data from Cassini.

    “In a sense, the work has only just begun.”

    Fellow scientist Matt Tiscareno revealed that the team found “propellers” in the rings created by small moonlets.

    The team unveiled their new discoveries at the latest American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Science.

    Cassini was able to capture images of six such baby planets – now known as Bleriot, Earhart, Santos-Dumont, Sikorsky, Post and Quimby.

    NASA now hopes they can determine the age and origin of Saturn’s famous rings.

    Saturn

    NASA

    BREAKTHROUGH: The team left open the prospect the new baby planets could be harbouring life

    Experts decided to obliterate Cassini on September 15 rather than leaving it to drift around the planet.

    NASA explained: “In order to avoid the unlikely possibility of Cassini someday colliding with one of these moons, NASA has chosen to safely dispose of the spacecraft in the atmosphere of Saturn.”

    Following Cassini’s last crash, NASA tweeted: “Every time we see Saturn in the night sky, we'll remember. We'll smile. And we'll want to go back. Goodbye Cassini.”

    The spacecraft was launched in 1997 but did not arrive at the ringed planet until 2005.

    19-10-2017 om 02:01 geschreven door peter

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    18-10-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE LOOKS LIKE A GHOST

    COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE LOOKS LIKE A GHOST

    Some 5,000 light-years away from Earth, in the constellation Centaurus, a spooky object is illuminating the skies: The Boomerang Nebula.

    This ghost-like cloud of gas is a planetary nebula, which, contrary to the name, is not actually a planet. These cosmic objects are formed when a red giant star runs out of hydrogen fuel, causing the core to collapse. Eventually, the outer layers are spewed out into the surroundings, resulting in a newly-formed white dwarf encased in a shell of luminescent gas. This will ultimately be the beautiful fate of 95% of all stars in the Milky Way; the rest will end their lives in spectacular explosions known as supernovae.

    Coldest Place In The Universe Looks Like A Ghost

    The Butterfly Nebula.

    Credit: NASA/ESA/Hubble

    Alongside looking somewhat like a Halloween costume gone wrong or Kenny from South Park, the Boomerang Nebula, or the Bow Tie Nebula, is actually the coldest known object in the universe. Measurements of the cloud were taken last year by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which is located in northern Chile. Incredibly, it was found to be -272oC (458oF), or a mere 1 degree Kelvin. That’s chillier than the remnants of the Big Bang, or the cosmic microwave background.

    In visible light, the object has an odd hourglass shape. This is because a dense strip of tiny dust grains surround the star in the middle, masking a portion of it. This means that light is seeping out only in a narrow window, but in opposite directions through the cloud.

    “This ultra-cold object is extremely intriguing and we’re learning much more about its true nature with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array,” said NASA’s Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. “What seemed like a double lobe, or boomerang shape, is actually a much broader structure that is expanding rapidly into space.”

    The Boomerang Nebula is still young, so it’s not quite reached the stage of planetary nebula evolution where intense UV radiation emitted from the white dwarf causes the gas cloud to glow, emitting a wonderful array of colors.

    While it might be extremely cold at the moment, researchers found that its edges are gradually beginning to warm. This is possibly due to something called the photoelectric effect, which is where solid objects emit electrons after absorbing light.

    “Using ALMA, we were quite literally and figuratively able to shed new light on the death throes of a Sun-like star,” said Sahai

    Source www.iflscience.com

    {http://alien-ufo-sightings.com/ }

    18-10-2017 om 23:59 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Astronaut wee could show us how the plumes on Enceladus work

    Astronaut wee could show us how the plumes on Enceladus work

    A little like wee
    A little like wee

    NASA

    It’s just a wee moon, but Saturn’s icy satellite Enceladus is one of the most promising places in the solar system in the hunt for alien life. Examining how spaceships vent urine could help us understand the small moon’s jets of water, which may spew out signs of life along with liquid.

    At Enceladus’s south pole, plumes of liquid water spurt up from an ocean hidden under a thick sheath of ice made of varying sizes of tiny shards. Despite the pictures we have of this region from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, we don’t know much about the inner workings of the plumes because the probe could only detect one size of ice grain at a time, leaving scientists to guess at the overall distribution.

    But Ralph Lorenz at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland says that we could use other jets of water in space – the ones formed as spacecraft release astronaut pee and waste water from fuel cells – as an analogue to better understand that distribution. He presented this work at the American Astronomical Society’s meeting of the Division of Planetary Sciences on 17 October.

    Whizzing water

    When water whizzes out into the cold vacuum of space, some of it freezes instantaneously. In 1989, researchers at a telescope in Hawaii observed this process as the Discovery space shuttle dumped water from its fuel cells.

    “There was a population of ice grains that were basically the size of the vent, but there’s a second population of much smaller grains that were interpreted as basically recondensing from the vapour,” says Lorenz. “That is probably the type of distribution that we’ll see on Enceladus.”

    The plumes on Enceladus are far bigger and likely less uniform on the inside than a simple metal tube spraying out water, though. On the space shuttle, water being dumped formed long icicles on the outside of the nozzle in some cases, so the same may happen at Enceladus and change the structure of the vents over time, Lorenz says.

    Urine vented from the space shuttle left a residue when tiny particles of wee ice hit the craft’s panels, so he suggests that future missions to Enceladus could have detectors that look for signatures of life in the miniscule dents left by ice grains there.

    A bit of a stretch

    “It seems like a stretch to me,” says Hunter Waite at the Southwest Research Institute in Texas. “The temperature of the water reservoir and how the liquid interacts with the ice walls that are several kilometres thick are important factors, and they don’t seem to have an analogue in this system.”

    Lorenz says that even though the spacecraft water-dumping process is much simpler than Enceladus’s vents, it could still help us validate our models of the moon’s jets.

    “These observations don’t tell us directly what’s happening on Enceladus, but they provide a sort of anchor for our interpretations of what we’re seeing on Enceladus and our designs for a new mission to go there,” says Lorenz.

    18-10-2017 om 23:36 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Searching for ET in our Solar System requires methodical approach

    Searching for ET in our Solar System requires methodical approach

    Space agencies and planetary scientists around the globe are combing through data from big, multi-instrument probe missions in a careful step-by-step search for extraterrestrial life — with an emphasis on environment habitability. They’re seeking a better understanding of the chemical and physical nature of various planets and moons that could be targeted for future life-searching missions. This is happening at a time when NASA’s car-sized Curiosity rover is easing gradually up a Martian hill with no end in site, and in the aftermath of the end of a 20-year voyage of the Saturn-exploring Cassini probe.

    Though one craft is still going and the other has said farewell, the work at Mars and Saturn is fairly similar. In both instances, exploration craft have been operating for many years, producing major discoveries of astrobiological import. Scientists are hoping to find life as we know it — meaning organisms that depend on organic (carbon-based) chemistry, and that require water — somewhere in our Solar System. Nobody expects intelligent life. Instead, the search is focused on the prospect for single celled life. And maybe in the oceans of an ice-covered world, like Saturn’s moon Enceladus, multicellular life forms are plausible.

    One big difference between the Martian and Saturnian missions, however, is that native life discovered in the latter case is likely to be unrelated to life on Earth. Deep down in the ocean beneath the icy surface of Enceladus, or in the ocean of Jupiter’s moon Europa, the presence of life would represent an independent origin from the web of life that inhabits Earth. In contrast, when it comes to Mars, it’s quite plausible that we’ll find that native life forms there will be distant cousins of Earth’s organisms, that the life of both planets began from a common origin from non-living chemistry. That’s because rock material — tons of it– transfers each year between the surfaces of Earth and Mars in a process that has been happening for billions of years. It’s also plausible that Martian life, if it exists, represents an independent origin from that of Earth, but we won’t know until we find such life and analyze it.

    What NASA’s Curiosity rover told us

    Curiosity

    NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)mission includes, Curiosity, the largest and most capable robotic rover ever landed on the Red Planet. Curiosity is exploring the Gale crater, which held liquid water for long periods between 3.3 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. Evidence that the crater was home to rivers and streams came in a couple of years ago. What’s new is a study, published in the journal Science, by researchers at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Numerous data from Curiosity‘s instruments have been accumulating for the taking, and the Stony Brook team set out to extract information on specific minerals within the rocks at different locations and depths in the crater zone, and the oxidation states of those minerals. The Stony Brook analysis revealed climate change — from warmer wetter conditions in the distant past to dryer colder conditions, which adds weight to the possibility that the region has been a home to microorganisms.

    The analysis also revealed redox stratification –differences in oxidation states between different levels, specifically more oxidized along the crater’s edges and less oxidized lower down. The researchers are interpreting the find to mean that far in the past, when the Gale crater held a large lake, the upper regions of the water constituted a high oxygen zone that would have been friendly to aerobic life forms, while the deeper parts of the lake would have be favorable to anaerobic forms. This means there could have been a diversity of different types of life, which is to say a healthy ecosystem.

    Cassini: The mission that went into double overtime

    Launched in 1997, the Cassini mission was operated jointly by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The mission’s full name was Cassini-Huygens, because it included two craft. Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712), who discovered four of Saturn’s moons and the divisions between the planet’s rings, is the namesake of the larger craft, which orbited Saturn from 2004-2017. The mission also included the ESA Huygens probe. It was named for Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch astronomer who discovered Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, where the probe landed successfully in 2005.

    Huygens

    The original mission plan for Cassini was to last until June 2008 — four years after entering orbit around Saturn. However, since all systems were go, with plenty of fuel for propulsion and plutonium for electricity, the mission was extended to 2010, but it wouldn’t end there either. With mountains of discoveries about Saturn and its moons in the rear view mirror and numerous data still to be analyzed, and still plenty of propellant in the fuel tanks, mission planners gave Cassini the green light for an additional seven years.

    In terms of the engineering, the design requirements needed only to enable the original projected mission duration to 2008, but not until nine years later, this past September, did controllers steer Cassini into Saturn’s atmosphere to end the mission. That was simply because the fuel was about to run out, but everything was still working just fine. (One can’t help but wonder if some sort of “Scotty Effect” was operating, wherein the engineer –accidentally on purpose– underestimates how well, or how long, something that he designed will work, so that everyone will be amazed later.)

    Habitability of the environment

    Like the MSL on Mars, the mission of Cassini-Huygens in the Saturn system has included characterization of the chemistry of the environment, and the physical conditions affecting it. In the case of Saturn, the spotlight for the search for extraterrestrial life is not the planet itself, but the planet’s moons. In 2005, during its descent to the surface of Titan, the Huygens probe detected hydrocarbons in the moon’s thick atmosphere, including methane rain, and lakes and seas of methane and ethane. These things had been suspected prior to the mission, and in making such finds, the Huygens’ instrument package provided evidence for the idea that Titan’s environment is like that of Earth billions of years ago, just before the origin of life. Titan has what astrobiologists call prebiotic chemistry.

    Like Huygens, the Cassini probe also studied Titan’s prebiotic chemistry. During its thirteen years orbiting Saturn, Cassini also flew by Saturn’s other moons, including Enceladus, a world that is covered in water ice. Cassini confirmed the presence of a global ocean under that ice, and also discovered plumes of liquid spewing up from cracks in the ice at the south pole, like the geysers at Earth’s Yellowstone Park. At Enceladus, however, the geyser plumes shoot far into space. Taking measurements of the plumes, Cassini demonstrated that they consisted of water, plus, over the years, the craft’s instruments have been able to tell us that those plumes contain organic molecules — called the “stuff of life” by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. Based on this finding, scientists knew that Enceladus had two major requirements to support life — water and material from which to make organisms and food.

    Along with water and organic matter, a world that harbors life also needs an energy source that organisms harness to synthesize food and energy molecules. Vital to that requirement, Cassini detected very tiny rocks in the water plumes, suggesting that hot water is flowing somewhere down in the ocean, like the hot water in the hydrothermal vents that support life forms at the bottom of Earth’s oceans in the absence of sunlight. And last but not least, something that happened earlier this year, just a few months before Cassini was sent to burn up in Saturn’s atmosphere, the instruments detected in the plumes the energy source itself: hydrogen.

    Enceladus

    Putting all of this together, we can say that Enceladus is “habitable;” it has all the ingredients for life. We found this out through a long, patient process. And so now, with more confidence than would have made sense before, there is a major target in the outer solar system for more sophisticated chemistry instruments, but also a direct life search. The latter means instruments designed to be flown through the plumes of Enceladus and to analyze the water directly for the presence of organisms.

    As for Mars, something similar is happening as analysis of the environment is pointing increasingly to the idea that the planet could support life. Back in 1976, a NASA mission called Viking, delivered twin landing probes to two locations on the Martian surface. Each lander carried several instruments designed to study the chemical and physical environment, but also a “biology package” consisting of three experiments to test for the presence of microorganisms in samples of Martian dirt. At both landing sites, the biology experiments gave ambiguous results.

    But ambiguity often exists along a spectrum. In science projects that depend on big, expensive ventures such as space missions, it’s common to view and discuss discoveries and insights from a linear perspective. First, one thing was discovered, then something else that built on top of that earlier discovery, and so forth. Of the three Viking biology experiments, one experiment, known as the Labeled Release (LR), produced results that seemed to indicate the presence of microorganisms, but then were dismissed, largely because a positive finding looked inconsistent with various findings about the chemical and physical environment on the Martian surface. To be sure, the LR principal investigator, Gilbert Levin, has maintained for the past 41 years that his experiment actually detected Martian life. Some fraction of the science community has some to agree with some or all of his reasoning. The consensus is still that the LR results of the 1970s are too ambiguous to be counted as evidence of life, but it’s notable that our understanding of the Martian environment and its suitability for life has evolved substantially in the past four decades, because of MSL and other missions that have been on Mars since Project Viking.

    Now that we know that the Martian chemical environment could be friendly to living forms, the scientific payoff from sending a direct life search experiment to Mars could be far less ambiguous compared with the Viking experience. But, perhaps due to the Viking experience — and also to the possibility that any ambiguity about an issue as game-changing as the discovery of life on another planet could endanger public support for such missions — space agencies around the planet have been taking a careful approach, both in the inner and outer Solar System.

    David Warmflash is an astrobiologist, physician and science writer. BIO. Follow him on Twitter @CosmicEvolution.

    18-10-2017 om 23:17 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Study finds ancient Hydrothermal vents on Mars ‘cradle for alien life’ on Red Planet

    Study finds ancient Hydrothermal vents on Mars ‘cradle for alien life’ on Red Planet

    Have we found indirect evidence that in the distant past, the red planet met all the necessary conditions for life?

    According to experts, these results indicate that it is possible that a Martian basin once hosted life as well.

    Mars continues to surprise. Researchers have found ancient hydrothermal vents that could have been ‘a cradle for life’.

    The study of data obtained by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) led to the finding of evidence of ancient hydrothermal deposits on the seabed on Mars, something that could be instrumental in obtaining clues about the origin of life on earth.

    Based on studies of the Eridania basin, a Martian region with ancient geological formations, experts were able to identify various minerals that show a pattern backing the existence of hydrothermal deposits.

    According to Paul Niles, one of the authors of the research, the region on Mars suggests that there was a sea of hydrothermal activity and that the combination of water and volcanic activity created conditions “probably similar” to that which occurred on Earth, precisely at the moment when life began to evolve.

    The study, titled “Ancient Hydrothermal Seafloor Deposits in Eridania Basin on Mars“, recently appeared in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

    “It is very similar to the hydrothermal environments of the Earth: without a pleasant atmosphere, with only rocks and water,” explains the expert. According to the study, the so-called Eridan Sea is likely to have emerged some 3.7 billion years ago.

    The Eridania basin of southern Mars is believed to have held a sea about 3.7 billion years ago, with seafloor deposits likely resulting from the underwater hydrothermal activity.

    Credit: NASA

    Even if we never find evidence that there’s been life on Mars, this site can tell us about the type of environment where life may have begun on Earth. Volcanic activity combined with standing water provided conditions that were likely similar to conditions that existed on Earth at about the same time — when early life was evolving here.

    Even though Mars today may seem a lifeless, cold planet, around 3.7 billion years ago, it was a very different place with water and even volcanic activity. Evidence of that is the vast fluvial deposits and sedimentary basins NASA has discovered on the surface of the planet.

    One of the best examples of this is the Gale Crater, once believed to have been a major lake bed, and one of the main study area for NASA’s Curiosity Rover.

    Illustrates showing the origin of some deposits in the Eridania basin of southern Mars resulting from seafloor hydrothermal activity more than 3 billion years ago.

    Credit: NASA

    Due to the fact that we now know that Mars once had surface water and volcanic activity, experts are able to conclude that it also experienced hydrothermal activity—something that occurs when volcanic vents open into bodies of water willing them with hydrated minerals and heat.

    “This site gives us a compelling story for a deep, long-lived sea and a deep-sea hydrothermal environment,” Niles said. “It is evocative of the deep-sea hydrothermal environments on Earth, similar to environments where life might be found on other worlds — life that doesn’t need a nice atmosphere or temperate surface, but just rocks, heat and water.”

    Basically, what we found on Mars is the type of hydrothermal activity responsible for the emergence of life on Earth. So if this may have kicked off life on Earth, who says the same did not happen on Mars, billions of years ago?


    Source: Ancient hydrothermal seafloor deposits in Eridania basin on Mars

     { https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    18-10-2017 om 22:09 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.SpaceX Quietly Schedules Launch of Mysterious “Black” Rocket

    SpaceX Quietly Schedules Launch of Mysterious “Black” Rocket

    Now that privately-owned aerospace firms are refining and researching new state-of-the-art rocket technologies, we can expect all sorts of new levels of intrigue and secrecy surrounding space flight. Publicly-funded NASA and other government agencies have to (allegedly) disclose certain amounts of information to the public, but commercial space firms have no such obligation. The undisputed leader in private spaceflight, SpaceX, is no stranger to secrets and conspiracy theories. Elon Musk’s revolutionary company has taken that secrecy even deeper this month with the under-the-radar addition of a shadowy rocket mission under the code name “Zuma.”

    I like to believe (or hope) that Elon's got humanity's best interests in mind, though.

    I like to believe (or hope) that Elon’s got humanity’s best interests in mind, though. I’m sure we’ll be fine.

    The secretive SpaceX mission was noticed by aerospace watchdog site NASASpaceFlight.com which tracks commercial and government launches. The site noticed a last-minute change to SpaceX’s launch schedule for November, adding a mission numbered 1390 with the code name Zuma. Whatever the Zuma payload is, it be launched from a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from the LC-39A launchpad at the Kennedy Space Center. The rocket will then perform a RTLS (Return To Launch Site) landing at LZ-1 at Cape Canaveral after delivering its mysterious payload.

    Although of all the people alive on Earth today, Elon Musk is probably the closest we have to a real-life Bond villain.

    Although of all the people alive on Earth today, Elon Musk probably has the most potential to be a real-life Bond villain.

    The only information available to the public concerning the Zuma launch is that the payload belongs to American aerospace and defense corporation Northrop Grumman and is labelled as governmental in nature. Some speculate that this could be what’s known as a “black commercial” mission, a type of shadowy joint project between private commercial firms and government agencies. The payload is likely some new type of reconnaissance satellite, but with all of the weirdness going on in space and new focus on space warfare, there’s no telling what Northrop Grumman might be launching.

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    18-10-2017 om 16:46 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Here’s what space toilets can teach us about finding signs of alien life

    Here’s what space toilets can teach us about finding signs of alien life

    Waste flushed from space shuttle simulates the plumes of icy moons, one scientist suggests

    BY 

    18-10-2017 om 00:35 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Life on Mars CONFIRMED? Aliens could be living UNDERNEATH surface in shock discovery

    Life on Mars CONFIRMED? Aliens could be living UNDERNEATH surface in shock discovery

    AFTER years of looking for aliens on Mars, it has been discovered they could actually be living UNDERGROUND.

    By Nicholas Bieber 

    Boffins have made the shock discovery that alien life could be living underneath the surface of the Red Planet.

    Scientists carried out experiments that mimicked conditions on Mars, in which they created “mimetic Martian water”.

    They then included an unusual salt – magnesium perchlorate – which was found in soil on Mars by the Phoenix Lander craft in 2009.

    Life on Mars

    GETTY

    CONFIRMED? Scientists have made a discovery which could be helping bacteria to thrive on Mars

    The result was the discovery that this salt could prevent water from freezing beneath the cold surface on Mars.

    This means hardy bacteria could be thriving underneath the Red Planet’s surface, similar to those found on Earth at the bottom of oceans and in Arctic glaciers.

    Dr Lorna Dougan, from the University of Leeds’ school of physics and astronomy said: “The discovery of significant amounts of different perchlorate salts in Martian soil gives new insight into the Martian ‘riverbeds’.

    "The surface temperatures on Mars may reach a high of about 20° Celcius at the equator and as low as -153° Celsius at the pole.

    GETTY

    PICTURED: The Red Planet where life may lie

    “With an average surface temperature of -55° Celsius, water itself cannot exist as a liquid on Mars, but concentrated solutions of perchlorate could survive these low temperatures.

    “The magnesium perchlorate is clearly a major contributing factor on the freezing point of this solution and paves the way for understanding how a fluid might exist under the sub-freezing conditions of Mars.”

    The finding could back the claim by conspiracy theoriests that underground alien cities lie underneath the surface of Mars.

    And the scientist adds it does raise interesting questions about the possibility of life on Mars.

    “If the structure of Martian water is highly pressurised, perhaps we might expect to find organisms adapted to high pressure life similar to piezophiles on Earth, such as deep sea bacteria and other organisms that thrive at high pressure,” she said.

    “This highlights the importance of studying life in extreme environments in both terrestrial and non-terrestrial environments so that we can fully understand the natural limits of life.”

    http://www.dailystar.co.uk/ }

    18-10-2017 om 00:11 geschreven door peter

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    17-10-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.This Is What the Epic Collision Between Two Neutron Stars Sounds Like ...if they made a sound.
    This Is What the Epic Collision Between Two Neutron Stars Sounds Like

    If you listen closely, you may hear motorcycles approaching from the distance. Or maybe it sounds more like bees swarming. Perhaps it just sounds like a sci-fi background tone, meant to build tension. Whatever you think two neutron stars sound like as they spiral closer and closer together, though, it’s hard to deny that that final bloop isn’t startling — and even a bit silly.

    On Monday, astronomers announced that they had observed gravitational wavessent out by two merging neutron stars for the very first time.

    This is perhaps the most exciting discovery yet from the international collaboration between the U.S.-based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory — LIGO — and the Italian Virgo observatory.

    neutron star merger.
    The two merging neutron stars produced lots of energy, but they didn't make any sound.

    And even though this colossal merger didn’t make any sound, we can listen to a simulation of what it sounded like. It may seem strange that two ultra-dense neutron stars — each the size of our sun or larger — merging 130 million light-years away didn’t make noise. In the process, these merging stars produced massive amounts of gamma radiation and even created elements like gold and platnum.

    But, perhaps most importantly, they also produced ripples in spacetime. These ripples, which we know as gravitational waves, occur at various frequencies, which scientists can translate into sound. Without further ado, here’s what this merger “sounded” .

    As you can see, the previous merger measured by LIGO and Virgo were much briefer. The reason for this is the fact that this merger involved neutron stars, not black holes.

    “While earlier detections of the black holes that we’ve made … only lasted for us a couple of seconds, or much less, this neutron star in-spiral lasted for over a minute,” LIGO spokesperson David Shoemaker told reporters on Monday. Inversereported on how this affects the merger:

    The reason for this longer detection is that neutron stars, the smallest, densest stars known to exist, are much lighter than black holes. Whereas the merging black holes that created earlier gravitational wave detections were many times larger than the sun — the first detection in 2015 involved black holes of 29 and 36 solar masses — the neutron stars involved in this latest detection were only about the mass of the sun or maybe twice the mass of the sun.

    So as the neutron stars spiraled in toward one another, they emitted high-frequency gravitational waves that fell within the range that Earth-based detectors could record.

    “The result is that we can see the system for some 1,500 complete cycles of these two objects around each other,” said Shoemaker.

    And that final bloop? That’s when the stars finally merged. By converting the frequency of gravitational waves into audio, the astronomers created what could potentially be the sickest hip-hop beats of all time.


    If you liked this article, check out this video on what would happen if an asteroid hit the middle of the ocean.

    Photos via NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/CI Lab

    https://www.inverse.com/science }

    17-10-2017 om 23:41 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Microbes leave 'fingerprints' on Martian rocks

    Microbes leave 'fingerprints' on Martian rocks

    Microbes leave "fingerprints" on Martian rocks

    Metallosphaera sedula.
    Credit: University of Vienna

    Scientists around Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna are in search of unique biosignatures, which are left on synthetic extraterrestrial minerals by microbial activity. The biochemist and astrobiologist investigates these signatures at her own miniaturized "Mars farm" where she can observe interactions between the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and Mars-like rocks. These microbes are capable of oxidizing and integrating metals into their metabolism. The original research was currently published in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

    At the Department of Biophysical Chemistry at the University of Vienna, Tetyana Milojevic and her team have been operating a miniaturized "Mars farm" in order to simulate ancient and probably extinct microbial life – based on gases and synthetically produced Martian regolith of diverse composition. The team investigates interactions between Metallosphaera sedula, a microbe that inhabits extreme environments, and different minerals which contain nutrients in form of metals. Metallosphaera sedula is a chemolithotroph, means being capable of metabolizing inorganic substances like iron, sulphur and uranium as well.

    To satisfy microbial nutritional fitness, the research team uses mineral mixtures that mimic the Martian regolith composition from different locations and historical periods of Mars: "JSC 1A" is mainly composed of palagonite – a rock that was created by lava; "P-MRS" is rich in hydrated phyllosilicates; the sulfate containing "S-MRS," emerging from acidic times on Mars and the highly porous "MRS07/52" that consists of silicate and iron compounds and simulates sediments of the Martian surface.

    Microbes leave "fingerprints" on Martian rocks
    Synthetic Martian Regolith.
    Credit: University of Vienna

    "We were able to show that due to its metal oxidizing , when given an access to these Martian regolith simulants, M. sedula actively colonizes them, releases soluble  ions into the leachate solution and alters their mineral surface leaving behind specific signatures of life, a 'fingerprint," so to say," explains Milojevic. The observed metabolic activity of M. sedula coupled to the release of free soluble metals can certainly pave the way to extraterrestrial biomining, a technique which extracts metals from ores, launching the biologically assisted exploitation of raw materials from asteroids, meteors and other celestial bodies.

    Using electron microscopy tools combined with analytical spectroscopy techniques, the researchers were able to examine the surface of bioprocessed Martian regolith simulants in detail. Cooperation with the workgroup of chemist Veronika Somoza from the Department of Physiological Chemistry was valuable to achieve these results. "The obtained results expand our knowledge of biogeochemical processes of possible life beyond earth, and provide specific indications for detection of biosignatures on extraterrestrial material – a step further to prove potential extra-terrestrial life," says Tetyana Milojevic.

    Microbes leave "fingerprints" on Martian rocks
    Microspheroids.
    Credit: University of Vienna

     Explore further: Mimetic Martian water is under pressure

    More information: Denise Kölbl et al. Exploring Fingerprints of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula Grown on Synthetic Martian Regolith Materials as the Sole Energy Sources, Frontiers in Microbiology (2017). DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01918 

    https://phys.org/ }

    17-10-2017 om 23:16 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Real-Life 'Replicants': 6 Humanoid Robots Used for Space Exploration

    Real-Life 'Replicants': 6 Humanoid Robots Used for Space Exploration

    17-10-2017 om 22:44 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Out-of-control Chinese space station is hurtling towards Earth

    Out-of-control Chinese space station is hurtling towards Earth

    The Tiangong-1 Chinese space station, with a weight of around 8-and-a-half-tons, has accelerated its descent to Earth and is expected to crash in a few months, according to The Guardian.

    In 2016, Chinese officials admitted that they had lost control of Tiangong-1.

    Since then, China’s space agency has notified the UN that it expects the station to fall between October 2017 and April 2018.

    Since then, the orbit of the station has been lower and lower as it drastically approaches our Atmosphere.

    In recent weeks the station has entered denser layers of the atmosphere and began to fall faster.

    Last week, the director of the manned space engineering office, Wu Ping, confirmed at a press conference that the unmanned station will fall sometime in the second half of 2017. “Based on our calculations and analysis, most parts of the space lab will burn during the fall, “she added, saying that it is unlikely to affect aviation activities or cause damage to the ground.

    According to the astrophysicist of Harvard University (Massachusetts, USA), Jonathan McDowell, currently, the closest point to Earth in the orbit of Tiangong-1 is “below 300 kilometers.”

    Although a large part of the space lab is expected to burn in the atmosphere, McDowell believes some parts of up to 100 kilograms in weight may reach the surface of the planet.

    He adds that it is impossible to calculate the precise location where the impact will occur.

    The Tiangong-1 — or “heavenly palace” — space station was launched in 2011 and was used for both manned and unmanned missions.

    In addition, China’s first female astronaut, Liu Yang, visited the space station in 2012.

    According to space archaeology expert Alice Gorman, from Flinders University, while China will be able to monitor its descent, it won’t be able to control where the station will crash.

    Acceding to Dr. Gorman, Tiangong-1 is traveling at high speed — estimated at about 27,000 kilometers per hour — and will burn up when it re-enters Earth’s atmosphere.

    “When it hits the atmosphere it will start to slow down and heat up, due to friction and atmospheric compression. As it heats, it will break up into burning fragments,” she added.

    Experts note that it’s very unlikely that anyone will be harmed by the crash of the space station, or that anyone would see it at all, as scientists say it’s most likely that the 8-tone space station’s remains will drop somewhere into the sea. However, it’s still possible that it would crash somewhere near people.

    READ MORE:  Buzz Aldrin: We were ORDERED away from the moon

    https://www.nolimitszone.com/ }

    17-10-2017 om 22:05 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Gravitational waves -- and light -- seen in neutron star collision

    Gravitational waves -- and light -- seen in neutron star collision

    By WILLIAM HARWOOD CBS NEWS

    On Aug. 17, gravity waves rippled through the solar system, slightly squeezing and stretching the space Earth occupies, the result of a catastrophic collision of two compact-but-massive neutron stars, producing a so-called "kilonova" explosion that seeded the local environment with a flood of heavy elements ranging from gold and platinum to uranium and beyond, scientists said Monday.

    The two city-size neutron stars, one with 1.6 times the mass of the sun and the other with about 1.1 times the mass of the sun, were formed in supernova explosions about two billion years after the big bang in a galaxy 130 million light years from Earth.

    Circling each other in a decaying orbit, the neutron stars finally crashed together at nearly the speed of light, radiating gravitational waves and a torrent of electromagnetic radiation that reached Earth at roughly the same moment 130 million years after the fact.


    It was the first time the source of a gravitational wave event could be linked to a visible counterpart, allowing scientists to study the aftermath of the collision across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from high-energy gamma radiation to X-rays, visible light, infrared and radio.

    "What this means to me is equivalent to the transition from looking at a black-and-white picture of a volcano to sitting in a 3D IMAX movie that shows the explosion of Mt. Vesuvius," Laura Cadonati, a Georgia Tech researcher and LIGO spokeswoman, told reporters at a National Science Foundation news conference.

    101617-before-after.jpg

    Before-and-after images from Carnegie's Swope Supernova Survey telescope show the sudden burst of light from colliding neutron stars, left, and the object's dimming in the wake of the merger, right.

     TONY PIRO/CARNEGIE INSTITUTION FOR SCIENCE

    "The combined information of gravitational waves and light is bigger than the sum of its parts," she said. "From the combined information we're learning new things about physics, about the universe, about the elements we're made of."

    An astronomical gold mine of sorts. Literally.

    Theorists have long speculated that neutron star mergers could generate the enormous energies needed to synthesize elements heavier than iron. Supernova explosions also create heavy elements, but they alone cannot explain the observed abundances of gold, platinum, uranium and other heavy elements.

    Analysis of light from the Aug. 17 kilonova event indicates the neutron star collision in a galaxy known as NGC 4883 did, in fact, seed the local environment with a flood of heavy elements.

    The combined observations "revealed details that we've never seen before in any astronomical event, the direct fingerprints of the heaviest elements in the periodic table -- gold, platinum, and other elements," said Edo Berger, a Harvard University astronomer who led a team of observers.

    101617-collision.jpg

    An artist's impression of two neutron stars merging in a cataclysmic collision, generating an explosive burst of light and gravity waves, squeezing and compressing space itself as they radiate away. On Aug. 17, astronomers detected both gravity waves and visible light from the merger of two neutron stars.

     ROBIN DIENEL/CARNEGIE INSTITUTION FOR SCIENCE

    "From the properties of the visible and infrared light, we conclude the total mass of heavy elements produced in this one single event is 16,000 times the mass of the Earth," he said. "Of this material, we estimate that about 10 times the mass of the Earth is in gold and platinum alone. So imagine this as you gaze at your jewelry or invest in gold futures."

    The gravitational waves were detected at 8:41 a.m. on Aug. 17 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, which in 2015 made the first detection of gravity waves generated by the merger of two black holes -- a discovery that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    This time around, the gravity waves were followed in seconds by detection of high-energy gamma rays by NASA's Fermi Space Telescope. It was the first direct confirmation that gravitational radiation travels at the speed of light.

    Within the next few hours, more than 70 observatories around the world, along with seven space-based instruments, were on the look out for an optical counterpart.

    Astronomers with the Carnegie Institution for Science and the University of California at Santa Cruz were the first to pinpoint the collision using the 1-meter Swope Telescope at the Cerro Las Campanas observatory in Chile. They spotted a brilliant blue "star" in the galaxy NGC 4883 in the constellation Hydra.

    ezgif-com-resize-4.gif

    On August 17, 2017, LIGO detected gravitational waves from a neutron star collision. Within 12 hours, observatories had identified the source of the event within the galaxy NGC 4993, shown in this Hubble Space Telescope image, and located an associated stellar flare called a kilonova (box). Inset: Hubble observed the kilonova fade over the course of six days.

     NASA AND ESA

    Along with visible light, astronomers quickly detected infrared radiation, ultraviolet emissions, X-rays and radio waves as the object faded from blue to red, all expected signals from a cataclysmic event like the merger of two neutron stars.

    "We finally now know what happens when an unstoppable force meets and immovable object," said Andy Howell, a University of California-Santa Barbara astronomer. "And the answer is a kilonova."

    Tony Piro, leader of the Carnegie team, said in a statement "the ability to study the same event with both gravitational waves and light is a real revolution in astronomy. We can now study the universe with two completely different probes, which teach us things we could never know with only one or the other."

    LIGO has detected multiple black hole mergers, but black holes are, by definition, black, they do not generate light and cannot be directly seen. Astronomers predicted neutron star collisions would be visible if astronomers knew where to look.

    The combination of LIGO's gravity wave detection and Fermi's detection of gamma rays narrowed the search and paved the way for the Swope telescope and others to find the cosmic needle in an equally cosmic haystack.

    "We saw a bright blue source of light in a nearby galaxy, the first time the glowing debris from a neutron star merger had ever been observed," Carnegie astronomer Josh Simon said in a statement. "It was definitely a thrilling moment."

    101617-discovery.jpg

    A closeup look at SS17a.

     TONY PIRO/CARNEGIE INSTITUTION FOR SCIENCE

    Simon and Carnegie astronomer Ben Shappee then used spectrographs mounted on the observatory's huge 6.5-meter Magellan telescopes to analyze the light.

    "As we followed the glow of the explosion over the next few weeks, it showed some key characteristics of the radioactive decay of these heavy elements," said Maria Drout, a Carnegie researcher who helped guide the search. "This strongly suggests that these elements were synthesized following the merger, solving a 70-year-old mystery."

    One yet-to-be-answered question: what sort of body was left after the two neutron stars merged?

    "There are some signs, some observations that have been made that suggest it should be a black hole," said David Shoemaker, LIGO's lead spokesman. "But in terms of its mass and all of the gravitational wave data, it could be either one of the heaviest neutron stars that's ever been seen or one of the very lightest black holes that's ever been seen."

    Eleonora Torja at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center believes the X-ray data shows a black hole is the most likely result.

    "Very likely, the collision of two neutron stars resulted in a new black hole," she said. "And this black hole ejected a high-speed jet of energy and matter. This jet was carrying the same amount of energy that our sun radiates over millions of years, and it was expanding at close to the speed of light."

    Neutron stars represent one of three possible outcomes when stars grow old, exhaust their nuclear fuel and either fade away or explode.

    Stars like the sun remain stable, in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, by balancing the outward pressure generated by nuclear fusion in the core with the inward pull of gravity. When a star runs out of nuclear fuel, fusion in the core stops, gravity takes over, the core collapses and the star's outer layers are blown away into space.

    For stars like the sun -- and more than 90 percent of the stars in the Milky Way -- core collapse is halted by a quantum effect known as electron degeneracy pressure, produced when electrons are squeezed as closely together as allowed in normal matter. The result is a white dwarf, a slowly cooling stellar remnant with up to 1.44 times the sun's mass packed into a body the size of a small planet.

    For larger stars, electron degeneracy is not enough to halt the core's collapse when it runs out of fuel. Instead, gravity squeezes the core to the point where electrons merge with protons to form a neutron star, a bizarre city-size body just a few miles across with a mass of two to three times that of the sun.

    "Neutron stars are the hardest things in the universe, harder than a cue ball, harder than diamond, and we really wanted to see what would happen if you smashed two of them together at near the speed of light," said Howell.

    "Neutron stars are like a giant atomic nucleus, only one 10 miles in diameter and composed entirely of neutrons. So this is like a cosmic scale atom smasher at energies far beyond what humans will ever be capable of building."

    For collapsing stars with even more massive cores, gravity overcomes even the neutron degeneracy pressure that otherwise would create a neutron star. The doomed sun becomes a black hole with many times the mass of the sun concentrated in what amounts to an invisible gravitational sinkhole.

    Gravitational wave astronomy offers a powerful new way to study such high-energy events.

    Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity. The equations indicated that massive bodies under acceleration, like two merging black holes, neutron stars or the collapsing cores of huge stars in the death throes of supernova explosions, would radiate gravitational energy in the form of waves distorting the fabric of spacetime.

    The LIGO observatory features two stations, one in Washington and the other in Louisiana, that each feature a pair of 2.5-mile-long vacuum tubes arranged in an L shape in which precisely tuned laser beams flash back and forth between multiple mirrors. A gravitational wave stretches space in one direction and compress it in a perpendicular direction.

    The effects on local space are infinitesimal, making detection a high-technology challenge and a feat Einstein could never have imagined. The LIGO equipment is sensitive enough to measure changes in the distance traveled by the laser beams to less than the width of a proton.

    On Sept. 14, 2015, LIGO recorded gravitational radiation for the first time. Analyzing the data, scientists realized they had the tell-tale signature of two black holes merging. The discovery was announced the following February.

    https://www.cbsnews.com/ }

    17-10-2017 om 21:29 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Gravitational Waves Detected from Neutron-Star Crashes: The Discovery Explained

    Gravitational Waves Detected from Neutron-Star Crashes: The Discovery Explained

    17-10-2017 om 21:15 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.First Detection of Gravitational Waves from Neutron-Star Crash Marks New Era of Astronomy

    First Detection of Gravitational Waves from Neutron-Star Crash Marks New Era of Astronomy

    17-10-2017 om 18:28 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.New Announcement on Gravitational Waves Signals a New Era

    New Announcement on Gravitational Waves Signals a New Era

    With a build-up worthy of Tom DeLonge, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) teased both the scientific and general public for weeks with promises that it was about to make an announcement that would change astronomy as we know it. The wait was over on October 16th. Was it worth the hype?

    “For the first time ever, astronomers have observed both gravitational waves and light (electromagnetic radiation) from the same event, thanks to a global collaborative effort and the quick reactions of both ESO’s facilities and others around the world.

    Whoa! Whoa? What does this mean? On August 17, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a seemingly normal gamma-ray burst from an unidentified source. Almost simultaneously, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Washington State got an alert signaling it had received a gravitational wave signal. (It was later learned that the LIGO detector in Louisiana received the same signal but didn’t report it due to an error.)

    Artist’s impression of neutron stars about to collide.

    (ESO)

    The short burst of gamma rays was also detected by ESA’s INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). That and the other signals helped pinpoint the source of all of the observations — a collision of neutron stars that resulted in a black hole. At that point, thanks to the astronomers’ grapevine, the news was picked up by observatories around the world and about 70 of them aimed their telescopes at the coordinates given and began picking up light, signals and photons of various wavelengths for weeks.

    Composite of images of the kilonova

    (ESO)

    There are rare occasions when a scientist has the chance to witness a new era at its beginning, This is one such time!

    Elena Pian, an astronomer with INAF, Italy, describes the feeling she and fellow astronomers and scientists had while observing this common phenomenon on their own specialized telescopes. What they all had seen for the first time was a kilonova – a supernova caused by neutron star collision. While one had been detected in 2013 by the Hubble telescope, this was the first time so many were able to observe it and to confirm the theories that such an event can cause both light waves and gravitational waves.

    Artist’s impression of the kilonova

    (ESO)

    The data we have so far are an amazingly close match to theory. It is a triumph for the theorists, a confirmation that the LIGO–VIRGO events are absolutely real, and an achievement for ESO to have gathered such an astonishing data set on the kilonova.”

    As astronomer Stefano Covino describes it in the press release, the sound of backslapping after witnessing the kilonova must have been deafening (and painful). Another scientist and author of one of the papers detailing the discovery, Andrew Levan, described the importance of how the European Southern Observatory (ESO) managed to pull so many telescopes and instruments together so quickly.

    We have entered a new era of multi-messenger astronomy!

    Another artist’s impression of the collision

    (NSF/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet)

    What next? After the astronomers sober up from the celebrations, they will begin studying the volumes of data collected and attempt to resolve some anomalies, like why the collision didn’t cause a black hole immediately and why were the gamma-rays less intense than expected. Many of the telescopes are now undergoing sensitivity upgrades so they can respond even more quickly and collect even more data when the grapevine lights up again.

    In the meantime, ‘Kilonova’ would make a great name for a metal band.

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    17-10-2017 om 15:21 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.NASA Spacecraft captured Ancient Mining Machine on Asteroid Eros?

    NASA Spacecraft captured Ancient Mining Machine on Asteroid Eros?

    Eros is an elongated peanut-shaped .asteroid and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers and named after the Greek God of Love, Eros.

    Eros was one of the first asteroids visited by a spacecraft, the first one orbited, and the first one soft-landed on.

    NASA spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker visited Eros first with a 1998 flyby and entered orbit around 2000, and on February 12, 2001, at the end of its mission, it landed on the asteroid's surface using its maneuvering jets.


    The above particular image of Eros, taken from the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft on May 1, 2000, at an orbital altitude of 53 kilometers (33 miles), shows, according to NASA, a large rectangular boulder which is 45 meters across.

    But is it really a boulder or could it be a sort of ancient mining machine?

    Given the fact that data from the spacecraft collected on Eros in December 1998 suggests that it could contain 20,000 billion kilograms of aluminum and similar amounts of metals that are rare on Earth, such as gold and platinum, it is not unlikely that the so-called boulder is an mining machine that has been used by an advanced alien civilization for the extraction of all these valuable metals. 


    Image link: https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02905

    http://ufosightingshotspot.blogspot.com/ }

    17-10-2017 om 15:03 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Gravitational Waves Detected from the Same Cosmic Event
    kilonova

    Astronomers have seen evidence of a handful of gravitational waves in the past two years, but this week they announced that they saw something they’d never seen before.

    Two neutron stars colliding is what researchers at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory — LIGO — saw this summer, news they revealed on Monday.

    In an ongoing collaboration with the Virgo Observatory in Italy, the United States-based LIGO detected a prolonged signal that was different from previous black hole mergers they’d detected. This one, which occurred on August 17, was much higher frequency and lasted much longer. It turns out the signal came from two neutron stars circling each other before colliding about 130 million light-years from Earth.

    The collision sent out gravitational waves in every direction, rippling spacetime. The merger also emitted a flash of gamma rays, which Earth- and space-based detectors caught. Here’s what scientists envision the collision looked like:

    “While earlier detections of the black holes that we’ve made … only lasted for us a couple of seconds or much less, this neutron star inspiral lasted for over a minute,” LIGO spokesperson David Shoemaker told reporters on Monday.

    The reason for this longer detection is that neutron stars, the smallest, densest stars known to exist, are much lighter than black holes. Whereas the merging black holes that created earlier gravitational wave detections were many times larger than the sun — the first detection in 2015 involved black holes of 29 and 36 solar masses — the neutron stars involved in this latest detection were only about the mass of the sun or maybe twice the mass of the sun.

    As a result, this binary neutron star system emitted gravitational waves at a higher frequency, a frequency that Earth-based detectors could measure more easily.

    “The result is that we can see the system for some 1,500 complete cycles of these two objects around each other,” said Shoemaker. “It gives us a chance to get a very precise measurement of the parameters of the system.”

    Here’s how the latest detection compares to previous ones:

    This prolonged signal came to Earth from the region defined by the Hydra Constellation. Scientists figured out where the gravitational waves came from by comparing the times when the signals hit the three different detectors involved: the Virgo Observatory detector in Italy, the LIGO detector in Louisiana, and the LIGO detector in Washington. Here’s what it looked like:

    detectors gif
    By comparing when the gravitation waves hit the three detectors, astronomers could figure out where the neutron stars were located in space.

    The miniscule differences in detection times helped astronomers discern where the waves emitted from originally. The next steps will be to figure out what exactly happened to the neutron stars after they collided.

    “We don’t exactly know what happened to the objects at the end,” said Shoemaker. “We don’t know whether it’s a black hole or a neutron star, or perhaps something else.”

    https://www.inverse.com/ }

    17-10-2017 om 01:08 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Gravitational waves plus new clues from space reveal new way to make a black hole

    Gravitational waves plus new clues from space reveal new way to make a black hole

    For the first time, two neutron stars are caught in the act of colliding

    Date:
    October 16, 2017
    Source:
    Penn State
    Summary:
    For the first time, scientists have detected both gravitational waves and light shooting toward our planet from the birthplace of a new black hole created by the merger of two neutron stars. The discovery marks the beginning of a new era of    
    FULL STORY

    Artist impression of gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars.
    Credit: R. Hurt, Caltech/JPL

    For the first time, scientists worldwide and at Penn State University have detected both gravitational waves and light shooting toward our planet from one massively powerful event in space -- the birth of a new black hole created by the merger of two neutron stars. This detection is important because it marks the beginning of a new era of "multi-messenger" as well as "multi-wavelength" space exploration -- an era when gravitational-wave detectors are triggering a global network of other types of instruments to focus their special detection powers simultaneously on one fleetingly explosive point in space.

    All the previous gravitational-wave detections since the first in September 2015 had been the result of two merging black holes -- objects much more massive than a neutron star -- which have left only gravitational waves as fleeting clues of their merger. "The evidence that these new gravitational waves are from merging neutron stars has been captured, for the first time, by observatories on Earth and in orbit that detect electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and other wavelengths," said Chad Hanna, assistant professor of physics and of astronomy & astrophysics and Freed Early Career Professor at Penn State. Hanna has served as co-chair of the Compact Binary Coalescence Group of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), and is one of the primary data analysts involved in this research.

    "Several graduate students and post-docs on my Penn State research team were among the first in the world to see the alert triggered by LIGO when this new gravitational wave arrived," Hanna said. "Cody Messick -- a graduate student -- sent the first email to the broader collaboration notifying everyone of what had happened." Penn State's LIGO team, along with other members of the LIGO and Virgo collaborations, quickly alerted a worldwide network of observatories whose scientists then commandeered their telescopes and other detectors to look for more evidence. "Because we now have three gravitational-wave detectors -- the two LIGO detectors in the United States plus the Virgo detector in Europe -- we were able to triangulate the location of the source of the waves sufficiently well for several observatories to find the counterpart" Hanna said.

    NASA's Swift, Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer missions, along with dozens of ground-based observatories, later captured the fading glow of the blast's expanding debris. Numerous scientific papers describing and interpreting these new observations are being published in ScienceNaturePhysical Review Letters and The Astrophysical Journal. Penn State scientists are leaders and innovators in many of the scientific collaborations contributing to these new multiwavelength discoveries. Penn State has earned a reputation rivaled by only a few other educational institutions for the breadth and depth of the contributions its scientists have made and are continuing to make in discoveries that enrich our understanding of the universe and its effect on our planet.

    "We applaud this latest achievement of our many Penn State scientists and students who have helped to build and are helping to develop this innovative new technology and its system of international collaboration among many research teams worldwide," said Nicholas P. Jones, Penn State's Executive Vice President and Provost. "With their knowledge, skills, and creativity, our scientists are contributing to the evolution of this new way of exploring the universe."

    Penn State scientists are leaders in the development and operation of NASA's Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer satellite. Two of Swift's three instruments were built with Penn State leadership, and Penn State continues to lead Swift's Mission Operations Center, which is located on the University Park Campus. "Swift's rapid response time enabled us to use it to rapidly search for and detect the electromagnetic counterpart of this gamma-ray burst after its detection by LIGO," said Jamie Kennea, associate research professor of astronomy and astrophysics, the leader of the Swift Science Operations Team at Swift's Mission Operations Center, located at Penn State's University Park campus.

    "We saw ultraviolet light resulting from this gravitational-wave event as part of Swift observations of almost 750 different locations in the sky. Then, as this light rapidly faded from view, we intensely observed it with Swift's ultraviolet/optical telescope, the UVOT," Kennea said. "Because ultraviolet light from objects in space can be detected only by telescopes located outside Earth's atmosphere, Swift's UVOT telescope provided unique data on this event. These new data now present new questions for theorists to solve."

    Penn State astronomers also are among the leaders in the development and use of NASA's orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory. Gordon Garmire, Evan Pugh Professor Emeritus of Astronomy and Astrophysics, is the principal investigator of the team that built one of the primary instruments on board the satellite. He also is a co-discoverer of high-energy gamma rays and is responsible for developing many of the data-analysis algorithms used today in high-energy astrophysics.

    Penn State's Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, directed by Eberly Professor of Physics Abhay Ashtekar, includes Penn State's Center for Particle and Gravitational Wave Astrophysics, where leading scientists in both theoretical and experimental physics collaborate. The center's faculty are prominent participants in eight major international projects that are making rapid-response observations -- using extremely high-energy protons and nuclei, neutrinos, gamma-rays, X-rays and gravitational waves -- as quickly as possible after gravitational waves are discovered by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. These projects are the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer satellite, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory, the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational-waves (NANOGrav) and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) TeV gamma-ray detector.

    Long before it was possible to detect gravitational waves, highly respected theories about the kinds of evidence that two merging neutron stars could produce were developed by Peter Mészáros, Penn State's Eberly Family Chair in Astronomy & Astrophysics and Professor of Physics, together with his colleague Martin Rees. "Our theories predicted that neutron star binaries, which would inevitably merge as they emit gravitational waves, would produce a short and distinctive burst of gamma rays at the moment of their merger," Mészáros said. "Previously, as anticipated, gamma ray detectors had observed bursts of gamma rays such as were expected from neutron star mergers. However, we never before have had the important independent confirmation of the merger of two neutron stars that we now have obtained with this new gravitational wave detection. For the first time, exactly the evidence we needed has been provided by the gamma-ray detections that coincided with this new gravitational-wave burst."

    The scientists now have not only gravitational-wave detectors but also a wealth of other types of observatories collaborating in this effort to capture a range of multimessenger signals from the sources that produce gravitational waves. "In order to facilitate this effort, Penn State is spearheading the new Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) in our Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos," Mészáros said. These combined detection capabilities give us a much better tool, which we now can begin to use to gauge -- much more accurately than previously was possible -- the age of the universe and how fast it is expanding."  

    Artist’s impression of merging neutron stars
    Artist’s impression of merging neutron stars
    VIMOS image of galaxy NGC 4993 showing the visible-light counterpart to a merging neutron star pair

    VIMOS image of galaxy NGC 4993 showing the visible-light counterpart to a merging neutron star pair

    Composite of images of NGC 4993 and kilonova from many ESO instruments

    Composite of images of NGC 4993 and kilonova from many ESO instruments

    VLT/MUSE image of the galaxy NGC 4993 and associated kilonova

    VLT/MUSE image of the galaxy NGC 4993 and associated kilonova

    Mosaic of VISTA images of NGC 4993 showing changing kilonova

    Mosaic of VISTA images of NGC 4993 showing changing kilonova

    Story Source:

    Materials provided by Penn StateNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

    Science Daily }

    17-10-2017 om 00:46 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.ESO Telescopes Observe First Light from Gravitational Wave Source

    ESO Telescopes Observe First Light from Gravitational Wave Source

    Merging neutron stars scatter gold and platinum into space

    ESO’s fleet of telescopes in Chile have detected the first visible counterpart to a gravitational wave source. These historic observations suggest that this unique object is the result of the merger of two neutron stars. The cataclysmic aftermaths of this kind of merger — long-predicted events called kilonovae — disperse heavy elements such as gold and platinum throughout the Universe. This discovery, published in several papers in the journal Nature and elsewhere, also provides the strongest evidence yet that short-duration gamma-ray bursts are caused by mergers of neutron stars.

    For the first time ever, astronomers have observed both gravitational waves and light (electromagnetic radiation) from the same event, thanks to a global collaborative effort and the quick reactions of both ESO’s facilities and others around the world.

    On 17 August 2017 the NSF's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the United States, working with the Virgo Interferometer in Italy, detected gravitational waves passing the Earth. This event, the fifth ever detected, was named GW170817. About two seconds later, two space observatories, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and ESA’s INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), detected a short gamma-ray burst from the same area of the sky.

    The LIGO–Virgo observatory network positioned the source within a large region of the southern sky, the size of several hundred full Moons and containing millions of stars [1]. As night fell in Chile many telescopes peered at this patch of sky, searching for new sources. These included ESO’s Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) and VLT Survey Telescope (VST) at the Paranal Observatory, the Italian Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory, the LCO 0.4-meter telescope at Las Cumbres Observatory, and the American DECam at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The Swope 1-metre telescope was the first to announce a new point of light. It appeared very close to NGC 4993, a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Hydra, and VISTA observations pinpointed this source at infrared wavelengths almost at the same time. As night marched west across the globe, the Hawaiian island telescopes Pan-STARRS and Subaru also picked it up and watched it evolve rapidly.

    There are rare occasions when a scientist has the chance to witness a new era at its beginning,” said Elena Pian, astronomer with INAF, Italy, and lead author of one of the Nature papers. “This is one such time!

    ESO launched one of the biggest ever “target of opportunity” observing campaigns and many ESO and ESO-partnered telescopes observed the object over the weeks following the detection [2]. ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), New Technology Telescope (NTT), VST, the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [3] all observed the event and its after-effects over a wide range of wavelengths. About 70 observatories around the world also observed the event, including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

    Distance estimates from both the gravitational wave data and other observations agree that GW170817 was at the same distance as NGC 4993, about 130 million light-years from Earth. This makes the source both the closest gravitational wave event detected so far and also one of the closest gamma-ray burst sources ever seen [4].

    The ripples in spacetime known as gravitational waves are created by moving masses, but only the most intense, created by rapid changes in the speed of very massive objects, can currently be detected. One such event is the merging of neutron stars, the extremely dense, collapsed cores of high-mass stars left behind after supernovae [5]. These mergers have so far been the leading hypothesis to explain short gamma-ray bursts. An explosive event 1000 times brighter than a typical nova — known as a kilonova — is expected to follow this type of event.

    The almost simultaneous detections of both gravitational waves and gamma rays from GW170817 raised hopes that this object was indeed a long-sought kilonova and observations with ESO facilities have revealed properties remarkably close to theoretical predictions. Kilonovae were suggested more than 30 years ago but this marks the first confirmed observation.

    Following the merger of the two neutron stars, a burst of rapidly expanding radioactive heavy chemical elements left the kilonova, moving as fast as one-fifth of the speed of light. The colour of the kilonova shifted from very blue to very red over the next few days, a faster change than that seen in any other observed stellar explosion.

    When the spectrum appeared on our screens I realised that this was the most unusual transient event I’d ever seen,” remarked Stephen Smartt, who led observations with ESO’s NTT as part of the extended Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (ePESSTO) observing programme. “I had never seen anything like it. Our data, along with data from other groups, proved to everyone that this was not a supernova or a foreground variable star, but was something quite remarkable.

    Spectra from ePESSTO and the VLT’s X-shooter instrument suggest the presence of caesium and tellurium ejected from the merging neutron stars. These and other heavy elements, produced during the neutron star merger, would be blown into space by the subsequent kilonova. These observations pin down the formation of elements heavier than iron through nuclear reactions within high-density stellar objects, known as r-process nucleosynthesis, something which was only theorised before.

    The data we have so far are an amazingly close match to theory. It is a triumph for the theorists, a confirmation that the LIGO–VIRGO events are absolutely real, and an achievement for ESO to have gathered such an astonishing data set on the kilonova,” adds Stefano Covino, lead author of one of the Nature Astronomy papers.

    ESO’s great strength is that it has a wide range of telescopes and instruments to tackle big and complex astronomical projects, and at short notice. We have entered a new era of multi-messenger astronomy!” concludes Andrew Levan, lead author of one of the papers.

    Notes

    [1] The LIGO–Virgo detection localised the source to an area on the sky of about 35 square degrees.

    [2 The galaxy was only observable in the evening in August and then was too close to the Sun in the sky to be observed by September.

    [3] On the VLT, observations were taken with: the X-shooter spectrograph located on Unit Telescope 2 (UT2); the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) and Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) – Near-Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (CONICA) (NACO) on Unit Telescope 1 (UT1); VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) and VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid-Infrared (VISIR) located on Unit Telescope 3 (UT3); and the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) and High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on Unit Telescope 4 (UT4). The VST observed using the OmegaCAM and VISTA observed with the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM). Through the ePESSTO programme, the NTT collected visible spectra with the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera 2 (EFOSC2) spectrograph and infrared spectra with the Son of ISAAC (SOFI) spectrograph. The MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope observed using the Gamma-Ray burst Optical/Near-infrared Detector (GROND) instrument.

    [4] The comparatively small distance between Earth and the neutron star merger, 130 million light-years, made the observations possible, since merging neutron stars create weaker gravitational waves than merging black holes, which were the likely case of the first four gravitational wave detections.

    [5] When neutron stars orbit one another in a binary system, they lose energy by emitting gravitational waves. They get closer together until, when they finally meet, some of the mass of the stellar remnants is converted into energy in a violent burst of gravitational waves, as described by Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2.

    More information

    This research was presented in a series of papers to appear in NatureNature Astronomy and Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    The extensive list of team members is available in this PDF file

    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile and by Australia as a strategic partner. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as two survey telescopes, VISTA working in the infrared and the visible-light VLT Survey Telescope. ESO is also a major partner in two facilities on Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, the ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    LIGO is funded by the NSF, and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration. Additional partners are listed at http://ligo.org/partners.php.

    The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 280 physicists and engineers belonging to 20 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with the University of Valencia; and the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef.

    Links

    • Team members
    • FAQ (PDF file, 184 KB)
    • Fact Sheet (PDF file, 105 KB)
    • Science Paper 1: “Spectroscopic identification of r-process nucleosynthesis in a double neutron star merger”, by E. Pian et al. in Nature. (PDF file, 196 KB)
    • Science Paper 2: “The emergence of a lanthanide-rich kilonova following the merger of two neutron stars”, by N. R. Tanvir et al. in Astrophysical Journal Letters (PDF file, 843 KB)
    • Science Paper 3: “The electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave source unveils a kilonova”, by S. J. Smartt et al. in Nature (PDF file, 9 MB)
    • Science Paper 4: “The unpolarized macronova associated with the gravitational wave event GW170817”, by S. Covino et al. in Nature Astronomy (PDF file, 230 KB)
    • Science Paper 5: “The Distance to NGC 4993 — The host galaxy of the gravitational wave event GW17017”, by J. Hjorth et al. in Astrophysical Journal Letters (PDF file, 2.4 MB)
    • Science Paper 6: “The environment of the binary neutron star merger GW170817”, by A. J. Levan et al. in Astrophysical Journal Letters (PDF file, 2.6 MB)
    • LIGO press release
    • ESA/Hubble press release

    Contacts

    Stephen Smartt
    Queen’s University Belfast
    Belfast, United Kingdom
    Tel: +44 7876 014103
    Email: s.smartt@qub.ac.uk

    Elena Pian
    Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
    Bologna, Italy
    Tel: +39 051 6398701
    Email: elena.pian@inaf.it

    Andrew Levan
    University of Warwick
    Coventry, United Kingdom
    Tel: +44 7714 250373
    Email: A.J.Levan@warwick.ac.uk

    Nial Tanvir
    University of Leicester
    Leicester, United Kingdom
    Tel: +44 7980 136499
    Email: nrt3@leicester.ac.uk

    Stefano Covino
    Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
    Merate, Italy
    Tel: +39 02 72320475
    Cell: +39 331 6748534
    Email: stefano.covino@brera.inaf.it

    Marina Rejkuba
    ESO Head of User Support Department
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6453
    Email: mrejkuba@eso.org

    Richard Hook
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6655
    Cell: +49 151 1537 3591
    Email: rhook@eso.org

    https://www.eso.org/public/ }

    17-10-2017 om 00:21 geschreven door peter

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    Druk op onderstaande knop om een berichtje achter te laten in mijn gastenboek Alvast bedankt voor al jouw bezoekjes en jouw reacties. Nog een prettige dag verder!!!


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    Over mijzelf
    Ik ben Pieter, en gebruik soms ook wel de schuilnaam Peter2011.
    Ik ben een man en woon in Linter (België) en mijn beroep is Ik ben op rust..
    Ik ben geboren op 18/10/1950 en ben nu dus 67 jaar jong.
    Mijn hobby's zijn: Ufologie en andere esoterische onderwerpen.
    Op deze blog vind je onder artikels, werk van mezelf. Mijn dank gaat ook naar André, Ingrid, Oliver, Paul, Vincent, Georges Filer en MUFON voor de bijdragen voor de verschillende categorieën... Veel leesplezier en geef je mening over deze blog.
    Zoeken in blog


    LINKS NAAR BEKENDE UFO-VERENIGINGEN - DEEL 1
  • http://www.ufonieuws.nl/
  • http://www.grenswetenschap.nl/
  • http://www.beamsinvestigations.org.uk/
  • http://www.mufon.com/
  • http://www.ufomeldpunt.be/
  • http://www.ufowijzer.nl/
  • http://www.ufoplaza.nl/
  • http://www.ufowereld.nl/
  • http://www.stantonfriedman.com/
  • http://ufo.start.be/

    LINKS NAAR BEKENDE UFO-VERENIGINGEN - DEEL 2
  • www.ufo.be
  • www.caelestia.be
  • ufo.startpagina.nl.
  • www.wszechocean.blogspot.com.
  • AsocCivil Unifa
  • UFO DISCLOSURE PROJECT

  • Startpagina !


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