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    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
     
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    UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be. Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com. Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    29-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Virgin Galactic Aims to Fly Space Tourists in 2018, CEO Says

    Virgin Galactic Aims to Fly Space Tourists in 2018, CEO Says

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic is on track to begin commercial passenger spaceflights before the end of next year, the company's chief executive said. 

    For years, Branson has been optimistically forecasting the start of rides aboard SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched suborbital spaceplane that is designed to carry six passengers and two pilots to an altitude of about 62 miles (100 kilometers).  

    During the suborbital hop, passengers will be able to experience a few minutes of microgravity and see the limb of Earth set against the blackness of space.

    Virgin Galactic's commercial spaceplane Spaceshiptwo, shown here during a glide test in December 2016.
    Virgin Galactic's commercial spaceplane Spaceshiptwo, shown here during a glide test in December 2016.
    Credit: Virgin Galactic

    Branson has been more circumspect in his schedule projections since an October 2014 fatal accident during a test flight of Virgin's first vehicle. But in an interview with The Telegraph earlier this month, the billionaire entrepreneur said he'd be "very disappointed" if the program isn't well underway by the end of next year. 

    Virgin Galactic is one of three companies in the Virgin Group's spaceflight division, known as Galactic Ventures. On Wednesday (April 26), Galactic Ventures chief executive George Whitesides, a soft-spoken, former NASA staff chief, said Branson's expectations for commercial flights in 2018 are realistic. 

    "We're well into test flight now," Whitesides told the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. The Virgin CEO addressed the committee along with other industry leaders during a hearing on reducing regulation barriers in the space industry.

    Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides confirmed on April 26, 2017, that the company plans to fly space tourists in 2018.
    Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides confirmed on April 26, 2017, that the company plans to fly space tourists in 2018.
    Credit: Getty Images

    "We're looking forward … to a fairly big transition of our staff to your state of New Mexico," Whitesides added in response to a question from Sen. Tom Udall, a New Mexico Democrat.

    Virgin Galactic intends to base its commercial spaceflight service at New Mexico's Spaceport America, which was finished five years ago at a cost of nearly $220 million. 

    Construction funds for the spaceport came from state oil and gas taxes and from bonds, which were backed by a quarter-cent tax levied by the two counties closest to the 18,000-acre spaceport. 

    "Spaceport America and many New Mexicans hope to see full commercial spaceflight operations begin as soon as possible," Udall told Whitesides. 

    The second in a planned fleet of Virgin spaceships is undergoing testing in Mojave, California. So far, the ship, known as VSS Unity, has made three glide flights. The company has not said when Unity's first powered test flight will be, nor how many flights are expected before the start of commercial service. 

    About 500 people have signed up to take a ride on SpaceShipTwo. Tickets are currently selling for $250,000. 

    Follow Irene Klotz on Twitter.

    Follow us @SpacedotcomFacebook 

    and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

    { ://www.livescience.com/ }

    29-04-2017 om 21:48 geschreven door peter

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    28-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.SETI Scientists Could Survey a Million Star Systems by 2037, Lawmakers Are Told

    SETI Scientists Could Survey a Million Star Systems by 2037, Lawmakers Are Told

    SETI Scientists Could Survey a Million Star Systems by 2037, Lawmakers Are Told
    The Allen Telescope Array, part of the SETI Institute, searches star systems for signs of alien communications.
    Credit: Seti Institute

    The search for intelligent life in the universe will see rapid advancements over the next two decades, thanks largely to improvements in computing power that could make it possible to survey at least a million star systems, according to Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the SETI Institute.

    Shostak discussed the state of SETI efforts (SETI stands for search for extraterrestrial intelligence) during a hearing Wednesday (April 26) before the U.S. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. He was on Capitol Hill with three other scientists to testify on the subject of advances in the search for alien life. 

    Among other initiatives, the SETI Institute is searching for signs of artificial radio signals in the universe that may have been produced by an alien civilization. [Are We Alone? The Search for Life & Odds of E.T.]

    Seth Shostak, senior astornomer at the SETI Institute.
    Seth Shostak, senior astornomer at the SETI Institute.
    Credit: Frederick M. Brown/Getty

    "This experiment will only succeed if we can look at about a million or so star systems," Shostak told the committee. "That would have taken thousands of years with the current technology. Thanks to improvements, mostly in computers, that is speeding up by orders of magnitude. Over next 20 years we will be able to look at about a million other star systems." 

    How likely is it that scientists will find signs of life in those million star systems? Shostak's response reflected both an optimistic and a realistic outlook: "I bet everyone a cup of coffee that we will find something," he said, before quickly adding, "I may have to buy a lot of coffee."

    Shostak has said previously he thinks signs of intelligent life will be found by 2040. 

    Are we the only intelligent life in the universe? See how we intend to find out in this full infographic.
    Credit: By Ka
    rl Tate, Infographics Artist

    The improvements that will so greatly advance scientists' ability to search for signs of intelligent beings in the universe are largely twofold, Shostak said. First, as computer processors continue to follow Moore's law, computer processors will steadily get smaller, cheaper and faster. Thus, SETI scientists will be able to write computer software that simultaneously sifts through data collected by radio antennas as the antennas capture signals from multiple star systems. 

    "Instead of looking at one star at a time, which is what we've done … you could look at tens, hundreds, even thousands of stars at a time with enough computer-processing capability," he said. "And of course that capability is coming down the pipe." 

    The second improvement Shostak noted is that SETI scientists are working on using machine learning in their search for extraterrestrial communication signals. Now, scientists program computers to search for "one kind of pattern" in the radio data that could indicate an artificially created radio signal, he said. But that approach is extremely limiting — like a person who can hear only one note while listening to a symphony. Machine learning could "broaden the kind of thing [we] can recognize" in the radio signals, which would "speed up the search," he said. 

    Shostak also discussed the SETI Institute's efforts to search for artificial radio signals among the seven planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system, the discovery of which was announced in February. The seven planets orbit a single red dwarf star, and all of them orbit closer to the star than Mercury orbits the sun. As many as three of the seven planets could be habitable, according to Adam Burgasser, a professor of physics at the University of California, San Diego, and a member of the team that discovered the seven planets. Burgasser also appeared before the committee with Shostak. 

    The short distance between the worlds in the TRAPPIST-1 system means that if life emerged on one planet, it could have been spread to the other planets via meteoroids. What's more, if intelligent life formed there, it would have likely colonized the other planets, so the SETI scientists are looking for communications sent between planets. 

    "This could be a mini federation of planets, if you will," he said. "We are using our Allen Telescope Array to look at the Trappist-1 system and we … wait for planets to line up and then see if there's any difference in the amount of radio radiation coming our way. Because at that point, you're looking down a communication pipeline between these planets."

    The other three panelists focused mainly on efforts to search for "simple life" in the universe, meaning life-forms that aren't identified based on their technology. Scientists are now eager to study the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system using telescopes set to come online in the next five to 10 years. Those telescopes could find chemical signatures of life in the atmospheres of those planets. The TRAPPIST-1 planets, Burgasser said, are just a few examples of recently discovered, potentially habitable planets located relatively close to Earth, that will provide excellent subjects for those studies.  

    "This and other recent discoveries represent the beginning of an era of exoplanet exploration that, in the next five to 10 years, will allow us to identify truly habitable worlds and possibly life beyond Earth," Burgasser said. "These transformative advances, addressing one of humanity's most persistent questions — 'Are we alone?'— are fully achievable through a diverse portfolio of research programs led by U.S. scientists and supported by federal funding to NASA, [the National Science Foundation] and other science agencies."

    The four members of the panel as well as the committee members also discussed the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The telescope, set to launch in 2018, could analyze the atmospheres of some alien planets in greater detail than any current telescopes. Beyond JWST, the panelists mentioned the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which is expected to identify hundreds to thousands of new planets around other stars, Burgasser said. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and large ground-based telescopes set to come online in the 2020s, will also improve the study of exoplanet atmospheres, the panelists said. 

    "Our generation is the first in human history to know that there are worlds beyond our solar system. Will the next generation know whether life exists on those worlds?" Burgasser said. "We have the opportunity and the responsibility to continue our nation's legacy of discovery so that our children and grandchildren can search for life in new ways."

    Follow Calla Cofield @callacofield.

    Follow us @SpacedotcomFacebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

    {

    28-04-2017 om 17:44 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.'Giant Hurricane' on Saturn: 1st Images Back from Cassini's Epic Ring Dive

    'Giant Hurricane' on Saturn: 1st Images Back from Cassini's Epic Ring Dive

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft dove between Saturn and its rings yesterday (April 26), snapping the closest-ever views of Saturn's atmosphere. The raw images, which began to stream back early this morning, indicating the probe had survived its journey, show intricate structures and a dark, swirling storm-like feature (which NASA called a "giant hurricane").

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft grabbed this raw image of a
    NASA's Cassini spacecraft grabbed this raw image of a "giant hurricane" in Saturn's atmosphere during its first dive between Saturn and its rings on April 26.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

    The spacecraft came within about 1,900 miles (3,000 kilometers) of Saturn's cloud tops and within 200 miles (300 km) of the rings' innermost visible edge during the plunge, NASA officials said in a statement. Because Cassini scientists and engineers didn't know what to expect of the gap — although it looked clear, unknown dust and debris could have proved harmful — the spacecraft was turned so its 13-foot-wide (4 meter) antenna acted as a shield as it dove, collecting data all the while. Only 20 hours after the pass was it scheduled to turn back toward Earth. "Our closest look ever at #Saturn’s atmosphere and giant hurricane," NASA officials wrote in a Twitter post. During a Facebook Live event, researchers later confirmed that the dark storm was the center of the vortex at its pole, stretching 2,000 km across, or almost 1,500 miles.

    The spacecraft flew through the ring plane at 77,000 mph (124,000 kph) relative to the planet, and at that speed tiny particles could have posed a large threat to its sensitive instruments without the shielding. The rest of Cassini's unprocessed photos from the crossing are available online, along with more than 380,000 images documenting the spacecraft's journey, starting months before it arrived at Saturn in 2004. [Photos: Most Powerful Storms of the Solar System]

    This raw image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, taken during its closest-ever approach to Saturn's cloud tops, shows the edge of a dark, swirling storm on the planet.
    This raw image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, taken during its closest-ever approach to Saturn's cloud tops, shows the edge of a dark, swirling storm on the planet.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

    "No spacecraft has ever been this close to Saturn before," Earl Maize, Cassini project manager and a researcher at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, said in the statement. "We could only rely on predictions, based on our experience with Saturn's other rings, of what we thought this gap between the rings and Saturn would be like."

    "I am delighted to report that Cassini shot through the gap just as we planned and has come out the other side in excellent shape," he added.

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft also grabbed this raw image of Saturn's atmosphere during its first dive through the narrow gap between the planet and its rings on April 26.
    NASA's Cassini spacecraft also grabbed this raw image of Saturn's atmosphere during its first dive through the narrow gap between the planet and its rings on April 26.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

    Saturn's atmosphere is relatively cool and mostly made of hydrogen, and the pressure at Saturn's cloud tops is about the same as Earth's pressure at sea level, NASA said. It hosts layers of clouds and that huge, spinning hexagon-shaped storm on its north pole, as well as more temporary storms that streak across the planet's surface. (One was nearly as wide as Earth.) It also hosts winds among the fastest in the solar system — NASA's Voyager missions, which passed Saturn in 1980 and 1981, measured winds at more than 1,100 mph (1,800 kph). 

    Many mysteries of Saturn remain to be determined: the exact length of its day and internal structure, as well as the exact composition and age of its rings, could become clear over the course of Cassini's explorations.

    Another raw image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft reveals streaks and other features in Saturn's atmosphere, caught during the spacecraft's plunge between the planet and its rings' inner edge.
    Another raw image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft reveals streaks and other features in Saturn's atmosphere, caught during the spacecraft's plunge between the planet and its rings' inner edge.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

    Cassini will complete 21 more dives before its Grand Finale plunge and burn-up in Saturn's atmosphere Sept. 15 — its next dive is May 2. Because each of the dives takes a slightly different path, engineers will be ready to shield the spacecraft again if needed. But ideally, it will be smooth sailing for the spacecraft until its ultimate atmosphere dive, collecting photos of the unexplored regions all the while.

    Email Sarah Lewin at slewin@space.com or follow her @SarahExplains.

    Follow us @SpacedotcomFacebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com

    28-04-2017 om 13:08 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.IJzige planeet ontdekt die ongeveer net zo zwaar is als onze aarde

    {https://www.scientias.nl/ }

    28-04-2017 om 12:50 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Nog nooit zagen we Saturnus' atmosfeer van zo dichtbij!

    {https://www.scientias.nl/ }

    28-04-2017 om 12:38 geschreven door peter

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    27-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Lightning and Mystery Objects Spotted by Space Station (Video)

    Lightning and Mystery Objects Spotted by Space Station (Video)

    A stunning time-lapse video of Earth captured from the International Space Station shows a lightning storm flashing over the U.S. and "possible satellites" orbiting overhead.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) created the video using images taken by French astronaut Thomas Pesquet, a member of the Expedition 51 crew on the orbiting complex.

    "Time lapse over California with a thunderstorm on the horizon," Pesquet wrote in a caption posted with the video on Flickr. "These time lapses are made on Earth by taking many pictures and playing them one after the other. There are usually around 25 pictures for a second of video." [Photos: Earth's Lightning Seen from Space]

    About halfway through the video, you may notice some small, bright objects streaking through the sky. ESA officials told Space.com that these are "probably functioning satellites," though scientists were unable to confirm which satellites they were. "The giveaway is the fact that the lights are not tumbling, which indicates they are actively controlled," ESA communications officer Daniel Scuka said in an email.

    ESA's Space Debris Office determined that the objects are most likely not space junk, because "the objects' brightness in the video is consistent with intact objects," officials said. And they're probably not meteors, either, said Detlef Koschny, a scientist in ESA's Space Situational Awareness Program office who studies near-Earth objects.

    Koschny explained that a bright meteor burning up in the atmosphere typically has a duration of a second or less, possibly 2 or 3 seconds for larger objects. This movie, however, runs 25 times faster than real time, he said, meaning the objects are bright for several tens of seconds.

    The objects' altitude doesn't fit that of meteors, either, he added. "The typical altitude of a meteor is around 80 to 110 kilometers [50 to 68 miles]. This corresponds to the height of the airglow, which is visible curving above the Earth as a brightish band," Koschny said. "These objects are higher, at least 300 km [186 miles]. Meteors would not be visible in that height."

    European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Pesquet takes photos through a window at the International Space Station.
    European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Pesquet takes photos through a window at the International Space Station.
    Credit: ESA/NASA

    When lightning illuminates the sky, it is considered an indication of strong updrafts before or during a thunderstorm, according to the National Weather Service. As air swirls around in a turbulent, stormy atmosphere, the friction generates electrical charges in the clouds. As those charges build up, it leads to electrification and lightning that can be seen both from the ground and in space.

    Looking through the windows of the International Space Station (ISS) may seem like a convenient way to monitor storms from space, but astronauts at the orbiting lab don't spend much time storm-watching. Also, their vantage point is limited. The ISS flies roughly 250 miles (400 km) above Earth, and astronauts on board cannot see Earth's north or south poles due to the station's orbit. And because it travels at about 17,500 mph (28,000 km/h), the ISS doesn't stay over the same place for very long.

    Last year, however, NASA launched the most powerful lightning mapper yet; it's on the GOES-16 satellite (previously known as GOES-R), which is in geostationary orbit above the Americas. The instrument, called the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), can view lightning beneath it to a resolution of about 6.2 miles (10 km).GLM beamed back its first photo of lightning from space in March.

    Space.com senior producer Steve Spaleta contributed to this report. You can follow Elizabeth Howell @howellspace, or Space.com @Spacedotcom. We're also on Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.  

    27-04-2017 om 01:23 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Distant Dwarf Planet DeeDee Stirs Up the Pluto Planethood Debate

    Distant Dwarf Planet DeeDee Stirs Up the Pluto Planethood Debate

    Distant Dwarf Planet DeeDee Stirs Up the Pluto Planethood Debate
    Artist concept of the planetary body 2015 UZ224, more informally known as DeeDee. ALMA was able to observe the faint millimeter-wavelength "glow" emitted by the object, confirming it is roughly 635 kilometers across. At this size, DeeDee should have enough mass to be spherical, the criterion for astronomers to consider it a dwarf planet, though it has yet to receive that official designation.
    Credit: Alexandra Angelich/NRO/AUI/NSF

    What's a planet? What's a dwarf planet? Should we make a distinction? Should we really care about these definitions in the first place?

    As we learn more about the outer solar system, the boundaries begin to blur.

    A tiny celestial body called 2014 UZ224 and informally known as DeeDee (for “distant dwarf”) is a distant world about 92 astronomical units, or Earth-sun distances, from our sun. Recent observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) revealed that DeeDee is roughly 395 miles (635 kilometers) across, which would give it enough mass to be spherical.

    Why does it matter if DeeDee is round? In 2006, a controversial vote by the International Astronomical Union defined three parameters for a planet. Simply speaking, the IAU says a planet must be in orbit around the sun, have enough mass to be round, and have cleared the neighborhood around its orbit — meaning it needs to be gravitationally dominant and hold any nearby bodies within its orbit.

    It's the last part of the definition that most aggravates those who argue that Pluto – redefined as a "dwarf" planet under the IAU – is more planet than not. The argument is that the rocky planets of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Mercury have also not cleared their neighborhoods, as many asteroids co-orbit along with them.

    The planetary geologist Kirby Runyon, a Ph.D. student at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, wrote a paper this year proposing a geophysical-based definition of a planet that would dispense with the orbital criterion and basically include any round celestial body that isn’t a star. The idea hatched by Runyon and his co-authors — which include Alan Stern, the principal investigator of the New Horizons mission to Pluto — would increase the number of purported planets in our solar system to over 110, including Earth’s moon and DeeDee.

    RELATED: Behind the Push to Get Pluto Its Planetary Groove Back

    "What it's really showing is the diversity of planets in our solar system,” said Runyon of the DeeDee news, “and giving us a better understanding of planets in the rest of the galaxy.”

    "DeeDee is almost certainly made out of ices — water ices, methane, and carbon dioxide — which is similar to what Pluto is made of," he added. "These are very soft materials, compared with rocky silicate. It's more easily pulled into a sphere than rock or metal."

    Adding more fodder to the debate over the definition, when the New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto in 2015, it unveiled a world of surprising complexity, ranging from mountainous areas to vast nitrogen-ice lakes.

    "We call Pluto a 'dwarf' planet, but it's just an adjective for 'planet,’” Runyon said. “It's still a planet, and that's where we take umbrage with the IAU.”

    "Astronomers aren't experts in planetary science, and they basically passed a bunch of B.S. off on the public back in 2006 with a planet classification so flawed that it rules the Earth out as a planet, too," Stern remarked in 2016. "A week later, hundreds of planetary scientists, more people than at the IAU vote, signed a petition that rejects the new definition. If you go to planetary science meetings and hear technical talks on Pluto, you will hear experts calling it a planet every day."

    RELATED: Remind Me Again, Why Isn't Pluto a Planet?

    As a geomorphologist, Runyon is most particularly interested in the shape of landforms on worlds around the solar system. His dissertation deals with wind-blown sand geology on Mars, as mapped by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) camera.

    But he'll still keep his eye on the outer solar system. New Horizons is set to fly by a tiny world called 2014 MU69 on Jan. 1, 2019. While MU69 is too small to be even a dwarf planet, Runyon will be looking for features on MU69 such as ripples, which were also seen during the Rosetta mission during observations of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. He'll also look at the shape of craters, among other things.

    "MU69 has never warmed up since the formation of the solar system," he said. "It will be really interesting to see how different or complex it might be. There's a laundry list of things we'll be looking for, and hopefully we'll be surprised."

    Originally published on Seeker.

    {http://www.livescience.com/}

    27-04-2017 om 01:09 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.'Dragonfly' Drone Could Explore Saturn Moon Titan

    'Dragonfly' Drone Could Explore Saturn Moon Titan

    'Dragonfly' Drone Could Explore Saturn Moon Titan
    A proposed eight-bladed drone could soar across Saturn's moon Titan, exploring multiple sites over the course of decades.
    Credit: APL/Michael Carroll

    A relocatable lander could explore the hazy skies of Saturn's intriguing moon Titan, according a new mission proposal. As the eight-bladed whirlybird travels across the moon, it could investigate some of the most promising potentially habitable sites on the Saturn satellite, where methane and ethane fall from the sky and flow as rivers and lakes.

    The lander-size instrument, known as Dragonfly, would take advantage of Titan's low gravity and thick atmosphere to visit multiple sites over several years, moving from one promising site to the next and recharging between the brief flights.

    "It's such a rich place to be able to explore in situ, and then it hands us the way to explore it," the project's principal investigator, Elizabeth Turtle, told Space.com. Turtle, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins Applied Research Laboratory in Maryland, is leading the team that's proposing an in-depth exploration of Titan as part of NASA's New Frontiers mission program, which generally funds midsize missions to explore the solar system. She presented the Dragonfly concept last month at the Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference in The Woodlands, Texas. [Amazing Photos of Titan: Saturn's Biggest Moon]

    On Titan, flowing methane and ethane rivers and seas provide a unique opportunity to explore the chemistry that could lead to the rise of life. But it's the thick atmosphere that would make the mission possible.

    "The atmosphere is what is giving us this ability to travel on Titan," Turtle said.

    Titan, the mysterious cloud-covered moon of Saturn, is the ringed planet's largest moon. Find out the facts about Titan's heavy atmosphere, lakes of hydrocarbons and the possibility of life in this Space.com infographic.
    Credit: Karl Tate, SPACE.com contributor

    When the Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint initiative between NASA and the European Space Agency, arrived at Titan in 2004, it discovered a world where methane rained down onto the surface into organic-rich lakes and seas. It dropped the Huygens probe onto Titan's surface, providing a tantalizing peek at some of the chemistry beneath the clouds. Over the past decade, the orbiter revealed even more details about Titan's surface, including a variety of environments with the potential to have chemical evolution similar to Earth's, Turtle said.

    "The kind of prebiotic chemistry that we're looking at, these are things we can't do in the lab — the timescales are too long to do these experiments in the lab — but Titan has been doing them for ages," Turtle said.

    "The results are just sitting on the surface," she added. "If we can get to these different places on the surface of Titan, we can pick up the results of the experiments. They're just waiting for us."

    When it came to exploring various locations on Mars, that meant rovers. Each rover dropped at a promising location could trek for tens of miles over its lifetime. As of April 2017, NASA's Opportunity rover had traveled a total of more than 27 miles (43 kilometers), and Curiosity had traveled nearly 10 miles (16 km).

    But instead of sending multiple rovers to explore Titan, Turtle wants to use the moon's thick atmosphere to travel more efficiently. Titan's atmosphere is about four times as dense as Earth's, while its gravity is about a tenth as strong. 

    "Heavier-than-air flight is substantially easier [on Titan]," Turtle said. "That means we can take a really capable lander and move it by a few tens of kilometers in a single flight, and hundreds of kilometers over the time of the mission."

    In the past, Titan mission proposals have included balloons and airships that took advantage of the thick atmosphere to travel. But these missions required these vehicles to be constantly in the air, which consumed a great deal of power, Turtle said. They also provided only cursory exploration of the surface.

    Instead, Dragonfly would use two rotors positioned at each of its four corners to fly from one region of the moon to the next, then recharge while landed using the multimission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG) it would carry with it, which converts the heat from decaying plutonium-238 into electricity. This could mean Dragonfly could fly around Titan for years, or even decades, Turtle said. At the same time, the thick atmosphere would block damaging radiation, providing a welcoming environment for a long-lived mission, she added.

    If NASA selects Dragonfly, the spacecraft would be ready for launch in the mid-2020s and should arrive in the 2030s, Turtle said. Cassini's data would provide potential landing sites, but once Dragonfly arrived, it would be able to scout them out and, using the same type of program that Mars rovers use to land safely, decide which one would be the best landing location. After landing, the quadcopter could launch and map several potential sites, and then return to its original spot to continue investigating while scientists decide where it should go next. [How Humans Could Live on Saturn's Moon Titan (Infographic)]

    Flying isn't the only task Dragonfly would excel at, Turtle said: A drill and a sampling system would allow it to examine the surface up close, while a spectrometer would let it study the surface composition in larger patches. Meteorology and remote sensing would help characterize the atmosphere and weather of Titan, where a methane cycle stands in for Earth's water cycle, she added. 

    The spacecraft's ability to move would help it keep Earth in its line of sight, as it will be communicating directly with the planet. Dragonfly would arrive during Titan's northern winter, so it would start out in the southern hemisphere because Earth won't be in the sky in the north, Turtle said. But as the seasons shift, the quadcopter could move, too, heading up north when our planet rises again.

    Dragonfly would land on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan and then could fly from point to point on the moon's surface and settle to investigate and recharge.
    Dragonfly would land on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan and then could fly from point to point on the moon's surface and settle to investigate and recharge.
    Credit: APL/Michael Carroll

    With methane and ethane falling as raindrops from the sky, Titan boasts a hydration cycle both similar to and different from Earth's. The moon is covered with organic materials that make it a potential home for a different sort of life to evolve. That's just one reason many scientists are eager to visit the Saturn satellite. [Life on Titan? Saturn's Cold Moon Fascinates Scientists (Video)]

    "Titan is the ideal destination to do prebiotic chemistry," Turtle said. "It has incredibly rich organic material all over the surface."

    The giant sand dunes of organic material that stretch for thousands of kilometers across Titan's equator are a potentially intriguing target. Although scientists aren't certain how these dunes form, they may represent what Turtle called a "grab bag" of materials from across the surface.

    Impact craters provide another interesting region to explore. The impacts should have melted ice in the crust, thus putting liquid water in close contact with organic material for extended periods, Turtle said. 

    "We can start to look at how the organic chemistry progressed," she added. 

    Along the way, Dragonfly could hunt for very basic signs of life on the methane-rich world.

    "If we're taking the instrumentation to measure the details of the chemistry, we can also look for biosignatures, because it's the same measurements," Turtle said.

    With a $1 billion price tag, NASA's New Frontiers missions are exploring some of the most intriguing places in the universe. Previous selections included the New Horizons mission to Pluto, the Juno spacecraft to Jupiter and the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. The current competition lists six mission themes, including sample-return missions from comets or the moon, an ocean worlds explorer, a probe to Saturn, exploration of the Trojan asteroids and a Venus in-situ explorer. NASA plans to select a new mission every five years.

    The deadline for the latest round of New Frontiers proposals is April 28, and Dragonfly will be one of the candidates. In November 2017, NASA will select a subset of the proposals for further study and will make its final selection in July 2019. That means there will be a long wait for Turtle, who is hoping Dragonfly comes out on top.

    "Titan is just begging us to do this," she said.

    Follow Nola Taylor Redd at @NolaTReddFacebook, or Google+. Follow us at @SpacedotcomFacebook or Google+. Originally published on Space.com.

    27-04-2017 om 00:59 geschreven door peter

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    25-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.It’s Official. In 2025, NASA and the ESA Will Land on Europa to Look For Alien Life

    It’s Official. In 2025, NASA and the ESA Will Land on Europa to Look For Alien Life

     
    Europa
    So where do we land?

    NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk

    IN BRIEF
    NASA and the ESA are planning to launch a joint mission to Jupiter's moon Europa. This icy satellite hosts a subterranean ocean larger than those on Earth, and it could host extraterrestrial life.

    EXPLORING TOGETHER

    Recent discoveries in space have made the search for life beyond Earth easier and more difficult at the same time. As more exoplanets and moons with the potential to support extraterrestrial life turn up, the probability of finding one that actually does increases. However, sending missions to explore all these potentially inhabited worlds has also become more difficult.

    Juno: Mission to Jupiter [INFOGRAPHIC]
    Click to View Full Infographic

    NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) have come up with a rather practical solution: The two space agencies will pool their resources for one of these exploration missions. The target is Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons, and it is considered one of the best candidates for alien life.

    The proposal, dubbed the Joint Europa Mission (JEM), was unveiled Sunday in Vienna, Austria, at the annual meeting of the European Geosciences Union. “The whole idea is that if we think exploring Europa for life is important, it should be an international adventure,” Michel Blanc from the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in Toulouse, France, told New Scientist. “The ultimate goal is to get to the surface and look for biosignatures of life.”

    LIFE LURKING BENEATH

    The prospect of life on Europa increased when the moon was discovered to have a vast ocean hidden beneath its icy crust. This discovery was reinforced by the observation of water plumes escaping to the surface. Researchers estimate that Europa boasts twice as much water as our planet, so there’s plenty to explore, and the ocean even seems to be more similar to Earth’s than previously thought.

    The plan is for JEM to launch by the mid-2020s, and it would run for about six-and-a-half years. The first five of those would be used simply to reach Jupiter, then a few more days would be needed to reach Europa.

    Upon reaching Europa’s orbit, a lander would be launched to explore the surface for 35 days, scanning material samples for traces of life. Meanwhile, the orbiter craft would spend three months taking various measurements to reveal Europa’s basic structure, focusing on the ocean’s composition. After that, the lander could crash into Europa while taking and transmitting data about the moon’s atmosphere.

    While both NASA and the ESA have existing plans to explore Europa and the other icy-watery moons in the solar system, the planned combined effort would offer a unique advantage for both space agencies. Pooling their resources might make it easier to figure out solutions to key problems, such as Jupiter’s intense radiation and the need to make sure Europa won’t be contaminated by organisms from Earth.

    “There’s great enthusiasm for this on both sides,” Jakob van Zyl, director for solar system exploration at NASA JPL, told New Scientist. “The budget request is now with the president.”

    Europa is just the first goal for collaborative space exploration. Potential missions to Jupiter’s other moons, as well as those of Saturn, could well be developed in the future. Perhaps alien life is just an Earth-formed partnership away.

    https://futurism.com/ }

    25-04-2017 om 23:27 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Breakthrough Listen reveals its first results: Alien hunting telescopes have found 11 strange signals - but NONE are believed to be extraterrestrial life

    Breakthrough Listen reveals its first results: Alien hunting telescopes have found 11 strange signals - but NONE are believed to be extraterrestrial life

    • Breakthrough Listen analyzed three five-minute observations of 692 stars
    • The researchers have revealed 11 events considered to be most significant
    • But, further investigation found an intelligence extraterrestrial source is unlikely

    Scientists ‘listening’ to extraterrestrial signals in the universe for evidence of alien life have released their initial results from the first year of observations.

    After combing through petabytes of data, the Breakthrough Listen team has ranked 11 events considered to be most significant – but so far, they’ve found no convincing signs of intelligent life.

    The team has also submitted a paper analyzing nearly 700 stars across all spectral types, which they say acts as a ‘launch pad’ for deeper investigations to come.

    After combing through petabytes of data, the Breakthrough Listen team has ranked 11 events considered to be most significant – but so far, they’ve found no convincing signs of intelligent life. The massive Green Bank Radio Telescope is pictured 

    After combing through petabytes of data, the Breakthrough Listen team has ranked 11 events considered to be most significant – but so far, they’ve found no convincing signs of intelligent life. The massive Green Bank Radio Telescope is pictured 

    THE BREAKTHROUGH LISTEN MISSION

    Breakthrough Listen is a search for intelligent life using two of the world's most powerful telescopes.

    It was launched in January with the aim of scouring one million of the closest stars to Earth for faint signals thrown out into space by intelligent life beyond our own world.

    Scientists taking part in the $100 million are also scanning the very centre of our galaxy along with 100 of the closest galaxies for low power radio transmissions.

    Breakthrough Listen will collect data over a 10-year period. 

    Search capacity will be 50 times more sensitive, cover 10 times more of the sky, 5 times more of the radio spectrum, and at speeds 100 times faster. 

    The initiative, backed by Stephen Hawking and billionaire Yuri Milner, has been gathering data with the Green Bank Radio Telescope in West Virginia, Lick Observatory’s Automated Planet Finder on Mt Hamilton in California, and the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia.

    With an ‘analysis pipeline’ built by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley’s SETI Research Center (BSRC), the project scans billions of radio channels to search for signals that might be coming from an intelligent source outside of our solar system.

    They’ve now made the initial data public, and will present the findings this Thursday during a Facebook Live presentation at the Breakthrough Discuss conference.

    The scientists analyzed three five-minute observations of each of the 692 stars, alnong with five-minute observations of a set of secondary targets.

    While there were millions of ‘hits’ for the entire sample – or, radio emissions seen in the target – the researchers say this is ‘almost certainly’ the result of interference from human technology.

    And, while eleven events were distinguished as ‘significant,’ further investigation suggests they are not coming from artificial alien sources.

    Still, the researchers say these preliminary results are an important step in the search for alien life.

    ‘With the submission of this paper, the first scientific results from Breakthrough Listen are now available for the world to review,’ said Dr Andrew Siemion of BSRC.

    ‘Although the search has not yet detected a convincing signal from extraterrestrial intelligence, these are early days.

    ‘The work that has been completed so far provides a launch pad for deeper and more comprehensive analysis to come.’ 

    And, while eleven events were distinguished as ‘significant,’ further investigation suggests they are not coming from artificial alien sources. Data from one such event shown above

    And, while eleven events were distinguished as ‘significant,’ further investigation suggests they are not coming from artificial alien sources. Data from one such event shown above

    Breakthrough Listen will collect data over a 10-year period from a network of the world's most powerful radio and optical telescopes to yield vast, full-sky signal monitoring.

    It will collect more data in one day than previously had been collected in one year.

    Search capacity will be 50 times more sensitive, cover 10 times more of the sky, 5 times more of the radio spectrum, and at speeds 100 times faster.

    Overall, the researchers have selected 1709 stars to study.

    Stephen Hawking (left), Yuri Milner (center) and Mark Zuckerberg (right) have teamed up to launch a $100 million hunt for alien life. The project, dubbed 'Breakthrough Starshot', was announced in New York today
    Russian billionaire Yuri Milner is pictured

    Stephen Hawking (left) and billionaire Yuri Milner (right) have their sights set on finding alien life. Now, the first results from a $100 million 'Breakthrough Listen' mission to uncover signals from ET have been released

    Another project, dubbed Breakthrough Starshot, will rely on tiny so-called 'nanocraft' flying on sails, similar to the one illustrated, pushed by beams of light. Each of these tiny craft will carry cameras and a built in GPS

    Another project, dubbed Breakthrough Starshot, will rely on tiny so-called 'nanocraft' flying on sails, similar to the one illustrated, pushed by beams of light. Each of these tiny craft will carry cameras and a built in GPS

    These are divided into two categories: those within 16 light years of the sun, and a group including branch stars no more than 163 light years away. 

    Last year, Hawking, Milner and Mark Zuckerberg launched another initiative in the Breakthrough program – the Breakthrough Starshot project.

    The $100m project will rely on tiny so-called 'nanocraft' flying on sails pushed by beams of light through the universe.

    They will travel to the Alpha Centauri star system 25 trillion miles (4.37 light years) away on a twenty year mission to look for alien life. 


    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/}

    25-04-2017 om 23:12 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Scientists Found Something Super Weird in This Giant Glob of Stars

    Scientists Found Something Super Weird in This Giant Glob of Stars

    Globular clusters are just as they sound: giant spherical globs of stars gravitationally bound by a central force. But the source of that central force might not actually be what we thought.

    Normally, globular clusters have a plethora of low mass X-ray binary stars(LMXBs), in which one object is a hungry neutron star and the other is known as a companion and basically acts as a cosmic dust and/or gas donor to the neutron. It has long since been theorized that the accredited object could also be a black hole, but scientists have never found this to be the case, until now.

    new study of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, or NGC 104, some 16,700 light-years from Earth in the constellation Tucana, is showing a LMXB called X9 that could quite possibly have a black hole instead of a neutron star.

    Scientists used the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, NuSTAR, and the Australia Compact Array, to capture a 28-minute modulation of X9’s signal. They found that the signal exhibited signs of a white dwarf about .02 solar-masses in size orbiting a black hole of about one solar mass in size.

    An optical image of the globular cluster 47 Tuc taken by Hubble.
    An optical image of the globular cluster 47 Tuc taken by Hubble.

    On top of this, the white dwarf has an unusually short precession period of 6.8 days, and is giving an unusually high rate of mass to the black hole, about seven-millionths of an Earth-mass per year.

    If X9 truly is a black hole LMXB, then it would be the first known case in our galaxy and would challenge scientists understanding of globular clusters and how black holes interact with them. All in an effort to make sense of the wild universe beyond us.

    Photos via NASA/ Hubble Space Telescope
    WHAT'S NEXT

    https://www.inverse.com/ }

    25-04-2017 om 20:10 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.New close-up photos of Saturn’s largest moon may be the last for decades

    New close-up photos of Saturn’s largest moon may be the last for decades

    Scientists curious about a ‘magic island’ that consistently disappears and reappears in one of Titan’s shallow seas

    cassini spacecraft titan illustration nasa jpl caltech

    An artist's rendering of NASA's Cassini spacecraft observing a sunset through the hazy atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon.

    NASA/JPL-Caltech

    RELATED TOPICS

    http://www.scmp.com/ }

    25-04-2017 om 14:47 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Martian tree stump discovered by alien hunters points towards existence of life on ancient Mars

    Martian tree stump discovered by alien hunters points towards existence of life on ancient Mars

    The alien hunters strongly believe that this ancient tree stump proves that the Red Planet supported life once.

    nasa, Mars, tree stump, alien hunters, UFOlogists, conspiracy theorists,
    This image was taken by Mastcam: Left (MAST_LEFT) onboard NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Sol 1647 (2017-03-25 07:19:49 UTC).NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

    Earlier this month, a new discovery was made by alien hunters on Mars which points towards the existence of a Martian tree stump, believed to be ancient.

    Also Read: NASA is presently facing a lawsuit! Here's why!

    The astronomers had revealed earlier that ancient Mars was more habitable than we previously believed it to be, and this tree stump is being estimated to be strong evidence about the Red Planet being livable by the conspiracy theorists.

    The reason why Mars was believed to be more habitable than previously assumed by the astronomers is because of the discovery of the presence of a mineral called whitlockite, which was found in the Martian meteorites examined by a group of researchers. This mineral comprised hydrogen which is a life-building matter; this revealed that there was presence of more water on ancient Mars at a point of time.

    "This could be an ancient tree stump on Mars," Scott C Waring stated on his blog on UFO Sightings Daily, as quoted by The Sun.

    "It would be logical to assume that a variety of tree either existed or still exists on this enigmatic planet," Waring added.

    The alien hunters strongly believe that this ancient tree stump proves that the Red Planet supported life once.

    A YouTube channel named Paranormal Crucible stated in it's video description: "Intriguing object found by the curiosity rover, this time a possible tree stump. This object definitely looks out of place and in my opinion could be the petrified remnants of a Martian tree. Object is around 3 feet in height, and with numerous discoveries of plant and animal life on mars, it would be logical to assume, that a variety of tree either existed, or still exists on this enigmatic planet."

    Check out this video to see the ancient tree stump spotted on Mars:

    YouTube/Paranormal Crucible

    http://www.ibtimes.co.in/ }

    25-04-2017 om 14:16 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Ta-ta to Titan! Cassini makes its last close flyby of moon as it prepares to crash into Saturn as its 'grand finale'

    Ta-ta to Titan! Cassini makes its last close flyby of moon as it prepares to crash into Saturn as its 'grand finale'

    • On April 22, Cassini made its closest approach with Saturn's moon Titan
    • On April 26, Cassini will make the first of 22 dives through an unexplored gap
    • It will dive through the 1,500-mile-wide gap between Saturn and its rings
    • Researchers hope to collect the first-ever samples of Saturn's atmosphere
    • Cassini's mission will officially terminate on September 15, in a planned plunge

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft has made its final flyby of Saturn's massive moon Titan, collecting data on the hydrocarbon lakes and haze-enshrouded surface of the alien world. 

    On April 22, the spacecraft made its closest approach to Titan at a speed of about 13,000 miles per hour, marking the beginning of its 'Grand Finale.'

    This encounter will cause Titan's gravity to bend Cassini's orbit, pulling it slightly in so that it can begin its final set of 22 dives between Saturn and its rings, before plunging into the planet on Sept 15.

    Scroll down for video 

    This unprocessed image of Saturn's moon Titan was captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft during its final close flyby of the hazy, planet-sized moon on April 21, 2017

    This unprocessed image of Saturn's moon Titan was captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft during its final close flyby of the hazy, planet-sized moon on April 21, 2017

    CASSINI'S 'GRAND FINALE'

    Cassini has circled Saturn for 13 years since reaching its orbit in 2004, spearheading remarkable discoveries about the ringed planet and its icy moons – but now, it's running low on fuel.

    On April 22, the spacecraft will transition into its grand finale orbits, taking one last close flyby of Saturn's massive moon Titan.

    Then, Titan's gravity will bend Cassini's flight path, causing the orbit to shrink until it passes between the planet and the inner edges of its rings.

    Then, on April 26, Cassini will make the first of 22 dives through an unexplored gap before it ultimately plunges through the skies of Saturn to end its mission as 'part of the planet itself.'

    Cassini's mission will officially terminate on September 15, after a planned plummet through Saturn's atmosphere.

    And, all the while, it will transmit data from several instruments until the signal is finally lost.

    The spacecraft made its 127th and final close approach to Titan on April 21 at 11:08 p.m. PDT (2:08 a.m. EDT on April 22), passing at an altitude of about 608 miles (979 kilometers) above the moon's surface.

    Cassini transmitted its images and other data to Earth following the encounter.

    Scientists with Cassini's radar investigation will be looking this week at their final set of new radar images of the hydrocarbon seas and lakes that spread across Titan's north polar region. 

    The planned imaging coverage includes a region previously seen by Cassini's imaging cameras, but not by radar. 

    The radar team also plans to use the new data to probe the depths and compositions of some of Titan's small lakes for the first (and last) time, and look for further evidence of the evolving feature researchers have dubbed the 'magic island'.

    'Cassini's up-close exploration of Titan is now behind us, but the rich volume of data the spacecraft has collected will fuel scientific study for decades to come,' said Linda Spilker, the mission's project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. 

    It marks the beginning of the 'thrilling final chapter' of Cassini's life, twenty years after it left Earth.

    The craft has circled Saturn for 13 years since reaching its orbit in 2004, spearheading remarkable discoveries about the ringed planet and its icy moons – but now, it's running low on fuel.

    "With this flyby we're committed to the Grand Finale," said Earl Maize, Cassini project manager at JPL. 

    "The spacecraft is now on a ballistic path, so that even if we were to forgo future small course adjustments using thrusters, we would still enter Saturn's atmosphere on Sept. 15 no matter what."

    Cassini will dive through the 1,500-mile-wide (2,400-kilometer) gap between Saturn and its rings.

    NASA/ JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

    THE CASSINI MISSION 

    Since it left earth in 1997 and arrived at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has been touring the system with an up-close study of the planet, its rings and moons. 

    During its journey, Cassini has made dramatic discoveries, including a global ocean within Enceladus and liquid methane seas on Titan.

    Before Nasa's Cassini probe captured the most detailed images of Saturn ever seen, it dropped its companion Huygens on the planet's largest moon, Titan. 

    After nearly 20 years in space, the mission is drawing near its end because the spacecraft is running low on fuel.

    In a captivating video released earlier this month, the space agency revealed a glimpse at Cassini's 'grand finale.'

    On April 26, Cassini will make the first of 22 dives through an unexplored gap before it ultimately plunges through the skies of Saturn to end its mission as 'part of the planet itself.' 

    Cassini's mission will officially terminate on September 15, after a planned plummet through Saturn's atmosphere.

    And, all the while, it will transmit data from several instruments until the signal is finally lost.

    In the months leading up to this dramatic conclusion, though, the craft will carry out a plan that is 'in many ways, like a whole new mission,' according to NASA.

    Cassini will dive through the 1,500-mile-wide (2,400-kilometer) gap between Saturn and its rings.

    'No spacecraft has ever gone through the unique region that we'll attempt to boldly cross 22 times,' said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

    Twenty years after leaving Earth, NASA¿s Cassini spacecraft is set to embark on the ¿thrilling final chapter¿ of its life. The craft has circled Saturn for 13 years  ¿ but now, it¿s running low on fuel

    Twenty years after leaving Earth, NASA's Cassini spacecraft is set to embark on the 'thrilling final chapter' of its life. The craft has circled Saturn for 13 years – but now, it's running low on fuel

    'What we learn from Cassini's daring final orbits will further our understanding of how giant planets, and planetary systems everywhere, form and evolve.

    'This is truly discovery in action to the very end.'

    Researchers first decided the craft would terminate its mission in this way back in 2010.

    In the months leading up this this dramatic conclusion, though, the craft will carry out a plan that is ¿in many ways, like a whole new mission,¿ according to NASA. On April 26, Cassini will make the first of 22 dives through an unexplored gap

    In the months leading up this this dramatic conclusion, though, the craft will carry out a plan that is 'in many ways, like a whole new mission,' according to NASA. On April 26, Cassini will make the first of 22 dives through an unexplored gap

    Its terminal orbits over the next five months will bring it closer to Saturn than ever before.

    As the craft 'repeatedly braves this unexplored region,' it will investigate the origins of the rings and the nature of the planet's interior, the video explains.

    This weekend, NASA¿s Cassini spacecraft will make a close flyby of Saturn¿s moon Titan, collecting data on the hydrocarbon lakes and haze-enshrouded surface of the alien world. And, this will be its last

    This weekend, NASA's Cassini spacecraft will make a close flyby of Saturn's moon Titan, collecting data on the hydrocarbon lakes and haze-enshrouded surface of the alien world. And, this will be its last

    'This planned conclusion for Cassini's journey was far and away the preferred choice for the mission's scientists,' said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    'Cassini will make some of its most extraordinary observations at the end of its long life.' 

    According to NASA, the researchers hope to collect the first-ever samples of Saturn's atmosphere and particles coming from the main rings.

    On top of this, the craft will obtain the closest views yet of Saturn's clouds and inner rings.

    Scientists made the final checks on the space probe's command list ahead of its finale, and uploaded them on April 11.

    'Based on our best models, we expect the gap to be clear of particles large enough to damage the spacecraft,' said Earl Maize, Cassini project manager at JPL.

    'But we're also being cautious by using our large antenna as a shield on the first pass, as we determine whether it's safe to expose the science instruments to that environment on future passes.

    TITAN: EARTH'S 'TOXIC TWIN'

    Aside from Earth, Titan is the only place in the solar system known to have rivers, rainfall and seas - and possibly even waterfalls.

    Of course, in the case of Titan these are liquid methane rather than water on Earth.

    Regular Earth-water, H2O, would be frozen solid on Titan where the surface temperature is -180°C (-292°F).

    With its thick atmosphere and organic-rich chemistry, Titan resembles a frozen version of Earth several billion years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into our atmosphere.

    Because Titan is smaller than Earth, its gravity does not hold onto its gaseous envelope as tightly, so the atmosphere extends 370 miles (595km) into space.

    With Titan's low gravity and dense atmosphere, methane raindrops could grow twice as large as Earth's raindrops. 

    'Certainly there are some unknowns, but that's one of the reasons we're doing this kind of daring exploration at the end of the mission.'

    On April 22, the spacecraft will transition into its grand finale orbits, taking one last close flyby of Saturn's massive moon Titan.

    Then, Titan's gravity will bend Cassini's flight path, causing the orbit to shrink until it passes between the planet and the inner edges of its rings.

    As the spacecraft plummets into Saturn's atmosphere on September 15, it will keep its antennas firing toward Earth as long as possible, sending back important data.

    'Cassini's grand finale is so much more than a final plunge,' said Spilker.

    'It's a thrilling final chapter for our intrepid spacecraft, and so scientifically rich that it was the clear and obvious choice for how to end the mission.'

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/ }

    25-04-2017 om 14:08 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity

    Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity

    Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
    Einstein's equation E = mc2 shows that energy and mass are interchangeable.
    Credit: Nikitina Olga/Shutterstock

    The theory of special relativity explains how space and time are linked for objects that are moving at a consistent speed in a straight line. One of its most famous aspects concerns objects moving at the speed of light. 

    Simply put, as an object approaches the speed of light, its mass becomes infinite and it is unable to go any faster than light travels. This cosmic speed limit has been a subject of much discussion in physics, and even in science fiction, as people think about how to travel across vast distances.

    The theory of special relativity was developed by Albert Einstein in 1905, and it forms part of the basis of modern physics. After finishing his work in special relativity, Einstein spent a decade pondering what would happen if one introduced acceleration. This formed the basis of his general relativity, published in 1915.

    Before Einstein, astronomers (for the most part) understood the universe in terms of three laws of motion presented by Isaac Newton in 1686. These three laws are: 

    (1) Objects in motion (or at rest) remain in motion (or at rest) unless an external force imposes change.

    (2) Force is equal to the change in momentum per change of time. For a constant mass, force equals mass times acceleration.

    (3) For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    But there were cracks in the theory for decades before Einstein's arrival on the scene, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. In 1865, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that light is a wave with both electrical and magnetic components, and established the speed of light (186,000 miles per second). Scientists supposed that the light had to be transmitted through some medium, which they called the ether. (We now know that no transmission medium is required, and that light in space moves in a vacuum.)

    Twenty years later, an unexpected result threw this into question. Physicist A.A. Michelson and chemist Edward Morley (both Americans at the time) calculated how Earth's motion through this "ether" affected how the speed of light is measured, and found that the speed of light is the same no matter what Earth's motion is. This led to further musings on light's behavior — and its incongruence with classical mechanics — by Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and French mathematician Henri Poincare.

    Einstein began thinking of light's behavior when he was just 16 years old, in 1895. He did a thought experiment, the encyclopedia said, where he rode on one light wave and looked at another light wave moving parallel to him. 

    Classical physics should say that the light wave Einstein was looking at would have a relative speed of zero, but this contradicted Maxwell's equations that showed light always has the same speed: 186,000 miles a second. Another problem with relative speeds is they would show that the laws of electromagnetism change depending on your vantage point, which contradicted classical physics as well (which said the laws of physics were the same for everyone.)

    This led to Einstein's eventual musings on the theory of special relativity, which he broke down into the everyday example of a person standing beside a moving train, comparing observations with a person inside the train. He imagined the train being at a point in the track equally between two trees. If a bolt of lightning hit both trees at the same time, due to the motion of the train, the person on the train would see the bolt hit one tree before the other tree. But the person beside the track would see simultaneous strikes.

    "Einstein concluded that simultaneity is relative; events that are simultaneous for one observer may not be for another," the encyclopedia stated. "This led him to the counterintuitive idea that time flows differently according to the state of motion, and to the conclusion that distance is also relative."

    Einstein's work led to some startling results, which today still seem counterintuitive at first glance even though his physics is usually introduced at the high school level. 

    2015 marks 100 years since the publication of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Learn the basics of Einstein's theory of relativity in our infographic here.
    Credit: By Karl Tate, Infographics Artist

    One of the most famous equations in mathematics comes from special relativity. The equation — E = mc2— means "energy equals mass times the speed of light squared." It shows that energy (E) and mass (m) are interchangeable; they are different forms of the same thing. If mass is somehow totally converted into energy, it also shows how much energy would reside inside that mass: quite a lot. (This equation is one of the demonstrations for why an atomic bomb is so powerful, once its mass is converted to an explosion.)

    This equation also shows that mass increases with speed, which effectively puts a speed limit on how fast things can move in the universe. Simply put, the speed of light (c) is the fastest velocity at which an object can travel in a vacuum. As an object moves, its mass also increases. Near the speed of light, the mass is so high that it reaches infinity, and would require infinite energy to move it, thus capping how fast an object can move. The only reason light moves at the speed it does is because photons, the quantum particles that make up light, have a mass of zero.

    A special situation in the universe of the small, called "quantum entanglement," is confusing because it seems to involve quantum particles interacting with each other at speeds faster than the speed of light. Specifically, measuring the property of one particle can instantly tell you the property of another particle, no matter how far away they are. Much has been written about this phenomenon, which is still not fully explained in terms of Einstein's conclusions. 

    Another strange conclusion of Einstein's work comes from the realization that time moves relative to the observer. An object in motion experiences time dilation, meaning that time moves more slowly when one is moving, than when one is standing still. Therefore, a person moving ages more slowly than a person at rest. So yes, when astronaut Scott Kelly spent nearly a year aboard the International Space Station in 2015-16, his twin astronaut brother Mark Kelly aged a little faster than Scott.

    This becomes extremely apparent at speeds approaching the speed of light. Imagine a 15-year-old traveling at 99.5 percent the speed of light for five years (from the astronaut's perspective). When the 15-year-old gets back to Earth, according to NASA, he would be only 20 years old. His classmates, however, would be 65 years old.

    While this time dilation sounds very theoretical, it does have practical applications as well. If you have a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver in your car, the receiver attempts to find signals from at least three satellites to coordinate your position. The GPS satellites send out timed radio signals that the receiver listens to, triangulating (or more properly speaking, trilaterating) its position based on the travel time of the signals. The challenge is, the atomic clocks on the GPS are moving and would therefore run faster than atomic clocks on Earth, creating timing issues. So, engineers need to make the clocks on a GPS tick slower, according to Richard Pogge, an astronomer at Ohio State University.

    The clocks in space tick faster, according to Physics Central, because the GPS satellites are above Earth and experience weaker gravity. So even though the GPS satellites are moving and experience a seven-microsecond slowing every day because of their movement, the result of the weaker gravity causes the clocks to tick about 45 microseconds faster than a ground-based clock. Adding the two together results in the GPS satellite clock ticking faster than a ground-based clock, by about 38 microseconds daily.

    As our knowledge of physics has advanced, scientists have run into more counterintuitive situations. One is trying to reconcile general relativity — which describes well what's going on with large objects — with quantum mechanics, which is best used for very small things (such as uranium atom decay). The two fields, which excellently describe their individual fields, are incompatible with one another — which frustrated Einstein and generations of scientists after him.

    "Relativity gives nonsensical answers when you try to scale it down to quantum size, eventually descending to infinite values in its description of gravity. Likewise, quantum mechanics runs into serious trouble when you blow it up to cosmic dimensions," an article in The Guardian pointed out in 2015. 

    "Quantum fields carry a certain amount of energy, even in seemingly empty space, and the amount of energy gets bigger as the fields get bigger. According to Einstein, energy and mass are equivalent (that's the message of E=mc2), so piling up energy is exactly like piling up mass. Go big enough, and the amount of energy in the quantum fields becomes so great that it creates a black hole that causes the universe to fold in on itself. Oops."

    There are several ideas to overcome this (which are beyond the scope of this article), but one approach is to imagine a quantum theory of gravity that would have a massless particle (called the graviton) to generate the force. But as physicist Dave Goldberg pointed out in io9 in 2013, there are problems with that. At the smallest scales, gravitons would have infinite energy density, creating an unimaginably powerful gravity field. More study will be required to see if this is possible.

    25-04-2017 om 13:34 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Hunting the building blocks of alien life

    Hunting the building blocks of alien life


    A new study examines space-travelling amino acids that could play a role in extraterrestrial life, writes Andrew Masterson.


    A micrograph of a crystal formed from cysteine, an amino acid commonly found in terrestrial life.
    IMAGES ETC LTD / GETTY

    Amino acids extracted from meteorites will soon be tested to see if they are capable of playing a role in extraterrestrial life.

    Amino acids – organic compounds based on amine and carboxyl molecules – are the fundamental building blocks of proteins that, in turn, are the basis of all life on Earth. Astrobiologists have long assumed that the most likely types of extraterrestrial life would also arise from a similar amino-acid-protein system.

    Extraterrestrial conditions.
    CLAIRE MAMMOSER
    An extraterrestrial system, however, would not necessarily use the same amino acids – alone or in combination – as those used on this planet.

    “They might use amino acids that are known to us but not used to make proteins on Earth,” says Claire Mammoser of Valparaiso University.

    With this in mind, Mammoser has recently finished testing 15 amino acids – some used in earthly biology and others not – to see how they might stand up to the rigours of other planetary environments.

    With conditions on Mars, Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moon Europa in mind, Mammoser and colleagues subjected the amino acids to extreme variations in temperature, pH, ultraviolet and gamma radiation. They recorded the resilience, or lack of it, in each sample, as well as its ability to perform key functions, such as bind to liquid water.

    “Our main goal with this research is to see if there are structural characteristics of some amino acids that lead to a higher stability in extraterrestrial conditions,” says Mammoser.

    The results of the experiments were presented this week at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology annual meeting in Chicago.

    The next phase of the research involves conducting the same battery of tests on genuine extraterrestrial amino acids extracted from meteorites. The team will also experiment with novel amino acids created in a number of “origin of life” experiments, some dating back to the 1950s.

    https://cosmosmagazine.com/ }

    25-04-2017 om 13:21 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Mission to Saturn

    Mission to Saturn

    Spoorthy Raman & Rishabh Shukla

    detailed imaging With Cassini (inset), scientists now have data about the size, temperature, composition and distribution of Saturn's rings. photo credit: NASA

    detailed imaging With Cassini (inset), scientists now have data about the size, temperature, composition and distribution of Saturn's rings.

    photo credit: NASA

    The sci-fi blockbuster Oblivion gave us a glimpse of life in 2077 on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, after the Earth was devastated by an extraterrestrial attack. But how far from reality is this? Going by Cassini-Huygens’ findings, perhaps it’s not too far! Cassini-Huygens is the first unmanned spacecraft to orbit Saturn, a spectacular ringed planet in our Solar System. Launched on October 15, 1997, it set out to discover the planet and its satellites, up-close. In its 20 long years, the spacecraft has revealed many fascinating facts about Saturn, its rings and moons, including some clues about the possibility of life. 

    However, Cassini-Huygens will soon draw a close to its eventful life in September 2017.

    In the first seven years of its journey, the spacecraft hovered around Venus, flew past Mars, manoeuvred through the asteroid belt and slid past Jupiter, before finally entering Saturn’s orbit on July 1, 2004. Its last leg started on April 22, 2017. After sailing past Titan, it will criss-cross Saturn’s equator 22 times, and finally sink into Saturn. According to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the agency controlling the spacecraft, its thrusters have run out of fuel, forcing the inevitable death.

    Scientists at NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency, started the groundwork on Cassini-Huygens back in 1980s. Named after two Italian astronomers, Giovanni Cassini, who studied Saturn’s rings, and Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan, the spacecraft has two parts — the Cassini orbiter that orbits Saturn, and the Huygens probe that landed on Titan. Since Saturn is so far away from the Sun, it is infeasible to harness solar rays as a power source. Hence, Cassini-Huygens is powered with limited-period plutonium radioisotope electric generators that generate electricity like a nuclear power plant. 

    While Cassini was in orbit around Saturn, it detached Huygens to descend on Titan on December 25, 2004. Huygens, after falling freely for 20 days, entered the history books as the first robotic probe to land on a satellite of another planet. It captured every detail of Titan's atmosphere and surface, and sent it to NASA’s Deep Space Network until its batteries drained up. 

    A closer look
    Saturn, with its majestic rings and enigmatic moons, is a jewel in our Solar System. It is the second largest planet after Jupiter and is a gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. Its diameter is approximately nine times that of the Earth, and it is 95 times more massive than the Earth. It is also the only planet in the Solar System that is less dense than water. Until recently, these were the only facts about Saturn that we knew. Cassini-Huygens has tremendously increased our understanding of the planet. 

    With numerous up-close observations, it has pointed out many earth-like features on Saturn. We now know that Saturn has numerous ‘jet streams’ that spew water vapour and heat into the atmosphere, of which the hexagonal jet stream in the north pole is one. Photographs by Cassini have revealed the magnificent symmetry of this stream and has shown this to be a long-lived phenomenon. 

    Cassini has captured glimpses of ‘lightnings’ and ‘hurricanes’ in the Saturnian atmosphere, and has studied the seasonal ‘Great White Storm’ — a once-in-30-years phenomenon (one Saturn year equals 30 Earth years). It has also studied Saturn’s auroras, atmospheric composition, the swelling of its outer atmosphere, and the planet’s rate of rotation (one Saturn day equals 10.5 Earth hours), even correcting previous values by six minutes. By the end of its life, Cassini would have orbited Saturn 293 times. 

    The system of rings around Saturn is expansive and bright, and hence, easily visible through a telescope.

    Named alphabetically based on when they were discovered, the rings consist of numerous icy rocks ranging from the size of a grain of salt to the size of a mountain. With Cassini, scientists now have data about the size, temperature, composition and distribution of Saturn’s rings. It has studied the interactions between rings and moons, and has recorded instances of some moons stealing particles from a ring, or throwing particles into a ring. 

    Saturn’s equinox, when sun rays strike the rings on the edges, provides the perfect opportunity to capture intricate details and features of the rings. Cassini has used this occasion to observe previously unknown or poorly understood phenomena like the ‘spokes’ in the rings, and finger-like radial features that rotate with the rings. Images captured during equinox also show that in places, Saturn’s rings are far less smooth than was thought. 

    Saturn has 62 known moons and numerous moonlets. Though early missions like Voyager and Pioneer provided a rough sketch of Saturn’s moons, it was poorly understood. Cassini has discovered seven new moons and revealed how each moon is unique and sharply different from the others. With high-resolution, close-up images of some of the moons captured during fly-bys, we now know that most of these moons have cratered surfaces, some contain atmospheres and large amounts of ice, hinting at the possibility of life.

    The most remarkable contribution of this spacecraft is the exploration of Titan. When Cassini flew by Titan, it saw beyond the orange haze of methane clouds, and revealed the presence of huge ‘lakes’ and ‘seas’ of liquid hydrocarbons (like methane and ethane). After Cassini landed on Titan, it revealed that Titan actually has a climate system like Earth, with a ‘water cycle’, where liquid hydrocarbons evaporate to form clouds, and later precipitate as rain. There was also evidence of an internal, liquid ocean beneath Titan’s surface, likely composed of water and ammonia. 

    Microbial life
    Cassini also helped answer the reason behind Enceladus being the brightest object in the Solar System. It showed that beneath the icy crust of Enceladus, there may be an underground ocean, from which water vapour and ice particles frequently erupted. Subsequently, it detected water, carbon dioxide and various hydrocarbons, the presence of a unique chemistry and internal heat - the right composition to support life. This excited scientists looking for life, proclaiming Enceladus to be one of the ‘most likely places in the Solar System to host alien microbial life’. This discovery also gave a peek into how our Earth might have been before life originated.

    Cassini has provided us with an intimate understanding of Saturn and has opened up a treasure trove of information. It has solved several intriguing mysteries and answered long standing questions about the Saturnian system. But, can life exist on Saturn? Cassini-Huygens’ vital clues have kept scientists pondering over that, while it begins its final journey to become one among Saturn’s specks of dust.

    (The authors are with Gubbi Labs, a Bengaluru-based research collective)

    http://www.deccanherald.com/ }

    25-04-2017 om 01:05 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Vergeet Alpha Centauri: laten we Sirius bezoeken!

    25-04-2017 om 00:00 geschreven door peter

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    24-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Most Amazing Space Stories of the Week!

    The Most Amazing Space Stories of the Week!

    The Most Amazing Space Stories of the Week!
    A new study of the water plume emanating from Saturn's moon Enceladus revealed a potentially habitable environment.
    Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

    This week, scientists revealed a heat source and food supply that could nourish organisms living under the ice on Saturn's moon Enceladus; a "Star Trek" fan platitude was disproved by math; and three space fliers returned to Earth. Here are our picks for the best space stories of the week.

    Enceladus has food for life

    Saturn's icy moon Enceladus is looking more and more habitable. New results show that beneath the moon's icy crust, Enceladus likely has hot water vents, like those on Earth. In addition, the subsurface ocean contains molecules that are a common food source for bacteria on Earth. The finding could have major implications for the search for life beyond Earth. [Full Story: Potential Energy Source for Life Spotted on Saturn Moon Enceladus]

    Airborne laboratory

    Two refit bomber aircraft that have been repurposed for NASA's
    Airborne Science program will be put to use during the Aug. 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. A group of scientists will fly instruments aboard the high-altitude planes in order to get above Earth's atmosphere and study the outer layers of the sun that become visible when the moon blocks the sun's central disk. [Full Story: Refit Bomber Aircraft Will Help Scientists Study the Total Solar Eclipse]

    Plumes on Europa?

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be spraying plumes of water into space, according to new observations by the Hubble Space Telescope. For the second time, Hubble has detected what may be a water-vapor plume spewing skyward from the moon's icy surface. If the finding is confirmed, it could influence the design of NASA's Europa Clipper mission, which is set to launch in the 2020s. [Full Story: Giant Water Plume Detected Again on Jupiter Moon Europa]

    Trek math

    A mathematical analysis of the original
    A mathematical analysis of the original "Star Trek" TV series reveals the red shirts do not, in fact, have a higher likelihood of dying.
    Credit: Paramount/Everett Collection

    There's an adage about "Star Trek" episodes that says crewmembers in red shirts are more likely to die. That's not so, according to a mathematician who applied his skills to analyzing various aspects of the show, such as how the mating habits of Vulcans are similar to those of cicadas. In other Trek-related news this week, winners were announced for a contest to make a portable medical diagnostic tool like the tricorder from the "Star Trek" universe, and a line of "Star Trek"-themed fragrances was announced. [Full Story: Redshirts Aren't Likeliest to Die — and Other 'Star Trek' Math Lessons]

    No bathrooms on New Shepard space trips

    Jeff Bezos addresses a crowd at the 33rd annual Space Symposium in April 2017. Bezos discussed details of Blue Origin's space tourism flights aboard the New Shepard suborbital vehicle.
    Jeff Bezos addresses a crowd at the 33rd annual Space Symposium in April 2017. Bezos discussed details of Blue Origin's space tourism flights aboard the New Shepard suborbital vehicle.
    Credit: Space Foundation/Tom Kimmel Photography

    Last week at the 33rd annual Space Symposium, Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos revealed more details about his private spaceflight company's space tourism vehicle, New Shepard. Bezos said the company, Blue Origin, was not planning to equip the New Shepard vehicles with bathrooms or any means of containing vomit, because the rides to space will last only about 14 minutes. [Full Story: No Bathrooms, No Barf Bags: What Blue Origin's Space Tourists Can Expect]

    Solar engineering

    Could humans combat the effects of climate change by shooting aerosols into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight? A Harvard-run experiment will test the technology that might be necessary for the controversial approach. [Full Story: Harvard Researchers Are Preparing to Geoengineer the Atmosphere]

    Jupiter's great cold spot

    Looking back through 15 years of observations, scientists have identified a massive cold spot that forms in Jupiter's atmosphere adjacent to the planet's vibrant auroras. The cold spot disappears and reappears over time, which is partly why scientists haven't seen it before. [Full Story: Surprise! Jupiter Has a Great 'Cold' Spot, Too]

    Space travelers return to Earth

    One NASA astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts safely returned to Earth early Monday (April 10). The passengers flew home aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule and landed in Kazakhstan, after spending 173 days in space. Following the departure of NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough from the station, Peggy Whitson, the first female astronaut ever to command the station, took up the post of commander once again. [Full Story: Space Station Crew Returns to Earth Safely on Soyuz Capsule]

    Follow Calla Cofield @callacofield. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

    EDITOR'S RECOMMENDATIONS

    {  http://www.space.com/ }

    24-04-2017 om 23:33 geschreven door peter

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    22-04-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Hubble fotografeert twee vrienden: NGC 4302 en NGC 4298

    https://www.scientias.nl/ }

    22-04-2017 om 23:59 geschreven door peter

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  • homepage UFOSPOTTINGNEDERLAND
  • PARANORMAL JOURNEY GUIDE

    WELCOME TO THIS BLOG! I hope that you enjoy the lecture of all issues. If you did see a UFO, you can always mail it to us. Best wishes.
    Beste bezoeker,
    Heb je zelf al ooit een vreemde waarneming gedaan, laat dit dan even weten via email aan
    oliver.d.julian|@gmail.com of aan www.ufo.be. Deze onderzoekers behandelen jouw melding in volledige anonimiteit en met alle respect voor jouw privacy. Ze zijn kritisch, objectief  maar open minded aangelegd en zullen jou steeds een verklaring geven voor jouw waarneming!
    DUS AARZEL NIET, ALS JE EEN ANTWOORD OP JOUW VRAGEN WENST, CONTACTEER OLIVER.
    BIJ VOORBAAT DANK...

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  • Dropbox

    Druk op onderstaande knop om je bestand , jouw artikel naar mij te verzenden. INDIEN HET DE MOEITE WAARD IS, PLAATS IK HET OP DE BLOG ONDER DIVERSEN MET JOUW NAAM...


    Gastenboek
  • Nog een fijne avond
  • Hallo Lieverd
  • kiekeboe
  • Een goeie middag bezoekje
  • Zomaar een blogbezoekje

    Druk op onderstaande knop om een berichtje achter te laten in mijn gastenboek Alvast bedankt voor al jouw bezoekjes en jouw reacties. Nog een prettige dag verder!!!


    Foto

    Over mijzelf
    Ik ben Pieter, en gebruik soms ook wel de schuilnaam Peter2011.
    Ik ben een man en woon in Linter (België) en mijn beroep is Ik ben op rust..
    Ik ben geboren op 18/10/1950 en ben nu dus 66 jaar jong.
    Mijn hobby's zijn: Ufologie en andere esoterische onderwerpen.
    Op deze blog vind je onder artikels, werk van mezelf. Mijn dank gaat ook naar André, Ingrid, Oliver, Paul, Vincent, Georges Filer en MUFON voor de bijdragen voor de verschillende categorieën... Veel leesplezier en geef je mening over deze blog.
    Zoeken in blog


    LINKS NAAR BEKENDE UFO-VERENIGINGEN - DEEL 1
  • http://www.ufonieuws.nl/
  • http://www.grenswetenschap.nl/
  • http://www.beamsinvestigations.org.uk/
  • http://www.mufon.com/
  • http://www.ufomeldpunt.be/
  • http://www.ufowijzer.nl/
  • http://www.ufoplaza.nl/
  • http://www.ufowereld.nl/
  • http://www.stantonfriedman.com/
  • http://ufo.start.be/

    LINKS NAAR BEKENDE UFO-VERENIGINGEN - DEEL 2
  • www.ufo.be
  • www.caelestia.be
  • ufo.startpagina.nl.
  • www.wszechocean.blogspot.com.
  • AsocCivil Unifa
  • UFO DISCLOSURE PROJECT

    Startpagina !


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