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  • NASA Astronauts Train Deep Undersea For Deep Space Missions
  • Nasa to host major press conference on 'discovery beyond our solar system'
  • UFO Party - Kallangur AUSTRALIA Feb 16 2017 (Full speed then Slower Speed)
  • NASA have announced a major press conference due to 'discoveries beyond our solar system'
  • The Mexican caves that could hold clues to alien life
  • Blame space particles next time your phone freezes
  • The strange link between the human mind and quantum physics
  • De vreemde link tussen de menselijke geest en kwantummechanica
  • Churchill ordered UFO cover-up, National Archives show
  • Excited Reports of 'Habitable Planets' Need to Come Back Down to Earth
  • Life on Mars? Alien mystery on Red Planet could be solved by 'gushing salty brine'
  • Alien bugs hitching a ride to Earth on spacecraft could ATTACK humans and must never be allowed to escape
  • NASA makes incredible discovery of 'alien microbes' inside Mars-like cave in Mexico
  • Elon Musk Posts Dramatic Video of Falcon 9's Controlled Descent
  • These Freaky Signals From Space Could Unravel the Universe's Secrets
  • La Nasa interrompt un direct de l’ISS durant un passage d’objets non identifiés
  • Filer’s Files #8 – 2017 India May Reveal ET - PART I
  • Filer’s Files #8 – 2017 India May Reveal ET - PART II
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  • Zoeken in blog

    Beoordeel dit blog
      Zeer goed
      Nog wat bijwerken
      Nog veel werk aan
    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
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    Rondvraag / Poll
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    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.NASA Astronauts Train Deep Undersea For Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astronauts Train Deep Undersea For Deep Space Missions

    What do the bottom of a blue ocean and the surface of a Red Planet have in common? Both are extreme environments.

    A group of astronauts, engineers and scientists will venture to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean again this summer to prepare for future deep space missions and the journey to Mars. Isolating crew members at the bottom of the ocean simulates life and work for astronauts in microgravity environments like the International Space Station, or in spacecraft that will travel to asteroids and planets in the future.

    During the 16-day NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 21 expedition beginning July 21, an international crew will explore tools and techniques being tested for future space exploration by living in simulated spacecraft conditions and conducting simulated spacewalks outside of their undersea habitat, Aquarius.

    Inside Aquarius, the international crew will conduct a variety of research and operations studies, such as testing a mini DNA sequencer that NASA astronaut Kate Rubins also will be testing aboard the International Space Station, and a telemedicine device that will be used for future space applications. During their simulated spacewalks, the crew will collect samples for marine biology and geology studies, test software for managing operations, and participate in a coral restoration project. Throughout many of these tasks, the mission will also test communications delays similar to those that would be encountered on a mission to Mars.

    “NEEMO 21 astronauts and crew will pioneer complex tasks on the seafloor utilizing the most advanced underwater navigation and science tools which are methodically choreographed to mimic a Mars exploration traverse,” NEEMO Project Lead Bill Todd said. “Equipment can fail, communication can be challenging and tasks can take longer than expected. Other tasks go just as planned. All cases are equally beneficial. It’s how we learn and how we are able to assemble all of this together so that someday we’re prepared for the unexpected when we are living on and traversing the Martian surface.”

    NASA Astronaut Reid Wiseman will command the first eight days of the NEEMO 21 mission. Wiseman flew in space as part of Expedition 40/41 in 2014, spending 166 days living and working aboard the International Space Station. Wiseman was a naval aviator and test pilot prior to joining NASA in 2009.

    NASA Astronaut Megan McArthur will command the second half of NEEMO 21, and will live in the habitat for the entire 16-day mission. McArthur flew on the STS-125 shuttle mission in 2009, and has served as a Mission Control spacecraft communicator for both space shuttle and space station missions. Prior to joining NASA, McArthur obtained a doctorate in oceanography at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

    Joining McArthur for the entire 16 days is ESA (European Space Agency) Astronaut Matthias Maurer. For the first eight days, Marc O’Griofa, chief medical and technology officer for Noninvasive Medical Technologies Inc., also will join Wiseman, McArthur and Mauerer. For the second half of the mission, McArthur and Mauerer will be joined by Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition Research Scientist Dawn Kernagis and Naval Postgraduate School Researcher Noel Du Toit.

    The NEEMO crew and two professional habitat technicians will live 60 feet below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean in Florida International University’s Aquarius Reef Base undersea research habitat 6.2 miles off the coast of Key Largo, Florida. NEEMO 21 is supported by the Human Health and Performance Directorate at NASA’s Johnson Space Center with funding from ESA and partnerships with the Naval Postgraduate School, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Vega Telehealth, TeloRegen, and Johns Hopkins.

    For more information about NEEMO, the crews and links to follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter, visit: }

    20-02-2017 om 23:19 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Nasa to host major press conference on 'discovery beyond our solar system'

    Nasa to host major press conference on 'discovery beyond our solar system'

    Exoplanets are the best hope for finding life away from Earth

    Andrew Griffin 

    Nasa is to host a major press conference on a "discovery beyond our solar system".

    The event will see the revelation of major information about exoplanets, or planets that orbit stars other than our sun, according to a release. It made no further mention of the details of what would be revealed.

    Exoplanets are the major hope for life elsewhere in the universe, since many have been found that resemble our own Earth and could have the building blocks of life. More of them are being discovered all the time.

    The event will take place on 22 February at 1pm New York time, it said. It will be streamed live on Nasa's television station and on its website.

    7 facts about: THE SPEED OF LIGHT

    Determination of the speed of light: 5 facts you may not know ... 

    Attending the press conference will be astronomers and planetary scientists from across the world.

    Nasa said that the public will be able to ask questions using the hashtag #AskNasa during the conference. The agency will also hold a Reddit AMA, or ask me anything, session straight after the briefing.

    More about: }

    20-02-2017 om 23:11 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Blame space particles next time your phone freezes

    Blame space particles next time your phone freezes

    By Margi Murphy, The Sun

    Blame space particles next time your phone freezes

    Alien subatomic particles from outer space are wreaking havoc on Earth’s electronic devices – including your smartphones.

    Many have felt the frustration of a frozen screen and cursed Apple, Microsoft or Google.

    But it appears that these rays are to blame for some of the glitches.

    Scientists found that millions cosmic particles are striking our bodies every second could have a devastating affect on critical infrastructure, too.

    “This is a really big problem, but it is mostly invisible to the public,” said Bharat Bhuva, professor of electrical engineering at Vanderbilt University during a conference for the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston on Friday.

    Modal Trigger
    An image of an aurora caused by cosmic rays is captured by an astronaut of the International Space Station in January, 2016.Getty Images

    Bhuva and his colleagues have found that millions of energetic neutrons, muons, pions and alpha particles that are soaring through space could carry enough energy to affect the memory in our gadgets.

    In some cases they can interfere with data stored in memory, which causes your phone to freeze.

    “The semiconductor manufacturers [phone chip make] are very concerned about this problem because it is getting more serious as the size of the transistors in computer chips shrink and the power and capacity of our digital systems increase,” Bhuva said.

    “In addition, microelectronic circuits are everywhere and our society is becoming increasingly dependent on them.”

    Alien ray attacks have been found to attack plane and voting systems too.

    In 2003, in the town of Schaerbeek, Belgium, suffered a “bit flip” causing an electronic voting machine to add 4,096 extra votes to one candidate.

    The error was spotted after the glitch gave the candidate more votes than were possible and it was traced to a single bit flip in the machine’s register.

    In 2008, the avionics system of a Qantus passenger jet flying from Singapore to Perth appeared to suffer from a single-event upset that caused the autopilot to disengage.

    Modal Trigger
    A solar flare captured by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in 2014. Scientists think these types of rays might be causing glitches in airline computers.AP

    As a result, the aircraft dove 690 feet in only 23 seconds, injuring about a third of the passengers seriously enough to cause the aircraft to divert to the nearest airstrip.

    Bhuva added that there has been a number of unexplained glitches in airline computers – some of which experts feel must have been caused by solar rays – which have resulted in cancellation of hundreds of flights.

    Geomagnetic storms are behind the awe-inspiring natural phenomenon the Northern Lights.

    But they can prove devastating to human civilization as we know it, experts have warned.

    There is no evidence to suggest that they are playing havoc with our health.

    But they could alter navigation systems, posing a serious safety risk. }

    20-02-2017 om 22:25 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Excited Reports of 'Habitable Planets' Need to Come Back Down to Earth

    Excited Reports of 'Habitable Planets' Need to Come Back Down to Earth

    Excited Reports of 'Habitable Planets' Need to Come Back Down to Earth

    This article was originally published at The Conversation. The publication contributed the article to's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

    In 1950, physicist Enrico Fermi famously asked, "Where are they?" as a kind of lament about the lack of observational evidence for alien intelligence in our universe. Today, the question is still asked in the context of the always-hoped-for discovery of other worlds like our own, with the thought that maybe, just maybe, we will finally find those aliens.

    Against this backdrop, advances that have occurred in the past 20 years in the field of exoplanet discovery have excited the imaginations of scientists and enthusiasts alike.

    When, the question goes, will we finally discover a planet that can sustain life? When will we discover Earth 2.0?

    The impatience associated with this question has led many in the media and even some in the scientific community to make premature declarations that an "Earth analogue" has been discovered. But when exoplanets are discovered, claims that they are similar to Earth are based on, at best, optimistic modelling and, at worst, sensationalism.

    Many such claims have been made on the basis of invented ranking systems that use the observed properties of exoplanets to extrapolate how Earth-like a planet might be. Unfortunately, these systems must make extremely simple – and almost certainly incorrect – assumptions about the characteristics of the planets they are trying to describe.

    Before any exoplanets had been discovered at all, certain astrophysicists proposed that each star had an associated zone around it that came to be known as the "habitable zone." This zone is at a distance from every star where a hypothetical Earth twin would have an average surface temperature between the freezing and boiling point of water. Too close and you exceed 100°C; too far and you drop below 0°C.

    But if a planet has an atmospheric composition different from Earth’s, its true surface temperature is likely to be completely different.

    Gaseous planets do not even have a well-defined surface to consider. And, for rocky planets, a thinner atmosphere can make them much colder (especially at night) while a thicker atmosphere can make them much hotter.

    One of the most dramatic examples of this problem is Venus. Owing to its thick atmosphere and a runaway greenhouse effect, the planet has a temperature of a whopping 450°C — far higher than than the 25°C you would calculate given an Earth-like atmosphere. Although Venus lies within our Sun’s nominal habitable zone, it is surely not accurate to call it habitable.

    The two most fruitful methods for discovering exoplanets (the "transit method" and the "radial velocity method") both give a straightforward way to determine the distance between a star and an exoplanet. That, together with our knowledge of how much heat is given off by the star, lets us calculate whether the planet is in the star's habitable zone. But, as we have seen, that is not the same thing as discovering a habitable planet.

    Nevertheless, discoveries of planets in the habitable zones of other stars have been identified in the media and even in press releases of scientific institutions as discoveries of second Earths. Since we do not know the surface temperatures of any exoplanet, whether they are actual Earth analogues can only be guessed at using other lines of evidence.

    Our best understanding to date is that surface temperatures are strongly dependent on atmospheric composition and planet density. The density of a planet is dependent on both its mass and volume, but the two detection methods only allow for one or the other of the two complementary characteristics to be directly measured.

    The transit method detects the shadow a planet casts on the star it is orbiting, allowing the planet's area (and, because planets are spheres, its volume) to be measured. What is not directly discoverable from this method, however, is the planet's mass.

    Alternatively, the radial velocity method detects a planet via a wobble in the star's motion that can be used to infer a minimum possible planetary mass tugging on the star with its gravity. In many cases, the tug is being done at an angle so we see a reduced effect, which makes us infer a mass that is smaller than the actual mass of planet. Aside from this potential confusion, there is no way via the radial velocity method alone to determine a planet's volume.

    Astrophysicists who model planet formation and composition have proposed a variety of models that offer possible relationships between the volumes and masses of planets depending on planet compositions.

    The smallest planets in our own solar system are rocky and the largest planets are gaseous, but we see a number of exoplanets whose sizes lie between the smallest gaseous planet (Neptune) and the largest rocky planet (Earth). We have models that can accommodate "super-Earths" that are rocky or "mini-Neptunes" that are gaseous and all manner of hybrids in between.

    These varied models can accommodate a range of atmospheres, and the exoplanets will have very different surface temperatures depending on all of this. It is therefore of some importance that we learn more about exoplanet atmospheres directly using better telescopes and more sensitive techniques.

    Some astronomers have proposed a scheme to decide which exoplanets are most likely to have their atmospheres directly detected – the obvious next step in working towards determining a planet's surface temperature and ultimately whether it is habitable.

    A regrettable tendency right now is to jump the gun. Planets have been discovered in the habitable zones of other stars with radial-velocity-measured minimum masses that are similar to Earth's and transit-measured surface areas that are not much larger than Earth's.

    Crucially, none of these "analogues" has yet been measured in both ways. But almost every time such planets are discovered, breathless reports of theirpossible import are generated.

    While discoveries of exoplanets are exciting, it is definitely premature to try to decide how Earth-like any planet is or is not on the basis of the scant data we are now able to gather. The best we can hope to do at this time is collate a list of possible targets for future observation.

    Someday, we may discover definitive proof that another Earth is out there. But that day has not yet arrived – despite the excited headlines.

    Joshua Tan, Astronomer at the Instituto de Astrofísica, Universidad Católica de Chile

    This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Follow all of the Expert Voices issues and debates — and become part of the discussion — on FacebookTwitter and Google +. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher. This version of the article was originally published on }

    20-02-2017 om 15:55 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Elon Musk Posts Dramatic Video of Falcon 9's Controlled Descent

    Elon Musk Posts Dramatic Video of Falcon 9's Controlled Descent

    Clouds filled the sky over Cape Canaveral on Sunday morning, but the weather failed to obscure views of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket’s first stage descending onto LZ-1. Sunday’s launch, designated CRS-10, was SpaceX’s 10th resupply mission for the International Space Station. This successful landing marked the third time SpaceX has landed a rocket at LZ-1, but the first time the company did so during daylight hours. And despite the weather, viewers around the world were treated to a fiery launch and graceful landing via the company’s webcast.

    Sunday’s launch propelled a Dragon capsule into low-Earth orbit, where it will rendezvous with the ISS on February 22 to deliver routine equipment — food, exercise equipment, and the like — as well as scientific instruments. These include the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III, SAGE III for short, which monitors Earth’s ozone layer, and the Raven module, which will be attached to the ISS and will eventually enable autonomous satellite repairs.

    Almost as important as successfully delivering the payload to the space station, a top goal for SpaceX is safely returning the rocket’s first stage to Earth. In the long-term, the company hopes that by reusing the rockets instead of jettisoning them into the ocean, as has been the custom since the dawn of spaceflight, rocket launches can become cheaper and therefore more frequent.

    In the video that SpaceX CEO and founder Elon Musk posted on Instagram, viewers can see the Falcon 9’s descent straighten out from its angled reentry path to a vertical posture. Having shed much of its speed on its way down through Earth’s atmosphere, the Falcon 9’s grid fins help maintain course. Its thrusters shoot a tongue of flame towards the ground, and the rocket’s legs smoothly unfold to embrace the landing pad. As it touches down, the Falcon 9 first stage is surrounded by a bowl of smoke shaped like an upside-down mushroom. For all the exacting engineering such a reentry requires, and all the tension surely felt by the crew on the ground, it’s a surprisingly peaceful sight.

    Here’s the video Musk posted on Instagram:

    SpaceX also shared this video, which was shot by a camera mounted on an aerial drone:

    In this video, taken from a camera mounted on the side of the rocket, you can see the landing burn slowing the Falcon 9’s descent and the grid fins adjusting the rocket’s attitude as it comes down to Earth.


    20-02-2017 om 14:52 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.These Freaky Signals From Space Could Unravel the Universe's Secrets
    Alien on a Cellphone

    These Freaky Signals From Space Could Unravel the Universe's Secrets

    For all we know, aliens from advanced civilizations at cosmological distances may be trying to send us messages. These signals, called fast radio bursts(FRBs), travel from far-away galaxies with no known source of origin, although some have speculated that they may come from extragalactic civilizations.

    In light of the fact that soon, our cell phones could be used to measure and understand what these weird signals are, it’s worth taking a deeper dive into what exactly FRBs are, and why they matter.

    FRBs are intense signals that are similar to radio or laser signals. They might not be a force of nature, but possibly artificial in origin. Researchers are puzzled about where they came from, and in the past decade, less than two dozen FRBs have been identified using giant radio telescopes like the one in Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico.

    “They’re extremely bright and their nature is not understood,” Avi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, whose new paper details how we might be able to use cellular phones to better study FRBs, tells Inverse. “They require coherent emission by many electrons, of the type that you get in a radio antenna or a laser.”

    There might be FRBs alive right in our Milky Way though. These signals are louder than the ones from distant galaxies, and using cell phones, we may find out where they actually come from — extraterrestrial life, nature, or something else.

    “We might discover that one of these ‘monster FRBs’ lives in our galaxy, the Milky Way, in our own ‘backyard’, so it is ten billion times louder than the very distant FRBs we have seen so far,” study coauthor Dan Maoz of Tel Aviv University tells Inverse.

    Although currently we have giant radio telescopes detecting FRBs, most FRBs last for a thousandth of a second and originate from the edge of the universe. A signal in the Milky Way would be much louder.

    “Because an FRB from the Milky Way should be so much brighter, it can be detected with a cell phone or a small electronic device that costs tens of dollars instead of a giant radio dish,” Loeb says.

    “Large radio telescopes can point at a given time only to a very small part of the sky, typically the size of the full moon, and they are designed to detect signals billions of time fainter than the nearby FRBs we are thinking of, which are comparatively very bright, while no one can say where in the sky this FRB will be,” Maoz says. “The network of cellphones is ideal both in terms of being able to receive the signal and in terms of being sensitive to signals from any direction.”

    With the help of citizen scientists, scientists can study FRBs in different frequencies of radiation, like radio waves, visible light, and X-rays. One possibility is using a Citizens-Science app, where people with the app can listen for and record candidate FRBs and upload the recordings to a website. Another option is using FM-radio receivers in cell phones to search for FRBs at lower frequencies. A third option is using “software-defined radio” devices that cost about $10. These can be plugged into USB ports of personal computers to create a global network of receivers. A global network of these detectors could find nearby FRBs in no time.

    Researchers believe that if an FRB occurs in our own galaxy, a global network of cell phones or radio receivers can “hear” it, especially since previous FRBs were detected at radio frequencies that match those used by wifi and cell phones. So if an alien from an extragalactic civilization calls us, we just need to pick up our phones.


     If fast radio bursts (FRBs) originate from galaxies at cosmological distances, then their all-sky rate implies that the Milky Way may host an FRB on average once every 30-1500 years. If FRBs repeat for decades or centuries, a local FRB could be active now. A typical Galactic FRB would produce a millisecond radio pulse with ~1 GHz flux density of ~3E10 Jy, comparable to the radio flux levels and frequencies of cellular communication devices (cell phones, Wi-Fi, GPS). We propose to search for Galactic FRBs using a global array of low-cost radio receivers. One possibility is to use the ~1GHz communication channel in cellular phones through a Citizens-Science downloadable application. Participating phones would continuously listen for and record candidate FRBs and would periodically upload information to a central data processing website, which correlates the incoming data from all participants, to identify the signature of a real, globe-encompassing, FRB from an astronomical distance. Triangulation of the GPS-based pulse arrival times reported from different locations will provide the FRB sky position, potentially to arc-second accuracy. Pulse arrival times from phones operating at diverse frequencies, or from an on-device de-dispersion search, will yield the dispersion measure (DM) which will indicate the FRB source distance within the Galaxy. A variant of this approach would be to use the built-in ~100 MHz FM-radio receivers present in cell phones for an FRB search at lower frequencies. Alternatively, numerous “software-defined radio” (SDR) devices, costing ~$10 US each, could be plugged into USB ports of personal computers around the world (particularly in radio quiet regions) to establish the global network of receivers.

    Photos via Flickr / Keoni Cabral


    20-02-2017 om 14:46 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Organisch materiaal gevonden op dwergplaneet Ceres

    20-02-2017 om 00:55 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Life's Building Blocks Found on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    Life's Building Blocks Found on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    19-02-2017 om 23:59 geschreven door peter

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    Black Holes are Even Stranger Than You Can Imagine

    Black Holes are Even Stranger Than You Can Imagine
    An artist’s impression of a Sun-like star close to a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole, with a mass of about 100 million times the mass of our sun. Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser

    This article was originally published at The Conversation. The publication contributed the article to's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

    Our love of black holes continues to grow as our knowledge of these celestial bodies expands. The latest news is the discovery of a rare "middleweight" black hole, a relative newcomer to the black hole family.

    We already knew that some black holes are just a few times the mass of our Sun, while others are more than a billion times as massive. But others with intermediate masses, such as the one 2,200 times the mass of our Sun recently discovered in the star cluster 47 Tucanae, are surprisingly elusive.

    So what is it about black holes, these gravitational prisons that trap anything that gets too close to them, that captures the imagination of people of all ages and professions?

    As far back as 1783, within the framework of Newtonian dynamics, the concept of "dark stars" with sufficiently high density that not even light can escape their gravitational pull had been advanced by the English philosopher and mathematician John Michell.

    Almost immediately after Albert Einstein presented his theory of general relativity in 1915, which supplanted Newton's description of our Universe and revealed how space and time are intimately linked, fellow German Karl Schwarzschild and Dutchman Johannes Droste independently derived the new equations for a spherical or point mass.

    Although at the time the issue was still something of a mathematical curiosity, over the ensuing quarter of a century nuclear physicists realised that sufficiently massive stars would collapse under their own weight to become these previously theorised black holes.

    Their existence was eventually confirmed by astronomers using powerful telescopes, and more recently colliding black holes were the source of the gravitational waves detected with the LIGO instrumentation in the United States.

    The densities of such objects is mind-boggling. If our Sun were to become a black hole, it would need to collapse from its current size of 1.4 million km across to a diameter of less than 6km. Its average density within this "Schwarzschild radius" would be nearly 20 billion tonnes per cubic centimetre.

    The increasing strength and pull of gravity as you get closer to a black hole can be dramatic.

    On Earth, the strength of the gravitational pull holding you to its surface is roughly the same at your feet as it is at your head, which is a little bit farther away from the planet.

    But near some black holes, the difference in gravitational pull from head to toe is so great that you would be pulled apart and stretched out on an atomic level, in a process referred to as spaghettification.

    In 1958, the American physicist David Finkelstein was the first to realise the true nature of what has come to be called the "event horizon" of a black hole. He described this boundary around a black hole as the perfect unidirectional membrane.

    It's an intangible surface encapsulating a sphere of no return. Once inside this sphere, the gravitational pull of the black hole is too great to escape – even for light.

    In 1963, the New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr solved the equations for the more realistic rotating black holes. These yielded closed time-like curves that permitted movement backwards through time.

    While such strange solutions to the equations of general relativity first appeared in the 1949 work of Austrian-American logician Kurt Gödel, it is commonly thought that they must be a mathematical artefact yet to be explained away.

    A video simulation of two black holes merging.

    In 1964, two Americans, the writer Ann Ewing and the theoretical physicist John Wheeler, introduced the term "black hole." Subsequently, in 1965, the Russian theoretical astrophysicist Igor Novikov introduced the term "white hole" to describe the hypothetical opposite of a black hole.

    The argument was that if matter falls into a black hole, then perhaps it is spewed out into our universe from a white hole.

    This idea is partly rooted in the mathematical concept known as an Einstein-Rosen bridge. Discovered (mathematically) in 1916 by the Austrian physicist Ludwig Flamm, and re-introduced in 1935 by Einstein and the American-Israeli physicist Nathan Rosen, it was later termed a "wormhole" by Wheeler.

    In 1962, Wheeler and the American physicist Robert Fuller explained why such wormholes would be unstable for transporting even a single photon across the same universe.

    Not surprisingly, the idea of entering a (black hole) portal and re-emerging somewhere else in the universe – in space and/or time – has spawned countless science fiction stories, including Doctor WhoStargateFringeFarscape and Disney's Black Hole.

    Ongoing productions can simply claim that their characters are travelling to a different or a parallel universe to our own. While it appears to be mathematically feasible, there is of course no physical evidence to support the existences of such universes.

    But this is not to say that time travel, at least in a limited sense, is not real. When travelling at great speed, or perhaps falling into a black hole, the passage of time does slow down relative to that experienced by stationary observers.

    Clocks flown quickly around the world have demonstrated this, displaying time lags in accordance with Einstein's theory of special relativity.

    The 2014 movie Interstellar played on this effect around a black hole, thereby creating a sense of travelling forward in time for astronaut Cooper (played by Matthew McConaughey).

    Despite the strangely endearing name, the phrase "black hole" is perhaps somewhat misleading. It implies a hole in space-time through which matter will fall, as opposed to matter falling onto an incredibly dense object.

    What actually exists within a black hole's event horizon is hotly debated. Attempts to understand this include the "fuzzball" picture from string theory, or descriptions of black holes in quantum gravity theories known as"spin foam networks" or "loop quantum gravity."

    One thing that does seem certain is that black holes will continue to intrigue and fascinate us for some time yet."

    Alister Graham, Professor of Astronomy, Swinburne University of Technology

    This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Follow all of the Expert Voices issues and debates — and become part of the discussion — on FacebookTwitter and Google +. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher. This version of the article was published on

    19-02-2017 om 23:43 geschreven door peter

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    Brand New Math May Explain Strange Phenomena in Space-Time 

    • Mathematicians have created a new theory that could explain how universal disturbances move through space and time.
    • This field pattern theory could explain how gravitational waves move and answer seemingly unanswerable questions in quantum mechanics.


    Mathematicians from the University of Utah have developed a new mathematical theory that could explain how waves and other disturbances in the universe move through materials in varying conditions of space and time. They call it the field pattern theory, referring to characteristic patterns that cover how disturbances react to changing conditions. “When you open the doors to a new area, you don’t know where it will go,” said Graeme Milton, first author of the study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

    Disturbances occur fairly regularly in the fabric of space-time that makes up the universe. The recently confirmed existence of gravitational waves from Einstein’s Theory of Relativity shows that these disturbances can permeate through both space and time. But what we don’t yet fully understand is how this happens, especially because space-time is continuously shifting. This is what field patterns explain.

    Obviously, we first need to understand what field patterns are. According to a press release from the University of Utah, there are two analogies to explain them; the first being a chessboard analogy. The black and white squares represent two distinct materials with different properties. The horizontal dimension represents space, while the vertical dimension represents time. A disturbance like a pulse of laser light moves through this board, forward in time and expanding in space, meeting boundaries between materials.

    Field patterns describe the propagation of this pulse, which the authors tested and observed using computer simulations. Secondary author Ornella Mattei prefers a tree analogy, where the root is the initial point of disturbance. As time progresses, a disturbance moves up the tree, splitting and branches out as it encounters boundaries — which could be space, time, or the changing condition of materials.


    “The idea of a field pattern is a little like a wave in one tree but a separate wave in a different tree,” Milton explained. “You can imagine in one tree there’s a wind blowing from one direction that ripples the trees one way. But the other tree, with its own separate sets of leaves, as if the wind is coming from a different direction.” Mattei added: “When you look at the field pattern after a sufficiently large period of time, you see that it’s basically periodic.”

    Image credits: Ornella Mattei
    Image Credit: Ornella Matte

    This new mathematical model is still being tested for potential applications. But, as far as the authors are concerned, there is one obvious application: quantum mechanics; where particles and waves literally blur. Field patterns could answer some of the biggest questions in this field.


    According to Milton, this model could shed light on the nature of matter’s fundamental components. One idea is that even the smallest fluctuations in space and time could give rise to field patterns that manifest as electrons and protons. “What we see as electrons, protons or quantum mechanical waves are manifestations of the fundamental super microscopic scale of these field patterns,” he said.

    Obviously, the initial paper is just a first step. “Something may pop up from this,” said Milton. “What’s really fundamental, though, is going in a completely new direction.”

    16-02-2017 om 21:56 geschreven door peter

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    You Can Help Scientists Find the Next Earth-Like Planet

    Ricardo Ramirez
    • A two-decade long radical velocity-planet hunting program has compiled almost 61,000 individual measurements made of more than 1,600 stars.
    • That's a considerable amount of data to comb through – so the research team made the data set available to the public.


    NASA’s Kepler space telescope holds the record when it comes to candidate and confirmed exoplanets — to date, it has identified more than 5,000. To scan the universe for these alien planets, Kepler uses what’s called the “transit method.” Basically, Kepler watches out for the brightness dips that occur when a planet crosses the face of the star it orbits.

    This isn’t the only method to catch exoplanets. The High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) instrument at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii detects radial velocity instead of brightness dips. This radial velocity method searches stars for signs of gravitational wobbles induced by orbiting planets. HIRES was part of a two-decade long radical velocity-planet hunting program and it has compiled almost 61,000 individual measurements made of more than 1,600 stars.

    Screen Shot 2017-02-15 at 11.05.36 AM

    “HIRES was not specifically optimized to do this type of exoplanet detective work, but has turned out to be a workhorse instrument of the field,” said Steve Vogt, from the University of California Santa Cruz, who built the instrument. “I am very happy to contribute to science that is fundamentally changing how we view ourselves in the universe.”

    More Alien Worlds? New Data Haul Identifies 100+ Possible Exoplanets

    Artist’s conceptions of the probable planet orbiting the star GJ 411, which lies just 8.3 light-years from Earth.
    Credit: Ricardo Ramirez

    From this huge amount of data, a team of researchers led by Paul Butler of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C., identified more than 100 possible exoplanets. Specifically, the researchers identified 60 candidate planets, plus 54 more that require furter examination. They published their study in the The Astronomical Journal.

    “We were very conservative in this paper about what counts as an exoplanet candidate and what does not,” researcher Mikko Tuomi explained, “and even with our stringent criteria, we found over 100 new likely planet candidates.” Among the candidate exoplanets, one could be orbiting the fourth-closest star (GJ 411) to our Sun just about 8.3 light years away. It’s not an Earth-twin however, as this potential planet has an orbital period that’s equivalent to just 10 days.


    There’s still a considerable amount of data to comb through. So, together with their findings, Butler’s team made the HIRES data set available to the public. “One of our key goals in this paper is to democratize the search for planets,” explained team member Greg Laughlin of Yale. “Anyone can download the velocities published on our website and use the open source Systemic software package and try fitting planets from the data.”

    It’s certainly a noble idea and a timely one. “I think this paper sets a precedent for how the community can collaborate on exoplanet detection and follow-up”, said team-member Johanna Teske. “With NASA’s TESS mission on the horizon, which is expected to detect 1000+ planets orbiting bright, nearby stars, exoplanet scientists will soon have a whole new pool of planets to follow up.”

    Other tools that can facilitate this search for exoplanets and potentially habitable ones include the recently completed James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its powerful array of lenses and mirrors will give our ability to scan the universe a much appreciated boost. Technological advances like the JWST, NASA’s TESS, and a couple of other interstellar eyes will allow us to see the universe like never before.

    15-02-2017 om 22:39 geschreven door peter

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    Astronomers discover 60 new worlds, find 'super Earth'

    15-02-2017 om 21:43 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Deep Space Anomalies

    Deep Space Anomalies


    Many of us have witnessed UFOs, some of us have also witnessed USOs. We are part of a massive universe which is full of secrets and anomalies, most of them too difficult to decipher or even to comprehend:


    An enormous ‘dark hole’ in deep space, perhaps a ‘dark galaxy’ which is radiating practically no visible or optical frequency light. Extreme close-up shows that some material has been captured on film inside the dark hole, but indistinguishable at the limit of magnification, it cannot be seen if the galaxy spiral arms occupy the dark hole.


    This enormous Dark Hole has some information in it, but no one has ever been able to know what, scientists cannot even agree on any hypothesis.

    This man from Holland has discovered a fleet of 58 anomalies just by using Google Sky:

    There are also “The Ghost Spirals”. This image was taken by The Hubble Telescope. This binary system is called LL Pegasi and the surrounding “pre-planetary nebula” is known as IRAS 23166+1655.

    Much like the jets of water being sprayed from a spinning sprinkler head, the result is an expanding pinwheel spiral when viewed from above.


    This NASA satellite image from deep space shows a massive anomalous object that currently has not been identified. The extremely peculiar shape, which doesn’t seem to be an explosion of any sort, could be a spacecraft or, as some have suggested, a “Zenoid” an extreme bio-form not affected by the vacuum of space.


    Also, “closer” to home, someone has found two anomalies around the Orion Belt, a place, which many believe is where the Annunaki came from. This one is pretty amazing!

    Some incredible anomalies were found by UFO hunter Rick Krejci, a diligent researcher with a real shot at having a heavenly object named after him, a first for web-based sky watchers.

    The results, a “ring of fire” and a double-tailed “comet”, have been posted on a video to YouTube, along with co-ordinates, which should help to make independent corroboration easier, a crucial component for new discoveries.

    Some of these objects are truly enormous, many times the size of planet Earth! They travel through space at great speed, but one must wonder: Where are they going? Are they peaceful to other civilisation?


    U.I.P Summary: 

    What an intriguing universe we live in, so many gigantic spaceships fill this vastness. Looking at ourselves and how insignificant we are compared to these anomalies, make the little things in life rather uninteresting: having to go to work, dieting, money worries, etc.

    Maybe one day, if we stop being controlled by the elite and concentrate in trying to communicate with these highly advanced beings, we will become advanced too and liberate our consciousness!

    Yaz, Mwv}

    14-02-2017 om 23:32 geschreven door peter

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    Artist's impression. Credit: ICRAR

    Scientists Have Discovered Hundreds of Nearby Galaxies That Were Hidden by the Milky Way

    Countless worlds no longer veiled by stardust.


    Astronomers have used radio waves to peer through the galactic mass and stardust of the Milky Way, and in so doing, have discovered hundreds of nearby galaxies previously hidden from view.

    Some 883 galaxies – a third of which had never been seen before – were observed by scientists using the CSIRO Parkes radio telescope in Australia. While the former 'hidden galaxies' are located about 250 million light-years away from Earth, their comparative closeness in astronomical terms effectively means our own local neighbourhood of space just got a whole lot more crowded.

    "The Milky Way is very beautiful of course and it's very interesting to study our own galaxy, but it completely blocks out the view of the more distant galaxies behind it," said astronomer Lister Staveley-Smith of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) at the University of Western Australia.

    The new-found galaxies lie within an area known as the Zone of Avoidance, so called because our view of this region of space has always been obstructed by the planets and stars that make up the Milky Way. Astronomers have been trying to map the galactic distribution there for decades without success, but thanks to the Parkes radio telescope's receiver, that's no longer the case.

    "We've used a range of techniques but only radio observations have really succeeded in allowing us to see through the thickest foreground layer of dust and stars," said researcher Renée Kraan-Korteweg from the University of Cape Town in South Africa. "An average galaxy contains 100 billion stars, so finding hundreds of new galaxies hidden behind the Milky Way points to a lot of mass we didn't know about until now."

    And that huge amount of mass could help scientists to understand a cosmic phenomenon taking place within the Zone of Avoidance. The Great Attractor, as it's known by scientists, is a mysterious region of space that appears to be drawing the Milky Way – in addition to hundreds of thousands of other galaxies – toward it.

    This anomaly, which scientists believe equates to the gravitational force of a million billion Suns, has puzzled astronomers since it was first discovered back in the 1970s, and the new data on the hidden galaxies could help explain what's going on.

    "We don't actually understand what's causing this gravitational acceleration on the Milky Way or where it's coming from," said Staveley-Smith. "We know that in this region there are a few very large collections of galaxies we call clusters or superclusters, and our whole Milky Way is moving towards them at more than 2 million kilometres per hour."

    The researchers identified a number of these structures among the hidden galaxies, and being able to study them might help to explain the forces behind the Great Attractor. The findings, reported in The Astronomical Journal, include three galaxy concentrations – called NW1, NW2, and NW3 – and two new galaxy clusters, CW1 and CW2.

    "What we see behind the Milky Way is very similar to the rest of the Universe," Staveley-Smith told Stuart Gary at the ABC. "But the density of galaxies in this region seems to be a fair bit higher than in the average region… and this contributes to gravitational tug that the region is able to exert on us and all other nearby galaxies."

    14-02-2017 om 22:51 geschreven door peter

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    Astronauts claim to have seen 'luminous dancing fairies' in space. What are they?

    Imagine being an astronaut in the dark of space, drowsy and isolated, slowly drifting off to sleep. Then suddenly, just as your eyes begin to close, a flash of blue light floods your chamber. But as soon as you're alert again, the flash is gone and it's just you left in the darkness.

    Astronaut Don Pettit described a similar experience back in 2012 while stationed on the International Space Station. He reported "flashes in my eyes, like luminous dancing fairies" that would appear "in the dark confines of my sleep station, with the droopy eyelids of pending sleep."

    It's the kind of experience that would give most people the willies, and possibly even cause them to question their mental health. And in fact, that's been the official explanation for similar episodes documented by astronauts ever since the Apollo missions: hallucinations. Experiences like these are typically chalked up as part of the eerie, mind-altering effects of space travel.

    But now images of a spectacular electric light show, taken by Danish astronaut Andreas Mogensen during a 10-day stint on the International Space Station back in September 2015, are offering some vindication for these creepy experiences. You can see some video of these mysterious space lights in the video above.

    "It is not every day that you get to capture a new weather phenomenon on film, so I am very pleased with the result - but even more so that researchers will be able to investigate these intriguing thunderstorms in more detail soon," said Mogensen in a press release.

    The phenomenon, as indicated by Mogensen, does not actually come from space — it comes from weather here on Earth — but it can only be seen from high above the clouds. The blue jets have been identified as columns of electrical discharge that can fire up to over seven miles into space. Their durations are typically between 83 and 125 milliseconds, so a high speed camera is needed to capture them. It's easy to understand how they were confused for hallucinations for so long.

    Although they've now been identified, the flashes still don't have an explanation. The leading theory right now is related to the phenomenon of lightning, only reversed. For instance, when negatively charged lightning hits the ground, it makes the clouds above more positively charged. Perhaps the blue jets arise from this.

    Researchers plan to pour through Mogensen's observations in order to confirm or deny this theory, and hopefully glean some knowledge about how to predict where the lights will form. This way, future observations can be made more easily.

    For now, though, the lights remain mere flickers in the eyes of astronauts, reminding them of the many eerie and wondrous things that we have yet to fully understand about the mysterious void of space.

    13-02-2017 om 20:06 geschreven door peter

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    13-02-2017 om 00:40 geschreven door peter

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    13-02-2017 om 00:38 geschreven door peter

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    A Leak Has Finally Revealed What Magic Leap Is Working On

    Magic Leap
    • Magic Leap, the secretive AR company, promises that their technology is going to transform how people experience reality. However, they have, thus far, only offered teasers of their work.
    • Now, a leaked photo has finally revealed what the prototype of their device looks like, and it still seems to be quite some ways from completion.


    Some time back, Magic Leap raised a staggering $1.4 billion in venture capital in order to make mixed reality our new reality. Since then, a proverbial firestorm of media coverage has swarmed around them. Part of this stems from the secretive nature of the company.

    Part of this firestorm stems from the secretive nature of the company. Few people have tried the tech (and ever fewer journalists), so no one really knows what to expect; however, if the teasers are any indication, whatever they develop is going to be pretty fantastic.


    Now, it seems that we may finally be seeing what Magic Leap has really been up to. Business Insider asserts that an image of a prototype was just leaked to them. Their source said that the device is known as “PEQ0,” which is a stand-in name that was derived from an internal “prototype naming scheme” that Magic Leap uses.

    Business Insider tried to reach out to the company for comment and to verify the information, but they didn’t hear anything back by the time the article was released. As you can see in the below image, the prototype

    As you can see in the below image, the prototype definitely looks like a prototype. And this is a bit of a problem.

    The issue with this is that, in recent months, Magic Leap has been accused of using erroneous and misleading marketing material to make the public (and reporters) believe that the technology is a lot farther along than it truly is.

    Specifically, Reed Albergotti published an article in which he alleged that Magic Leap had “oversold” its system, using different tech for the demo than what will be used in the final product. In response, in a memo to employees, CEO Rony Abovitz stated that the company shouldn’t be sidetracked: “Ignore all of this. Focus on what we are doing, and we ship a great product. That will speak loudly and reverberate for many years.”

    This leak also comes at a prime time, as there is a board meeting next week that is generally seen as “a milestone in the product’s development.” In short, it is a chance to show, once and for all, that Magic Leap can truly do all that they claim—shrink augmented reality tech so that it is truly portable.

    If this prototype is any indication, they have a lot of work to do before next week.

    12-02-2017 om 23:52 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.'Superflares' Likely Made Proxima b Uninhabitable Long Ago

    'Superflares' Likely Made Proxima b Uninhabitable Long Ago

    'Superflares' Likely Made Proxima b Uninhabitable Long Ago
    An artist's illustration of the surface of Proxima b, a roughly Earth-size world that orbits the nearby red dwarf star Proxima Centauri.
    Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

    The nearby alien planet Proxima b is not a great candidate to host life as we know it, a new study suggests.

    Immensely powerful flares from Proxima b's parent star likely stripped some of life's key building blocks from the Earth-size alien world's atmosphere long ago, according to the study, which investigated the life-hosting potential of planets circling the small, dim stars known as red dwarfs.

    Red dwarfs are the most common stars in the Milky Way, making up about 75 percent of the galaxy's 1 trillion or so stellar inhabitants. Whereas red dwarfs are substantially cooler than sun-like stars, they tend to be more active, blasting out potent "superflares" more frequently, especially when red dwarfs are young. [Proxima b: Closest Earth-Like Planet Discovery in Pictures]

    The new study took such characteristics into account, developing a new model of red dwarf "habitable zones" — the range of distances from a star at which liquid water should be stable on a world's surface — that considers more than just a parent star's heat.

    "By the classical definition, the habitable zone around red dwarfs must be 10 to 20 times closer in than Earth is to the sun," study lead author Vladimir Airapetian, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said in a statement. "Now we know these red dwarf stars generate a lot of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emissions at the habitable zones of exoplanets through frequent flares and stellar storms."

    This is bad news from a habitability perspective. The team's modeling results suggest that such radiation can strip the electrons off molecules in orbiting planets' atmospheres. These electrons escape into space easily, and they drag the newly created, positively charged ions with them as they go.

    Light elements, such as hydrogen, are lost fairly easily via this process. And superflare radiation can kick the "atmospheric erosion" up a notch, driving off oxygen and nitrogen — key building blocks of life — as well, the new study found. 

    "Considering oxygen escape alone, the model estimates a young red dwarf could render a close-in exoplanet uninhabitable within a few tens [of millions] to a hundred million years," NASA officials wrote in the same statement. "The loss of both atmospheric hydrogen and oxygen would reduce and eliminate the planet’s water supply before life would have a chance to develop."

    The team's work suggests that this fate has likely befallen the recently discovered Proxima b, which orbits within the "traditional" habitable zone of the red dwarf Proxima Centauri. (This star is the sun's nearest neighbor, lying just 4.22 light-years from Earth.) 

    "We have pessimistic results for planets around young red dwarfs in this study, but we also have a better understanding of which stars have good prospects for habitability," Airapetian said. "As we learn more about what we need from a host star, it seems more and more that our sun is just one of those perfect parent stars to have supported life on Earth."

    The new study was published this week in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Follow Mike Wall on Twitter @michaeldwall and Google+. Follow us @SpacedotcomFacebook or Google+. Originally published on }

    12-02-2017 om 23:39 geschreven door peter

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    Super-Fast Spacecraft Could Slow Down Using Alpha Centauri's Starlight as Brakes

    Super-Fast Spacecraft Could Slow Down Using Alpha Centauri's Starlight as Brakes
    Artist's impression of the Breakthrough Starshot project arriving at the Earth-like planet Proxima Centauri b. You can see a representation of laser beams emanating from the corners of this sail.
    Credit: Planetary Habitability Laboratory, Univesity of Puerto Rico at Arecibo

    Last year, a consortium led by billionaire Yuri Milner and physicist Stephen Hawking announced a plan to get to Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to Earth. Called the Breakthrough Starshot Initiative, the plan is to send ultra-light "nanoprobes" to the system in 20 years by accelerating them to 20 percent of the speed of light using powerful lasers.

    A group of German researchers — while fully supportive of the initiative — worried that without an important tweak, however, the science might suffer. One of these nanoprobes would be able to dash the Earth-moon distance in just six seconds at that speed. With this in mind, the researchers devised some ideas about how to slow the nanoprobes down so they can carry out some observations when they arrive at their destination (rather than zipping through the system at high speed), potentially spotting Proxima Centauri b, a possible habitable planet that orbits Alpha Centauri's oddball red dwarf sibling, Proxima Centauri.

    "The solution is for the probe's sail to be redeployed upon arrival so that the spacecraft would be optimally decelerated by the incoming radiation from the stars in the Alpha Centauri system," said scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Gottingen, led by Rene Heller, in a statement.

    "During the approach to Alpha Centauri, the braking force would increase," they added. "The stronger the braking force, the more effectively the spacecraft's speed can be reduced upon arrival. Vice versa, the same physics could be used to accelerate the sail at departure from the solar system, using the sun as a photon cannon."

    RELATED: Is Hawking's Interstellar 'Starshot' Possible?

    The plan is for the spacecraft to go to the star Alpha Centauri A at a distance of about four million kilometers, moving at about 4.6 percent the speed of light. Any higher and the probe would go right past the star, rather than being caught in the star's gravitational field.

    If the probe goes in at just the right speed and just the right place, the spacecraft would be attracted by the star's gravitational field and could be swung around the star, similar to how spacecraft in our solar system sometimes move between planets. One option here would be to keep the spacecraft in the Alpha Centauri A system to look at its planets, but the scientists would prefer to also include Alpha Centauri B and Proxima Centauri, the other two stars in the system. 

    "The sail could be configured so that the stellar pressure from star A brakes and deflects the probe toward Alpha Centauri B, where it would arrive after just a few days. The sail would then be slowed again and catapulted towards Proxima Centauri, where it would arrive after another 46 years — about 140 years after its launch from Earth."

    RELATED: Hawking Backs Project to Launch Probe to Nearby Star

    The astronomers said they will discuss their ideas with the Breakthrough Starshot Initiative to see if this mission extension could be included — that is, if Breakthrough ever makes it to space at all. The mission is at a very early stage right now and is not guaranteed to fly. The astronomers, for their part, said that they are optimistic that Breakthrough could fly successfully eventually.

    "Many great visions in the history of mankind had to struggle with seemingly insurmountable obstacles," Heller said. "We could soon be entering an era in which humans can leave their own star system to explore exoplanets using fly-by missions."

    Originally published on Seeker. }

    12-02-2017 om 23:24 geschreven door peter

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