Wil je een videoclip bekijken en stoort het X-files-deuntje jou daarbij. Schakel het deuntje gewoon uit door in deze kolon, helemaal beneden op de 2 witte balkjes in het blauwe cirkeltje te klikken, tot een pijltje verschijnt. Veel kijk- en luisterplezier en bedankt voor jouw bezoek.
The purpose of this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category. Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.
In 2012 verloor ze haar strijd tegen kanker!
In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.
UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be.
Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch...
Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels.
MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen.
MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity...
Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com.
Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
‘It is a SAUCER!’ UFO hunters on high alert after 'sighting' over California
‘It is a SAUCER!’ UFO hunters on high alert after 'sighting' over California
UFO hunters are on high alert after a mysterious set of crafts were spotted over California.
Filer’s Files #44 -2017 Structures on the Moon - PART I
Orange California Cylinder captured on October 22, 2017
Filer’s Files #44 -2017 Structures on the Moon - PART I
In special reports, this week’s files cover: The Moon’s City and Towers, Are UFO Occupants the Same Entities of Halloween, International Space Station Has Company and Reed’s UFO Park.
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena sightings were reported over Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York, and Texas.
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena sightings were reported over Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, India, Italy, Turkey, and England in the United Kingdom.
The Filer Research Institute feels the scientific study of UFOs is for the benefit of humankind and is an important endeavor. The US Air Force investigated UFOs publicly for more than twenty years under Project Blue Book; and I continue this advanced research. I believe the God of the universe has spread life throughout the cosmos and UFO’s are visiting us in ever-increasing numbers.
George A. Filer III
New Jersey State Director
MUFON Eastern Region Director
Www.nationalUFOcenter.com. Now receiving 3 million hits a month
Forward these files to your friends and neighbors.
The Moon’s City and Towers
The average person will be surprised to learn that there are huge structures on the Moon that appear to be quite old. The photographs certainly suggest an ancient advanced civilization and an attempt to keep it secret by blacking out various photographs. While I was stationed at Langley I drove past the NASA Apollo Moon buildings every day where the study of the Moon was being examined. Working in Tactical Air Command Headquarters Intelligence our photo personnel worked closely with the NASA personnel who were examining possible landing spots on the moon. The reports of compelling evidence of ancient structural artifacts present on the Moon was secretly rumored and expressed confidentially,
Dr. Bruce Cornet was able to confirm the secrets through cross comparisons of overwhelming imaging evidence from several separate NASA missions — with different photographic technologies, different lighting, and different viewing geometries many years later. These studies now leave little doubt that this solar system has been host to some prior habitation by intelligence, Also some within NASA have apparently known about and deliberately suppressed this robust evidence for more than thirty years.
The Lunar Orbiter photographs and the three sequential
photographs (AS10-32-4854-56) taken from the Apollo 10 shows Rhaeticus Crater above,
The spacecraft show the “Tower” (and “Shard”) in the southwestern area of Sinus Medii from different angles and different perspectives. ‘
The Surveyor 6 photograph shows anomalous geometric structures above the ground, like those associated with the tower extending to the north of the “Tower” for about a hundred miles.
The censored Apollo 10 photograph near Ukert crater shows anomalous geometric structures extending on the ground for tens of miles over an area the size of the Los Angeles.
Regarding possible motivations for this inexplicable (if unconstitutional) behavior, additional documentary evidence discovered by Professor Stanley V. McDaniel, Ph.d. McDaniel in his independent ethical inquiry now seems particularly relevant.
According to Dr. McDaniel, an early NASA study was commissioned from the Brookings Institution in 1959 and may have formed the basis of current NASA policy. This study specifically anticipates the possible future discovery of intelligently designed artifacts elsewhere in the solar system by unmanned NASA probes, and considers “how might such information, under what circumstances, be presented to or withheld from the public, for what ends?”
The apparent reason given for considering the possibility of withholding information from the public, should extraterrestrial artifacts be discovered, was the apprehension voiced within this Study that society itself might “disintegrate.” Everything in NASA’s (otherwise inexplicable) behavior regarding the possibly artificial structures on Mars, and those now discovered on the Moon, indicates that NASA has been following, and intends to follow for the indefinite future, the policy of withholding information outlined in the Brookings Institution Report.
Areas of interest: Central area and southwestern area of Sinus Medii, center of moon disk; Mare Crisium, northwest area of the moon disk.
UKERT is a crater-like feature that displays a circumscribed equilateral triangle at full Moon (Noon local time) in its center. I agree with Richard C. Hoagland’s interpretation that this triangle is not natural, because the sides of the “crater” are much brighter only opposite the sides of this triangle. The apices or angles of the triangle intersect the darkest three areas of the “crater” rim, while the brightest three areas of the rim are opposite the sides of the triangle. In addition, the brightest parts of the rim are midway between the apices of the triangle, and are at 120 degrees orientation from one another. If a line is drawn from the centers of each bright area across the triange to the opposing angle, the lines will exactly bisect each angle. Such regular geometry is not a natural feature of any terrain, either on Earth or on the Moon. Furthermore, the symbolism of an equilateral triangle within a circle is a two dimensional representation of a tetrahedral pyramid within a sphere. Tetrahedral geometry is hypothesized to be the primary message encoded in the geometry of the Cydonia complex on Mars (Hoagland, 1992; Dr. Stanley V. McDaniel, 1993).
The Shard is an obvious structure which rises above the Moon’s surface by more than a mile. Its overall irregular spindly shape (containing a regular geometric pattern) with constricted nodes and swollen internodes, if natural, has got to be a wonder of the Universe. No known natural process can explain such a structure. Computer enhancement with about 190 feet (60 meters) resolution shows an irregular outline with more reflective and less reflective surfaces. The amount of sunlight reflecting from parts of the Shard indicate a composition inconsistent with that of most natural substances.
Only crystal facets and glass can reflect that much light (polished metallic surfaces are unnatural). Single crystals the size of city blocks are currently unknown. I concur with Hoagland that the Shard may be a highly eroded remnant of some sort of artificial structure made of glass-like material. Other larger structures and their reflectivity in the area support this theory.
This highly enhanced close-up of the tip of the “Shard” displays characteristics of a cellular, regular and geometric construction.
The absence of any spray tends to diminish the “outgassing” theory, and the presence of a comparable glass like haze on the horizon behind “Shard” argues that it is amongst a field of artificial structures.
The Tower represents an enigma of the highest magnitude, because it rises more than five miles above the surface of the Moon, and has been photographed from five different angles and two different altitudes (from 30 miles altitude, and from 70 miles altitude at three different distances). In all four photographs the same structure is visible, and can be viewed from two different sides. The Tower exists in front of and to the left of the Shard in the Lunar Orbiter III-84M photograph. The distance from the Tower and the camera is estimated at about 200 miles, while the distance of the Shard beyond the Tower is estimated at about 230 miles. The top of the Tower has a very ordered cubic geometry, and appears to be composed of regular cubes (similar in size) joined together to form a very large cube with an estimated width of over one mile!
There is apparent damage to the outline and surface of this mega cube, because many cubic spaces or indentations occur over its surface (these spaces are 50-60 times larger than pixel size, and their shapes are not controlled by the rectangular shape of the pixel). A narrow columnar structure connects this cube with the surface of the Moon. The columnar support is at least three miles tall, and tapers towards its base. The taper may be in part due to perspective, if the Tower is oriented at an angle and is leaning towards the camera.
The leaning Tower may be part of a larger more transparent structure, which is also inclined. Surrounding the Tower are faint indications of additional light- reflective material. The amount of light coming from this material is very small compared with the amount of light reflected off the lunar surface. In order to make it visible, the surface of the Moon has to be over-exposed on the photograph. The pattern that becomes visible above the Moon’s surface is not caused by the scan lines that make up the Lunar Orbiter photography. The scan lines can be seen clearly, and are oriented at different angles from the orientation of patterns in the sky.
The regular cubic and/or rectangular nature of this pattern, and indications of radiating structures that connect the Tower with the surface indicate that material of low light reflectivity exists above the Moon’s surface over a large area measured in hundreds of miles. The irregular splotchy reflection from some of this aerial material may be due to meteorite and projectile damage over millions of years. Its highly transparent nature (bright stars can be seen behind and through this material) indicates either an open grid with cubic spaces or glass-like material held together by some sort of structural grid or a combination of both.
THE SKY GRID
NASA Lunar Orbiter LO-III -84MT
Total image was recorded in primary data, and variations in image reproduction are due to processing differences.
NASA Lunar Orbiter LO-III -84M Close UP
This image is an overexposed 44x enlargement of Lunar Orbiter frame LO-III-84-M. Taken with the medium resolution camera at a distance of at least 250 miles, it shows an object dubbed by Hoagland the “Shard“. The star-like object above the “Shard” is a camera registration mark.
The “Shard” has a shadow cast in the correct direction for it to be a real object on the Moon and is aligned with the local vertical rather than the grain of the film, decreasing the chance it is an emulsion abnormality. Close-ups reveal a cellular-like internal structure. Above and behind the “Shard” is the “Tower“, a massive 7 mile high structure with a central “cube” suspended by a tripod like base. Enhancements of the “Tower” show a similar cellular construction to the “Shard”, but with a distinctly hexagonal pattern.
The three Apollo 10 photographs showing the Tower in the distance also show the grid structure from above. These photographs were taken at three different distances from the Tower as the Apollo spacecraft moved towards the Tower. Within the sky above the horizon and around the Tower a regular grid pattern emerges with proper contrast control. This grid pattern appears to be three-dimensional, and is expressed as dark lines with random points of reflection around those lines. The grid appears to be some sort of support structure, perhaps formed from a metallic rebar. The reflective material associated with it is cubic and hexagonal in design, but incomplete. With different attitudes or angles of sight, different areas of the grid structure become illuminated or reflective, implying that angle of incidence is important. I agree with Hoagland’s interpretation of this material as remnant portions of the glass structure, which still remains attached and suspended above the Moon’s surface. The Tower is visible in all three photographs, because there is much more glass remaining than on the suspended grid structure around the Tower. Even from different angles and distances in these photographs, the top of the Tower appears as a giant cube made up of smaller cubic and hexagonal objects. There is no way to get around this evidence once it becomes apparent. The evidence because of its magnitude cannot be dismissed or ignored. It is there and it must be explained.
THE CITY COMPLEX NEAR UKERT
Photograph AS10-32-4822 in NASA catalog SP-232 is blacked out, along with several other photographs. When it was ordered, the image was of high quality, contrary to what was implied by it being blacked out in the catalog. Instead of a poor photograph, the image shows features near Ukert crater that defy conventional explanation. Panorama of “City” structure, showing that it occurs below the original lunar surface, which has been stripped off by a flood from the left, coming from Copernicus impact area as traced by radiating lines that become sinuous and develop into river-like channels, then stop behind mountain ranges in the way where the water apparently momentarily ponded before freezing and subliming. Copernicus impact probably punctured a large cluster of water chambers below the surface.
A linear dome-shaped hill runs diagonally across the photograph. To the north of that hill a large area exists with regularly aligned rows of structure. Within this anomalous area more than a dozen small craters can be seen that modify the landscape. From a distance the regular rows appear like benches. On Earth such a feature would be interpreted as the pattern produced by the eroded edges of layered rocks that dip below the surface. But on the Moon there have been no physical processes that can account for such a regular geologic structure. and this anomalous pattern has definite boundaries beyond which it is absent. Upon magnification, this anomalous pattern begins to take on a different character: Rectangular features exist along the rows, with many having gaps between them. n addition, thin spires project up from the surface in several places along some rows. Upon further magnification some of the rectangular structures take on a form like buildings and skyscrapers.
Resolution at high magnification (for the image I saw) is not good enough to resolve more than the outlines of possible buildings. The whole area resembles what one might expect for a city the size of Los Angeles that had been abandoned and left to decay for centuries. The crater impacts and constant barrage from micrometeorites over millions of years would have provided an abrasive force as damaging as our weather and earthquakes on Earth over centuries or even decades. This area may contain one of several city complexes that were built under an enormous glass dome within Sinus Medii. The sheer implications of such massive structures on the Moon, if verified by astronauts to the Moon, would cause humans to rethink many ideas and question many beliefs about other intelligent life in the Universe. Clearly, such structures are well beyond our current technologies and rank with the Pyramids and Sphinx on Earth, and with the Cydonia complex on Mars.
THE DOME OVER MARE CRISIUM
Further evidence for such massive constructs on the Moon can be found in Mare Crisium. The photograph that Hoagland showed me of that area (NASA photograph AS16-121-19438) has a strange set of large, concentric, circular light patterns within the mare. To one side an enormous spire or tower rises from the surface within the perimeter of these light circles. Magnification of the area around this spire shows cubic patterns like those around the Tower in Sinus Medii. Numerous holes of varying size can be detected within this cubic pattern, probably caused by meteorites. Around the edges of these holes I can see layers of light-reflecting cubic glass-like material and suggestions of strands of rebar support. Below this cover on the ground there is more structure, which can be detected under some of the holes. There is an unusual interference pattern below the cubic pattern as well. None of these patterns can be explained as normal or natural. I interpret the major cubic pattern as reflections off rebar and micrometeorite-frosted glass of the dome that covers most of Mare Crisium. I interpret the pattern below the dome as possibly caused by artificial structures on the surface of the Moon, such as the city-like construct near Ukert, and the concentric circles of light over the surface of Mare Crisium as light reflection and refraction through the remaining portions of the glass dome.
The anomalous patterns in photographs from Sinus Medii and Mare Crisium cannot be explained as natural. I further support his interpretation that these patterns above the surface are caused by enormous structures of artificial origin, structures that may represent the remains of glass domes that were built to cover, protect, and provide a life-support environment for habitable structures on the surface. Clearly, further independent investigation and analysis by experts is warranted. There is also a relevant need to press the Pentagon into releasing all 1.5 million Clementine photographs immediately and without censorship.
The moon base above was taken by Chang’s 2 Orbiter on February 2012. Chang’e 2 was part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, that conducted research from a 100-kilometer-high lunar orbit with an advanced camera onboard with a resolution of only one meter. A soft landing by the Chang’e 3 Lander and rover is programmed later this year. The probes are named after an ancient Chinese moon goddess.
Are UFO Occupants the Same Entities of Halloween
I was surprised to learn some startling similarities in ancient folklore of Halloween and modern abduction stories . Halloween originally a festival of fire and death, is still celebrated by Satanists, and witches as the High (Black) Sabbath and is celebrated by orgy and sacrifice. Halloween celebrates a spirit world of witches, ghosts, hobgoblins, ghouls, demons, phantoms, Dracula, and even monster aliens. Many who have researched the UFO field have found that some aliens are not what they seem. People have worn ghoulish costumes for thousands of years to frighten away the evil spirits looking for bodies to possess. Some Ufologists have determined what some of the “aliens” really are. These are direct quotes from people who would know about this. Experts who spent virtually their whole lives researching UFOs.
“We are dealing with a multidimensional paraphysical phenomenon which is largely indigenous to planet earth.” Brad Steiger, Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1977, p. 20
“But the UFO phenomenon simply does not behave like extraterrestrial visitors. It actually molds itself in order to fit a given culture.” John Ankerberg, The Facts on UFOs and Other Supernatural Phenomena, p. 10.
One theory which can no longer be taken very seriously is that UFOs are interstellar spaceships.”Arthur C. l Clarke, New York Times Book Review, 07/27/75
A large part of the available UFO literature is closely linked with mysticism and the metaphysical. It deals with subjects like mental telepathy, automatic writing and invisible entities……as well as phenomena like poltergeists [ghost] manifestation and ‘possession”. Many of the UFO reports now being published in the popular press recount alleged incidents that are strikingly similar to demonic possession and psychic phenomena.” Lynn E. Catoe, UFOs and Related Subjects: USGPO, 1969
“UFO behavior is more akin to magic than to physics as we know it…the modern UFOnauts and the demons of past days are probably identical.”Dr. Pierre Guerin, FSR Vol. 25, No. 1, p. 13-14
“The UFO manifestations seem to be, by and large, merely minor variations of the age-old demonological phenomenon. Aliens are demons..”John A. Keel, UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse, p. 299
“The ‘medical examination’ to which abductees are said to be subjected, often accompanied by sadistic sexual manipulation, is reminiscent of the medieval tales of encounters with demons……It makes no sense in a sophisticated or technological framework: any intelligent being equipped with scientific marvels that UFOs possess would be in a position to achieve any of these alleged scientific objectives in shorter time and with fewer risks.” Dr. Jacques Vallee, Confrontations, p. 13
These people are all respected in the UFO/Fortean field. They all came to the conclusion that aliens are simply demons.
Whitley Strieber, one of the most famous alien abductees, author of “The Day After Tomorrow” and “Communion” states this about his abductors,
“Increasingly I felt as if I were entering a struggle that might even be more than life and death. It might be a struggle for my soul, my essence, or whatever part of me might have reference to the eternal. There are worse things than death, I suspected…
…so far the word demon had never been spoken among the scientists and doctors who were working with me…Alone at night I worried about the legendary cunning of demons.”
Whitley Strieber, Transformation, p. 44-45
“I wondered if I might not be in the grip of demons if they were not making me suffer for their own purposes, or simply for their enjoyment.” Whitley Strieber, Transformation, p. 172
“I felt an absolutely indescribably sense of menace. It was hell on earth to be there [in the presence of the entities], and yet I couldn’t move, couldn’t cry out, couldn’t get away. I’d lay as still as death, suffering inner agonies……Whatever was there seemed so monstrously ugly, so filthy and dark and sinister. Of course they were demons. They had to be. And they were there and I couldn’t get away.” Whitley Strieber, Transformation, p. 181
Aleister Crowley the most influential/powerful Satanist who channeled entities to gain power. Compare Crowley’s entity to Strieber’s.
“For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.” Matthew 24:24
Dr. Bruce Cornet writes, “As a scientist, I have rarely heard other scientists mention or discuss demons as an explanation for paranormal and supernatural phenomena.” I have also rarely heard UFOlogists try to explain biblical fallen angels of God as demons. Supposedly, if alien visitors kidnap and harm abductees without their permission, they are called demons.
. What do our souls have to do with this, other than providing a choice of which side you pledge allegiance to? Is there an unseen objective? Just because demons have been recorded by our ancestors for millennia, and there is evidence that alien visitors have been on Earth for much longer, does not mean that this is a local phenomenon limited to Earth. Thanks to Bruce Cornet
One final point.
Many abductees report they stop the abductions by calling on God the Father, Jesus or the Holy Spirit.
Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. Put on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the Lord’s people. Ephesians 6:10-18
International Space Station Has Company
I was watching the ISS live stream, and saw this object, barely had time to save image when transmission was cut off. I observed a disc object approaching or following the ISS. Could you please take a look to see if it was a satellite? Thanks to MUFON CMS
SHEFFIELD — Elaborate porch decorations, sugary treats and creative costumes are Berkshire County Halloween traditions. But at least one Sheffield native would like UFOs to be a part of the mix, too. Thomas E. Reed will appear today at the Thom Reed UFO Monument Park in Sheffield, where benches were added in late May to a monument area commemorating the Reed family’s “off-world/UFO” incident on Sept. 1, 1969, in that location. Reed and another well-known figure to UFO enthusiasts, Travis Walton, will be a part of a meet-and-greet at the site from 3 to 5 p.m. in an informal environment that Reed hopes will become an annual ritual for community members.
“That Saturday before Halloween, we’re hoping to do something every year, and as this grows, bring in a couple more people to make this like a little Halloween event,” said Reed, “I mean, it does have Halloween flavor.”
UFOs can certainly have a haunting quality. The Reeds were driving when they approached the Old Covered Bridge in Sheffield on that late summer day in 1969. “We saw what looked like a light coming up from the Housatonic River behind the Sheffield bridge and … it really looked like an upside down Hershey’s Kiss,” Reed recalled. Next, according to an account Reed gave The Eagle in 2013, he and his family were in a “huge hangar.”
Reed, his brother, his mother and grandmother all later recalled “being in a different section of a spacecraft before the family members inexplicably ended up in the car,” according to the article.
WSBS in Great Barrington took calls from listeners in surrounding areas who believed they had spotted a UFO as well that day. These stories added to the evidence that the Great Barrington Historical Society & Museum and Massachusetts Historical Society used to determine in 2015 that the Reeds’ episode was historically significant and true. It was the first officially recognized “off-world” event in the United States.
Gov. Charlie Baker’s office issued two citations recognizing the incident as historically significant and true in the fall of 2015, the first of which came on Oct. 27. Reed views the timing as another Halloween tie. Associating the event with the holiday, however, concerns one of Reed’s peers. Walton, whose own off-world experience inspired the book and film “Fire in the Sky,” fears it will ascribe a supernatural quality to something he views as scientific fact.
Thomas Reed and Travis Walton
“To me, I’d rather it wasn’t that way,” he said of the association during a telephone interview. Reed and Walton are aware of the skeptics. But no matter what visitors’ beliefs are in regards to UFOs and the park itself, the site is bound to draw some tourists to the area. The International UFO Museum in Roswell, N.M., has supported the park. Shawn Stowe. Both Stowe and Reed said that television series and movies set at the Sheffield landmark are currently being discussed.
“We’re not talking about celebrating something horrible,” Reed said. “We’re talking about a little park that now represents a great deal, and it’s going to offer a lot of opportunities down the road.”
Yellowstone is worse than we thought. The husband of my daughter’s social studies teacher is staying at the Crow Reservation in Montana, 100 miles from Yellowstone. He said that over and above everything we have heard to date (which he says is absolutely true), there is a large dead zone of animals and vegetation. Immediately outside this dead zone, vegetation has stopped growing and animals are migrating out of the area. New geysers and mud pots are springing up daily. You can physically see the ground bulging up, not only at Yellowstone Lake, but in several places in the park. They have closed more areas to the public than is being reported. There are several areas where the ground temperature tops 200 degrees. And earthquakes are becoming a daily occurrence.”
- Gemiddelde waardering: 0/5 - (0 Stemmen) Categorie:FILER FILES - overzicht met foto's met dank aan Georges Filer en WWW.nationalUFOCenter.com (ENG)
Filer’s Files #44 -2017 Structures on the Moon - PART II
Filer’s Files #44 -2017 Structures on the Moon - PART II
UFO Sightings in the United States
Montgomery— We had three days of constant aerosol spraying in Montgomery on October 21, 2017. I must’ve taken a thousand photographs of the chem-liners and their toxic payloads. When I checked my images I noticed above one of the chemtrails was an oval shaped object. I did not see the object when I took the photographs. . It seems lately that when I offload the files from my Fuji S9900 Finepix digital camera and load them I see things that I did not see previously. I have been getting allot of silver orbs zipping fast all around the chemtrails. I have to play the videos at 1/8 speed just to see them. This isn’t the first one I have captured. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Shirley – On October 23, 2017, at first it was like any star in the sky; Then it got closer and looked like spinning lights going around it. I have pics of both nights and these lights scared us tonight. There is a burn when it comes in. They were all over the sky at the speed of light but I was able to get pics of them. We have also seen where it goes so high up t looks like a burn. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Orange – On October 22, 20117, I observe the cylinder from the front of my house and it appeared to be quarter-mile away over a canyon. It spun vertically and horizontally but didn’t move from the position overhead for five minutes. It was a gray reflective surface or a black surface depending on how the sun hit it. I estimate is 30 feet long and 10 feet wide similar to a cigar tube. It started to rise almost straight up while continuing to turn. Add about 1000 feet altitude it change directions and started moving southwest. After five minutes it passed over our head at about 1500 feet and disappeared over our house. My brother and my friend observed the object for 20 minutes with me. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Hot Sulphur Springs– We were on Highway 40 west 4 miles W of town in late morning on September 13 , 2017. We were driving looking at the high canyon walls with the Colorado river below as my wife snapped photos. I saw a very odd slow moving black object, long rectangular shape almost cigar with a faint glimmer around the edges moving like a flowing vapor. I could only view two seconds at a time while driving, asking my wife to snap a dozen pictures. Puzzled I wished my wife could have seen it but she got six photos of the object. Thanks to MUFON CMS,.
St. Augustine– On October 15, 2017, I saw a strange bright light with flashing red and blue occasionally. The light will not move.
I have seen the light over the Atlantic Ocean from the Castillo Real Hotel in St. Augustine, Florida. Thanks to William Puckett, Director Http://www.UFOsnw.com
Glendive — Wife and I drove out of town to see orionid meteor storm on October 22, 2017.. A very bright star was dancing around erratically. And flickering all colors. so we videoed it on high resolution. Then felt something was wrong and headed Back home. When we got home I enlarged a couple hundred frames and was amazed at what I saw.
Thanks to MUFON CMS
I was flying West from Toronto to Edmonton on Oct 19, 2017. We took off from Toronto around 3pm and had been flying for about an hour when I looked out the window and saw this object shining in the distance on October 19, 2017. I took a bunch of pictures and zoomed in with my S8+. The object then disappeared to the east and that was it. No trails behind it, just gone. I checked our flight path and it took us down to the US Canada border so this object would have been over Minnesotta at 40,000 feet or so. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Omaha — Traveling to Omaha Ne on I-80 about 7:30 AM noticed this object out my left window on October 10, 2017. I got off at next exit and took pic with my I-phone. The sun was reflecting off the object in the partly cloudy morning bright sun. When I transferred the pic to my computer I noticed another object a little lower and to the left. I was about 50 miles from Offutt Air Force Base. I couldn’t stick around look at the pic so you decide. Thanks to MUFON CMS
New York Lights
Syracuse— I was heading south and saw 4 lights in chevron formation hovering around each other, changing positions on September 29, 2017. There is a light on far right that zoomed west.
The remaining 3 lights danced around each other, and ended in a chevron formation and proceeded south. The lights rapidly faded out with no sound. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Sugar Land — I am wondering if someone is playing releasing balloons to make them look like a UFO. Saw it on Monday and again twice yesterday on October 26, 2017; all three times in my backyard, I couldn’t see any strings attached to them. Both times they seem to appear out of nowhere. Yesterday around 11AM, I was filming a plane in the distance and a floating sliver shiny orb floats down. I kept filming, as a balloon wouldn’t change directions and go up and down. It was floating off to my right under some power lines and it passed right in front of me and flew to the left. I took some video of it. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Worldwide UFO Sightings
Brisbane— I was getting ready for bed so I went outside to my Mum’s Balcony to say goodnight on October 22, 2017. I was looking at the stars and one was flashing like a disco ball. I thought it was a UFO. It was hovering and flashed white, green, red, yellow, blue and black lights. It was flashing these colors in different parts of the object. I was amazed and shocked at the same time and I told my Mum as she saw the object as well during the event After the event I didn’t think much of it as I went to sleep as it just stayed there for ages. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Sint Niklaas— I was about to go to bed and I looked through my window and I saw a big mother ship like thing floating in the sky. It has a big and a smaller light. on the picture it is not really visible cause it was dark outside. but as you see under the biggest light above the light reflects on the surface under it. The craft had a metal/brick like surface and also had a marking that looked like a military insignia. The object disappeared after that. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Toronto – My friend and I were downtown at the King Slice 1130 Queen Street West standing on the sidewalk eating our pizza on October 2, 2017. My friend says look at that strange cloud that just formed in front of the Moon so I pulled out my camera (Nikon p900) and took three pictures that had these objects. I zoomed in and one was also filtered, which looks like something out of a fictional movie. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Paris — Whilst staying at the Sequoia Hotel Euro Disney Park I was sitting on the outside at about 5:15 PM on October 10, 2017, with my wife and guests. I noted aircraft passing over the hotel heading west climbing as they departed the nearby Charles De Gaul airport. My attention was drawn to an unusual silent object travelling north, long and thin and rectangular in shape (10/12 x long as wide) with a blunt leading edge, and very bright white in color. It appeared solid but did not seem to glow or reflect the sun, with a constant speed about 500 mph.
It had no wings and the rear of the object seemed to shimmer/flicker or ‘flap’ as it moved. I could not make out any visual markings, and oddly it appeared ‘ribbon’ like, no shading for its sides to indicate a 3D shape to it. I had no visual reference to determine altitude but it was longer than the other aircraft. My wife and I saw it pass directly overhead heading towards and over the Disney Park and watched it disappear. The event took 50 seconds. The other guests who also looked puzzled. Thanks to MUFON CMS Photo is a depiction..
Kullu Himachal, Pradesh — Once again I spotted a second ufo early morning before sunrise on October 26, 2017. It appeared from nowhere and has a white and red light. I’m not sure about the noise but I guess it had some. Something is happening. don’t know what! The dog started barking at the same time. I’m happy to witness it again within a week, I managed to catch some on the camera. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Tuscany – I was taking photo at the time and noticed it much later when looking at photos,
The. object is in the upper left hand side of the photo on August 14, 2004.
I cannot enhance the photo maybe you can>
Thanks to MUFON CMS
Nigde— I was at the garden of my house in Orhanli Town then I noticed a very bright light that surprised me on September 10, 2017. Then I tried to take a photo of the object as my dog barked out of control. Afterwards the object disappeared in a second with an extreme speed. That night I woke up from bed with my dogs barking at the object. I took my flash light and went to my garden and I observed again. After this the sun panels on my roof stopped working. Thanks to TUFOAM (Turkish UFO Research Center)
Bradford — First noticed these craft around 10 months ago on April 7, 2017 over my house. I have tried to capture them on pictures and video on my camera. They are not very close or clear video or photos but I gave it my best shot with what I had available to me. I reported these sightings to the local news paper but they never pursued it and stopped contact with me. I see these on a regular bases usually at night after 9 and when I set off to work in the mornings at 5.30 am, they seem to be more active in the mornings pulsating and hovering around.
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Was it aliens? SFU professor weighs in on crop circles
Was it aliens? SFU professor weighs in on crop circles
SFU geography professor Paul Kingsbury, whose research focuses on the growth of paranormal investigation cultures, attended a recent crop circle conference in Wiltshire, England, where most of the world’s crop circles can be found. He says enthusiasts are drawn more for the circles’ beauty than the unknown phenomena that causes them.
"Crop circle enthusiasts believe the circles resemble a form of sacred geometry," says Kingsbury. "They really appreciate the circles' complexity and are drawn in the hopes of becoming more intimate with them."
Enthusiasts also offer compensation to farmers, which are donated to a charity chosen by farmers, for their loss of income as a result of crop damage caused by the circles and enthusiasts, in exchange for visiting the circles.
"The enthusiasts report feeling a surge of energy that is emitted by the circles and react differently upon visiting them," says Kingsbury. "Because it is very emotional for them, some people lie in the circles and mediate while others might embrace a family member and cry."
Kingsbury says hoaxers are never able to prove exactly how many crop circles could be created by humans. More than 20,000 crop circles have been documented around the world since the first reported one in 1678. They usually appear overnight and no one has been caught in the act of secretly trying to create one.
As a part of his Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) funded four-year research project on paranormal investigators, Kingsbury has interviewed alien abductees, attended UFO and Sasquatch conferences in the U.S. and participated in a dozen ghost investigations in Metro Vancouver.
AS HALLOWEEN celebrations get under way today, we've taken an extraterrestrial approach.
In light of all things creepy, we've compiled a list of reported 'UFO sightings' from across the wider Mackay and western regions documented by Brisbane based non-profit association UFO Research Queensland Incorporated.
UFO Research Queensland Incorporated established in 1956 to receive, research and record sightings. While UFORQ has been collecting sighting reports since 1956, they have yet to commit the bulk of their reports to electronic format. Currently you can view all reports received from 1998 to the present.
'UFO' sighted over Mackay: Amanda Brown captured these lights over Mackay on Monday night, October 30, 2017.
MACKAY WIDER REGION SIGHTINGS
In Marlborough, between Mackay and Rockhampton back in 1992-39, a woman and her family who lived on a cattle station were returning from Rockhampton at night and saw a light below them while driving over a range.
The light reportedly passed over them and seemed the size of a dinner plate. As they approached home, a man walked out onto the track in front of them, and next moment the light was there.
The woman next remembers arriving at the family bungalow very tired, and decided to leave the groceries in their vehicle and go straight to bed. Her partner refused to talk about the incident. She has had encounters since.
In Mackay on February 14, 2012 a resident reported two UFO sightings at 4.22am and 4.30am. The resident, who had not seen a UFO before, said they were a passionate follower of satellites and general astronomy, so had their nose in the air quite often and knew exactly what to look for when identifying a satellite or anything similar.
First sighting at 4.22am: In the sky SSW of Mackay at an altitude of about 40° East, moving SSW there was a red solid light that seemed to shoot a red flare out to the East (I thought that it may be space junk re-entry at first). Then three red lights seemed to be rotating, or flashing, underneath it. No sound, no navigation lights (like a helicopter or plane). It was travelling at about the speed of a satellite and seemed to be at about satellite height.
Second sighting, approximately 4.30am: In the sky to the South of Mackay at an altitude of about 30° East, moving to the South there was a bar of horizontal white lights (probably about 5-7 lights, it was a fair way away) that looked a bit like a jet airliner side-on, but instead of travelling left to right, or right to left, it just kept travelling South like a side-on plane. No navigation lights and no noise, but it seemed much further away. Slow travelling to the South and wandering just a little.
3. CAMERON'S POCKET, MACKAY:
In Cameron's Pocket just north of Mackay on Monday December 18, 2006 at 2am, a man observed a bright light to the NNW shoot off and come back in a cloudless sky. Its elevation varied between 25 and 60 degrees. The light was prominent in the sky and flashing colours.
A taxi driver travelling on the Peak Downs Hwy, close to Dane Street at Walkerston on Saturday, November 21, 2015 at 12.30am noticed a strange light in the sky. The driver, who was taking a passenger to Patricia Court, was looking through the windscreen when they saw an oblong, orange light about the size of a street light seen at about 150 metres away above them in the sky. It was not clearly outlined and moved across sky, rotated and changed direction from south towards north, then north east, then north north west, then north west, then slightly west south west. The light then disappeared.
In 1991, a resident reported a sighting of a min-min light between the Burdekin Dam and Ravenswood. The resident said it was either May or June in 1991 and there were five people in the car who all worked at the Coutts Burdekin Wildernoss Lodge and were on their way to Townsville for a night out. The light followed the car, through the trees for about 15 minutes. It looked like a car headlight. At first it was behind them on the left hand-side, then it caught up to them and overtook them, then went across in front of the car and was travelling beside them on the right hand-side. It then seemed to slow and the last they saw it, it was directly behind the car and further back. The group were all quite frightened at the time and trying to explain what it could be. What the reporting person found most strange is that the incident was never really discussed again between them, even though they lived and worked together. The wilderness lodge closed down at the end of June and the five all lost contact. The reporting person said they have thought about the incident many times since and would be a sceptic if they hadn't witnessed the phenomena.
In about 1982 or '83 a family moved to a new mining town called Tieri which is about one hour north-east of Emerald. At the time there was no street lighting so the night sky was very clear. At about 7 or 8 in the evening the reporting person was riding their bike down the street not far from their home. For some reason they looked up at the sky and saw what they thought was a very bright satellite moving across the sky. It moved at a steady almost satellite-like speed, but then began doing perfect and seemingly random 90 degree turns in the sky. It did this for about 10-15 seconds and then shot off and disappeared.
In April 18, 2007 at 10.40pm on Rubywale Rd, the reporting person witnessed a very bright, to sharp white light, not to be likened to any Automotive 12- or 24-volt lights, or lights from a residence or camplight. It seemed as though it may have landed, due to the shadows of what seemed like lights behind tree branches, and the way the light seemed to be going in a upward elevation. The light was very, very bright.
On June 5, 2010 at 6am the reporting person saw a weird light in the eastern sky. It was travelling very slowly, and looked to be about 200 meters above the trees. This was on a mine site in central Queensland. There were no flashing lights as on planes or choppers. It had several lights on it, the main light was on the front and seemed to be pointing downwards. The object was slightly covered by fog or cloud, but the morning was crystal clear with no cloud or fog. The object slowly turned away from me and faded and totally disappeared from sight. Several people saw the same light.
Editor’s note: This series by Robert Powell chronicles his discovery and investigation of the USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Force-11 investigation. It is a three part series.
I am going to tell you about a Navy-UFO encounter that deserves a congressional investigation to determine if this happened or not. I am going to create three posts related to a recent UFO event that occurred in November of 2004 and involved the Navy’s Carrier Strike Group 11 off the southwest coast of California. This will be the first post and it will include the information that I initially obtained on the incident. If after reading these three posts you are reasonably convinced that this event happened then I will ask you to join me in a letter-writing campaign to a congressional subcommittee requesting that they ask for a debriefing of the incident from the Navy. Please share this story with anyone that you know who would be interested. You can use the hashtags: #F18UFO #UFO.
U.S. Navy Carrier Strike Force-11.
(Credit: US Navy)
I was first told of this UFO incident in July of 2016 by an individual who was involved in the investigation of this event. He told me that the incident had been partially leaked to the internet, so that I could begin my investigation without involving my friend. Knowing a few of the key words I was able to locate the leaked story here: https://fightersweep.com/1460/x-files-edition/ (Ignore the UFO photos in the article as those are just add-ons by the author for effect and are not related to the actual event.)
What attracted me to this story was that it was not on a typical UFO site but was found on a site authored by a formal naval aviator and who predominately writes about naval aviator stories, not UFOs. So he had no UFO agenda to push. And the author went out of his way to establish the excellent background of the commanding officer of the F-18s known as the Black Aces. The story was full of “navy talk” and I spent considerable time deciphering that WSO = weapons system officer, SPY1 = phased array radar, E-2C Hawkeye = type of airborne early warning aircraft, BFM = basic fighter maneuvers, etc. Once I had read the full story, I felt that there was a strong likelihood that the event my friend had directed me to had actually occurred.
I next began online investigations to verify the identity of the individuals in the story and I found that those officers were all legitimate and had served in the Navy during that time. I searched additional websites for clues to this event. First, I found a Navy Event Summary document that had been leaked to the internet by an unknown source that mentioned this event. The document had much of the same information as was provided in the naval aviator’s story: dates and locations match up; USS Princeton detects objects on radar and dispatches the F18s; F18s don’t find a radar target but detect the object visually; F18s engage the unknown; and F18s are outmatched by the unknowns. I then ran the Navy Event Summary document by a retired naval officer and he indicated that the document looked legitimate in terms of its format. A copy of this summary document can be found here.
My friend who had originally told me about this case indicated that there had been video taken of the object and that it had been released to the internet several years ago and then was later removed. A copy of that video was obtained using the WayBack machine which is an internet site that maintains historical website data. The video is taken in the infra-red and depicts a hot object in the video cross-hairs for about 75 seconds before the object rapidly moves out of the video frame and towards the left. The altitude shown on the video matches the approximate altitude of the jets and the shape of the object in the video matches the pilots’ descriptions. A copy of this video can be found here.
Of these three documents, the one that I find the strongest is the story by the naval aviator. The Navy Event Summary and the F-18 video support the story but more was needed. The question in my mind then became—could I support this information from another source. In December of 2016 I submitted nine FOIAs to various departments of the Navy and Marines to try and verify this event. In Part II of this series, I will share the information on the FOIAs that I submitted.
Paolo Soleri’s radical experiment in urban planning has been running in the middle of the Arizona desert for nearly 50 years.
This story is part of OUTER LIMITS, a Motherboard series about people, technology, and going outside. Let us be your guide.
In the museum of vaporware from the twentieth century's imaginarium, one will find a suite of technologies doomed to be perennially futuristic: personal jetpacks and flying cars, moon bases and generation ships, teleportation, and fusion energy. As for the museum itself, it will be an arcology: A building whose design is informed by its local environment, and the poster child of futures that never materialized.
A portmanteau of 'architecture' and 'ecology,' arcology was first theorized by the Italian architect Paolo Soleri in the late 1960s. Billed by its creator as the blueprint for a "city in the image of man," arcologies challenged the notion of the urban environment as something separate from and antagonistic to nature. In Soleri's cities, cars would be useless and the very notion of roads would be abolished as divisive constructs. Work and living spaces would be nearly indistinguishable. There'd be no need to ever use a light bulb during the day or air conditioning during the summer, even in the desert.
If it sounds utopian, that's because it is. At a time when concerns about how human activity is destroying nature have reached a fever pitch, Soleri's ideas sound both attractive and necessary. The renegade architect dedicated the better part of his career to turning his arcological vision into a reality, but 40 years later, arcologies are still mostly the purview of science fiction writers rather than architects.
Nevertheless, a small community has formed around Soleri's ideas over the past half century. Today, these arcology evangelists are committed to shaping the future in accordance with Soleri's ideals. I went to visit them at Arcosanti, a futuristic housing development in the middle of the Sonoran desert. I originally set out to figure out why Soleri's dream had died, but by the time I left Arcosanti, it was apparent that arcology is far from dead. If anything, the architects of the future are just getting started.
The Vault, a community space at Arcosanti and the first element of the city to be built by Soleri.
Image: Daniel Oberhaus/Motherboard
Phoenix, Arizona, is spread out over 500 square miles, and a seemingly endless grid of blacktop connects its 1.5 million residents. If you drive about an hour north from downtown, you will finally hit the outer limits of this urban sprawl. There is no official marker, no wall or signpost to let you know that you have made it out of the city. It's just that at a certain point, the stripmalls and uniform beige housing developments give way to creosote, cacti, and the equally beige landscape of the Sonoran desert.
Drive another half hour beyond the illegible city limits and you'll find yourself at a small outcropping of fast food joints and gas stations, a bastion of civilization in the wilds of the Prescott and Tonto National Forests that border the interstate. If you look past the McDonald's sign into the distance, you can just barely make out a small cluster of buildings against the sparse landscape of the high desert.
This is Arcosanti, arcology's eminent proof-of-concept and Soleri's magnum opus.
"We're here to be a part of the landscape, not in spite of it."
Arcosanti has about 80 permanent residents, most of whom are employed by the Soleri's non-profit Cosanti Foundation to help maintain and expand the premises. Each member has a role at Arcosanti, ranging from metalwork at the onsite foundry to IT support and maintaining Soleri's extensive archive. Like other company towns, the Cosanti Foundation subsidizes its employees' meals and apartments, and pays them US minimum wage. It's not much, but the residents of Arcosanti didn't come to live and work in the desert to get rich. Rather, they are motivated by a far more profound goal: The creation of a city where humans live in harmony not only with nature, but also one another. The residents spend each day literally building this city of the future.
When I arrived at Arcosanti earlier this month, the weekly community meeting had just begun. This is a time for members to reflect on the work of the past week and make announcements relevant to the community. The meeting was held at the Vault, a public space under the massive concrete arches that were the first elements of Arcosanti to be constructed by Soleri. It was well before noon, but many of the community members were dressed in soiled work clothes, having already put in a full day's work.
Presiding over the meeting was Jeff Stein, Arcosanti's executive director. An architect by training, Stein has held various roles in the Cosanti Foundation since Soleri's death in 2013. He first met the visionary architect in 1975 when he attended a workshop taught by Soleri at Arcosanti. These workshops are still held regularly today, and most of Cosanti's employees have attended at least one. There they learn trade skills and the arcological principles that guided Soleri's unique approach to architecture. These skills are then put to the test at Arcosanti, most of which has been built by students and non-professional architects.
"The meaning of the course is based on hard work. We want to discourage whoever envisions a pleasant 5-6 weeks vacation. The Student Spectator is not welcome," reads a poster advertising Soleri's 9th workshop in 1969.
Image courtesy of the Cosanti Foundation.
"We're here to be a part of the landscape, not in spite of it," Stein told me as we walked toward his office after the community meeting. "The point of all Soleri's architecture is connection: How do you connect people to one another and to their surroundings?"
Visitors to Arcosanti will immediately notice its unusual design, which makes the complex feel more like an immersive work of art than a city in progress. George Lucas visited the site in the 70s and it was allegedly the model for the desert planet Tatooine in Star Wars. At Arcosanti the preferred window shapes are circles rather than squares, roofs often double as stairs, and individual buildings blend into one another through a network of hallways that often end in stunning vistas of the surrounding desert. But hidden beneath Arcosanti's beautiful aesthetics is an extreme pragmatism, a posthumous reminder from Soleri that art and functionality need not be mutually exclusive.
Stein's apartment/office was previously Soleri's studio and a sterling example of his philosophies in action. The apartment is located in the "East Crescent neighborhood" of Arcosanti and when we arrived, Stein pointed at a small hidden door in the bottom corner of the room.
"We're at the top of the three-story solar greenhouse that is the heating system for this apartment and the rest of East Crescent," Stein told me. "That's my fireplace."
Jeff Stein looks out one of the windows at Arcosanti.
Image: Daniel Oberhaus/Motherboard
As Stein explained, the sun heats up the air in the greenhouse so that during the cold desert winters, this air rises and provides a source of 120-degree heat in the form of fragrant, oxygen-rich air through the trapdoor. Gesturing at the windows of the apartment, Stein explained how Soleri had placed them so that the Sun would illuminate different parts of his studio at different times of the day and year, providing a free and reliable source of heat and light for its occupant.
These were just a few of the design choices that demonstrated Soleri's masterful ability to harness the power of the local environment for human use without damaging that environment in the process. Indeed, Soleri was so adept at this practice that the only air conditioners needed on site are in the archive for preservation purposes, even though temperatures in the desert can reach nearly 120 F during the summer. This is also the reason that there are surprisingly few light bulbs or solar panels at Arcosanti—Soleri was able to keep energy requirements to a minimum with architectural decisions that allowed for plenty of natural light0
"The buildings here are built to try to explain—as good architecture always does—their place and the connection to this place," Stein said. "This desert has a fragile and rich ecology all its own, and Soleri thought maybe we could build some things understanding that."
Soleri was born in Turin, Italy, in 1919. He emigrated to the United States in 1947 to partake in an apprenticeship program under Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin West, Wright's home and studio located in the desert outside of Phoenix. By this time, Wright was already an internationally renowned architect famous for his ability to integrate his architecture with its natural surroundings.
For the year-and-a-half Soleri studied under Wright, he lived in a canvas tent outside of Taliesin West with the other apprentices (these temporary structures were originally a product of necessity while Wright's apprentices built the foundations of permanent structures, but today architecture students apprenticing at Taliesin still live in makeshift shelters of their own design). It was here, while literally living off the land in the Sonoran desert and studying under an architect revered for his ability to integrate the natural and artificial in his architecture, that Soleri's ideas about arcology first took shape.
Paolo Soleri (center, in white) teaches students about ceramics during a workshop in the mid-1970s.
Image: Ivan Pintar/Cosanti Foundation
Shortly after finishing his apprenticeship with Wright, Soleri began designing and building a personal residence for Nora Woods, the wife of a wealthy industrialist from the east coast. The resulting house, known as The Dome, turned Soleri into something of an overnight celebrity in the architecture world. After briefly returning to Italy in the early 1950s to design and build a ceramics factory, Soleri made his way back to Arizona.
In 1956, Soleri began building Cosanti (a portmanteau of the Italian words 'cosa,' meaning 'thing' and 'anti' meaning 'against'), his personal home and studio in the Phoenix suburb of Paradise Valley. Around this time, a friend introduced Soleri to the work of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a turn-of-the-century philosopher/geologist/Jesuit priest whose writings attempted to contextualize human evolution in the greater context of the evolution of the universe.
Today, most evolutionary biologists consider Chardin's thought to be little more than mysticism with hardly any scientific foundations. Nevertheless, his project of situating contemporary human life as a minor event in the grand scheme of cosmic evolution had a profound effect on Soleri's thought and architecture.
The Dome, the house built for Nora Woods outside of Cave Creek, Arizona that brought Soleri international fame as an architect.
Image: Cosanti Foundation
"Chardin was saying it was clear that humans were not the end of anything, but somewhere in the middle of evolution as a biological life form," Stein told me. "Chardin didn't know what would trigger continued social evolution for humans, but when Soleri was reading him in 1957, he knew what it was: It was the city. That was Soleri's a-ha moment."
In 1964, Soleri and his wife Colly formed the Cosanti Foundation, a non-profit organization that was dedicated to radically rethinking the role of the city in contemporary life. Around this time, Soleri was supporting his family through architectural commissions, lecturing at Arizona State University and putting his knowledge of ceramics he had gleaned while building the Italian ceramics factory to use by making small ceramic bells.
At the same time, he was formulating his theories of ecologically integrated architecture. This train of thought culminated in The City in the Image of Man, a 1969 book featuring dozens of detailed plans for Soleri's "lean linear cities" and arcologies, including the blueprint for Arcosanti. Like any good student, Soleri's approach to architecture went far beyond the limits imposed by his teacher, Frank Lloyd Wright. Whereas Wright was in the business of making extravagant single-family homes that were integrated with their natural environments, Soleri's book called for the rethinking of the entire concept of the city.
A crew of students makes designs in a mound of silt at Arcosanti. Concrete was then poured on this mound and the silt was removed to form a structure, in this case, a foundry.
Image: Ivan Pintar/Cosanti Foundation
"Soleri's notion of architecture and ecology in City in the Image of Man is not just an ecovillage surrounded by the natural landscape," Stein said. "It's a city that is so connected and so complex that it develops its own human ecology inside it. He was thinking of the city as the newest life form on the planet."
According to Stein, the book made a big splash in architecture circles and by the following year Soleri's ideas had generated enough traction to turn his theories into a living experiment. In 1970, Soleri and a handful of architectural students broke ground at Arcosanti, a city meant to house 5,000 people and the world's first experiment in arcology.
THE FUTURE OF ARCOLOGY
Today, Arcosanti is home to under 100 people and only a tiny fragment of the planned city has actually been built. This isn't to say that the project is a failure, however. Rather, it points to the magnitude of the problems that Soleri was challenging with his radical approach to architecture and urban planning.
"Soleri was confronting the American dream of big cars, and road building and single family houses and urban sprawl," Stein told me as we strolled around Arcosanti. "Cities are the biggest cultural artefact we make and he wanted to reconstitute the entirety of urban civilization."
At a time that the first mega shopping malls were cropping up across the United States, and just before Reagan's supply side policies revived American consumerism, Soleri was preaching about the virtues of restraint and thrift, minimalism and the pleasures of life that cannot be bought. For Stein, Soleri's emphasis on limits in an age of limitless expansion is part of the reason why his architectural ideas never really took root in the US. They seemed un-American.
The sky suite at Arcosanti, which is rented out to guests as an additional source of income.
Image: Daniel Oberhaus/Motherboard
Today, cities are built as thin "layers" over the Earth's surface, sprawling in every direction without much consideration for their impact on the natural environment they encroach upon. Cities and the buildings they consist of are ultimately beholden to the profit motive—the mental and emotional health of city dwellers, as well as the impact of the city on the environment are secondary considerations.
In Stein's view, our species is beginning to pay the price for our reckless urban development. In the US, for example, approximately one-fifth of our country's energy use can be attributed to industrial manufacturing, a lot of which is geared toward consumer products. Nearly a third is used by the transportation sector. As Stein was quick to point out, automobiles eat up a sizeable chunk of this energy consumption, even though most of this energy is being used to commute within cities, not between them. The other 50 percent of our energy consumption mostly goes toward the creation and maintenance of the buildings that comprise our cities. Most of this energy is for electricity, which is mostly used for lighting and air conditioning in residential and commercial buildings.
At the same time, our species' energy is overwhelmingly sourced from fossil fuels, the main driver of anthropogenic climate change. This climate change has had a number of devastating effects on communities all over the world, and is profoundly shaping contemporary urban existence. Already more than half of the world's population lives in an urban environment and the UN has documented a global trend of population movement from the country to the city.
A view of the foundry apse (bottom left) and the Vault (upper right).
Image: Yuki Yanagimoto/Cosanti Foundation
In some cases, this urban concentration is a direct result of the impact that climate change has had on rural populations' ability to farm, in other instances, these farmers' labor has been rendered obsolete by technology. Moreover, scientists are predicting a massive migration from coastal cities to inland urban environments as people flee neighborhoods that have succumbed to flooding and rising tides. In the United States alone, coastal flooding is estimated to displace over 13 million Americans by the end of the century.
In other words, if we're going to be able to handle the challenges presented by climate change-driven urbanization, we're going to have to radically rethink the city.
Soleri's notion of arcologies offers a stark alternative to the forces that are driving climate change and a solution to the problems it creates. By prioritizing ultra dense housing and efficient intracity travel, arcologies abolish the need for city roads and automobiles to traverse them. These cities operate on principles of minimal energy consumption and environmental destruction. They facilitate face to face human interaction and are designed to maximize the interaction between all residents in a city, rather than the ghettoization of certain populations in ways that prevent equitable access to resources.
Soleri's idea that the city is best conceived as a new type of biological organism may sound like the ravings of a crazed artist who spent a bit too much time alone in the desert. But in the last few decades, a number of systems theorists have arrived at similar conclusions by way of math and physics.
At the forefront of this new paradigm of urban planning is Geoffrey West, a theoretical physicist at the Santa Fe Institute who has spent much of his career looking how biological organisms and artificial systems like cities are able to scale effectively. West's insight is that nature has elegant organizational strategies for maximizing energy efficiency that can be mathematically described. These observations can be used as a guide for human urban planning if the city is thought of as a biological organism.
Stein praised West's work, but he said this thinking is still too niche in academia. "So far nobody connected with evolutionary biology has had anything to do with designing cities," he said.
A foundry at Arcosanti.
Image: Daniel Oberhaus/Motherboard
In this sense, calling Arcosanti an "urban laboratory" is more than a flattering euphemism—it is a living experiment that is meant to confront a variety of academic disciplines with questions about how they can use their specialized knowledge to think about the way we inhabit space. In addition to a suite of artistic events, such as the annual Form music festival, Arcosanti regularly hosts university students in disciplines ranging from media studies to natural history in an effort to push the limits of what is possible with arcology ever further.
Today, Arcosanti is the closest thing to a real arcological city that exists in the US. For the most part, arcological innovation seems to be happening elsewhere.
Stein told me about a recent conference he attended in Australia dedicated to discussing ideas for the development of so-called "Ecocities." The conference had several hundred attendees from all over the world, only a small fraction of whom were Americans. He pointed to Singapore, a population-dense country where the Tiajin Eco-city serves as a sterling example of arcological principles being implemented at scale. Similar projects have been proposed with vary degrees of adoption elsewhere, although as Choire Sicha pointed out at The Awl, most of these projects have stalled out due to lack of funding.
Stein doesn't pretend that Soleri or Arcosanti hold all or even most of the solutions to Earth's environmental problems. According to Stein, many of Soleri's ideas would be prohibitively expensive to build. Still, they hold immense value insofar as they offer an alternative way to thinking about how we understand our relationship with the natural environment in the future.
As we finished our tour around Arcosanti, Stein told me that he doesn't like to use the word "sustainability" when he refers to the project. The reason, he said, is because this isn't about sustaining the cities we've already built, but challenging the assumptions that made them that way in the first place.
"We talk about transformation instead because there has to be a huge transformation in consciousness for anyone to think what we're doing is sustainable," Stein said. "The problems we're facing aren't going to be solved with more Toyota Priuses."
As I climbed into my car and began my slog back toward the heart of Phoenix's urban sprawl, I couldn't shake the feeling that I was traveling backward in time. I had seen the future at Arcosanti that afternoon, but as the five-lane freeway grew packed with vehicles in the evening rush hour and an endless stream of advertisements and headlights assaulted my senses, that future felt more remote than ever.
Humans have been leaving home in search for new opportunities for thousands of years, but their ancient migration patterns have always been somewhat difficult to trace. Until recently, the main clues researchers have used to map the historic flow of ancient humans have been artifacts and analyses of ancient bones, but these haven’t always given a clear picture of how humans populated the Earth.
On Monday, however, a team of United Kingdom-based geneticists and anthropologists reported in a Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciencesstudy that they’ve come up with a new method of mapping these routes that takes into account genetic data. Their new analysis suggests the migration of humans over the last 14,000 years is more complicated than scientists previously realized.
Co-author and Cambridge University professor Marta Mirazòn Lahr, Ph.D. said in a statement that old assumptions about the migration patterns of ancient humans are now being called into question. The study confirms a strong link between technological change and human mobility, but it also points out that that the hunter-gatherers who lived in Europe after the peak of the last Ice Age were far less mobile than previously believed, as Lahr explains:
These are fascinating results — we associate a hunting and gathering lifestyle with nomadism and high mobility, and the development of the first farming villages and towns with sedentary societies. Yet, early farmers were on the move in search of more and more land to match their progressively larger populations, while the post-glacial hunters seemed to have met their needs locally.
The new method, which required the creation of a 2D model that incorporated population dynamics data, confirms the theory that human migration has been on the rise since the beginning of the Holocene era (which began approximately 11,700 years ago) but suggests that it happened in “three distinct pulses,” rather than gradually.
The three major “pulses” of migration Lahr and her team identified matched up with the Neolithic period, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. The Neolithic period, which is when when agriculture and animal domestication first spread, saw a “well-known population expansion” that peaked around 7,500 years ago, the authors write. The other two peaks that the analysis identified were not as clearly defined by previous research: The peak during the Bronze Age, the period when complex civilizations in places like Mesopotamia and Egypt emerged and trade routes between Asia and Europe were established, happened about 5,000 years ago. The third migration pulse, the Iron Age, began around 3,200 years ago and witnessed a surge in European population sizes and global trade and warfare.
Because the new model was capable of creating spatiotemporally explicit simulation, the researchers were also able to compare the mobility of people between different time periods and different regions.
“One of the great features of this new method is that it can be used not only on genetic data, but also on the variation in the shape of ancient fossils,” explained co-author and University of Oxford graduate student Liisa Loog in a statement. “This means that the mathematical framework behind our method can easily be extended beyond the study of human movement: We can now explore changes in migration rates through time in animals are long extinct.”
Understanding ancient migration is particularly important for academics because it reveals not only how cultures are shaped by movement but explains how our current genetic profiles came to be. The authors hope that subsequent analysis of their findings will explain the variations of human genetic, morphological, and cultural traits. The Holocene era, which this model draws this data from, has witnessed the rise and fall of all human civilizations and is still the era we’re living in — and understanding the movements of our ancestors during this time will very likely help us understand ourselves better in the future.
If you liked this article, check out this video "Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past".
Last week, several people in Siberia reported a vaguely apocalyptic ball of light in the sky, which is both unsettling and on-brand for this year. While eyewitnesses thought the glowing sphere was the end of times or maybe even a UFO, the actual cause of the event might be something even more bizarre.
According to The Siberian Times, stargazers in the Yamalo-Nenets region of Russia had little explanation for what they were witnessing. Out of nowhere, a glowing circle seemed to appear in the sky like something from Twin Peaks: The Return.
One onlooker, Vasily Zubkov, said he was caught off-guard by the ominous orb and chalked it up to an impending doom. After waking up to a fresh hell every day this year, being eaten alive by a giant light wouldn’t even seem that unusual.
“I went out to smoke a cigarette and thought it was the end of the world,” he posted on the social media site VK.
Another VK user, Anastasia Boldyreva, put it more bluntly: “Aliens arrived.”
Obviously, the giant light ball wasn’t aliens or the apocalypse, but it was still something weird as hell. On October 26, Russia’s Ministry of Defense announced on Facebook that it had launched a Topol-M ballistic missile as part of a test mission. This, combined with some especially bright Northern Lights on display, could have accounted for the strange glow. Honestly, intercontinental missiles are much creepier than the other explanations.
While there hasn’t been any definite confirmation on what the glowing bubble was, we know what it definitely wasn’t: aliens. Please stop saying it’s aliens, you guys — if you keep talking about them like this they won’t ever visit.
If you liked this article, check out this video of an expert look at xenomorph biology fromAlien.
Humans have long desired to explore the vast realms of space. Today, we are finally poised to send people out into the cosmos. Indeed, a number of private and public space companies are gearing up for Space Race 2.0 — a (very expensive) competition that inches us closer to uncovering answers about our universe and exploring new realms of our own humanity.
Though they are still in the race, shifting priorities and limited budgets have undermined NASA’s lead in exploring the solar system and beyond. In the meantime, private entities like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic are flush with cash, and they are stepping up to try and engineer better, bigger, and faster rockets.
And this is a good thing because, if humans are to find life on other planets, or perhaps a new planet for ourselves, more work needs to be done. Engineers and scientists need to develop life support systems, find reliable sources of water and fuel, overcome the negative effects living in space has on the body, and find a faster way to travel.
There is still much to be done, but sending the average person to the Moon and beyond no longer seems so far out of reach. Yet, when will it finally happen? When will humans finally roam across an alien world? Here’s a comprehensive timeline of our future beyond Earth.
Late 2017: Heavy Falcon Launch
SpaceX plans to launch the Falcon Heavy for the first time before the end of 2017. Because the rocket can be reused, the Falcon Heavy rocket can deliver its payload into space at only a third of the cost of the next closest operational vehicle, the Delta IV Heavy. This lower upfront cost means that more organizations can carry out experiments in outer space. One of these experiments is the Planetary Society’s LightSail 2 solar sail that will launch on board a Heavy Falcon in early 2018.
SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket lives up to its name. 27 rocket engines weigh down the 70-meter (229-foot), 1.4-metric-ton (3.1-million-pound) rocket. That’s a lot of extra weight, but the payload makes it worthwhile — the rocket can launch 63,800 kg (140,660 lbs) of equipment, cargo, and passengers into orbit around Earth. That’s more than double the weight that the Space Shuttle can haul to the same altitude.
Virgin Galactic is gearing up to launch its first astronauts into space before the end of February 2018. Before it launches with passengers on board, though, the spacecraft will have to undergo a series of test flights.
The space plane, called the VSS Unity, completed its fifth ‘glide flight’ (distinct from the vertical trajectory of traditional space rockets) earlier in 2017. In the first months of 2018, it will be taking flights closer to the Karaman line, the official border between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space located 100 km (62 miles) above the Earth’s surface.
Around that same time in early 2018, scientists will test the LightSail 2, a device that moves through space by harnessing the power of solar photons — no fuel tanks or thrusters required. The LightSail 2, a citizen-funded spacecraft and created bythe Planetary Society (the largest nonprofit organization that promotes the exploration of outer space), would be a proof of concept that solar sailing could propel spacecraft deeper into space. The unmanned, light-propelled spacecraft will hitch a ride on SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket before taking its test flight at an altitude of 720 km (447.4 miles).
2019: Space Tourism and Observation
Blue Origin, the spaceflight services company started by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, recently announced that it intends to take tourists to space before April 2019. In groups of six, passengers will board an 18-meter (60-foot) rocket to the edge of space, around 100 km (62 miles) from the Earth’s surface. Once there, they will experience zero-gravity flight. Three independent parachutes and a retro-thrust system ensure that passengers will gently sail back to Earth. This experience does not come cheap — a ticket to board the New Glenn to reach Earth orbit is rumored to cost anywhere between $150,000 and $250,000. And, yet, there’s little question that people will want to sign up — Virgin Galactic, a competing space tourism project, reportedly already has 700 people signed up.
In 2019, Blue Origin plans to add two- and three-stage rockets to its arsenal. They are fully reusable, up to 99 meters (326 feet) tall, and can deliver payloads at a relatively low cost, competing with SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rockets.
NASA also intends to launch its James Webb Telescope in the first quarter of 2019. The telescope will observe the solar system in the infrared to see every phase of the solar system’s maturation; it will ultimately be 100 times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope, thanks to its array of 18 hexagonal mirror segments. With a combined mirror diameter of 6.5 meters (the Hubble measures in at only 2.4), the James Webb Telescope will be able to detect events such as the formation of galaxies dating back to the time of the Big Bang. It will also have a special focus on discovering new planets that could be capable of supporting life.
2020-2025: “Earth Reliant” and Beyond
From finding evidence of liquid water to detecting organic matter in the soil of the Red Planet’s surface, the Curiosity rover has answered some fundamental questions about what it’s like on Mars.
However, that information has also sparked more questions about what other elements may be present. To this end, in an effort to establish whether oxygen is present in the Martian atmosphere, and at what concentration, Curiosity’s successor, the Mars 2020 rover, will be saddled with a host of sensors and instruments that will allow it to answer this question. Information about oxygen concentration will be important if humans are ever able to visit the Red Planet themselves, which could be possible as early as 2030.
There are other things that need to happen if we’re going to colonize other planets. NASA has established three phases that we need to complete before this is possible. In the first, which NASA calls “Earth Reliant,” we continue to test the feasibility of living in space and conduct more research aboard the ISS. In the second (“Proving Ground”), operations around the Moon will be used to establish ways to return humans to the Earth safely. With those stages complete, we will finally reach the third stage (“Earth Independent”) in which humans establish a self-sufficient colony on Mars.
Just over 50 years after humans first touched the lunar surface, NASA is gearing up to launch another manned spacecraft to go beyond the Moon. The astronauts will be on board a ship called the Orion, which will lift off using NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), a modular heavy launch vehicle. SLS is similar to SpaceX’s Heavy Falcon and has a maximum payload of 70 to 130 metric tons (150,000 to 290,000 lbs).
First, though, the spacecraft will do a few test runs without any humans on board. The first mission, Exploration Mission-1, is slated for late 2018. The SLS will launch the unmanned craft, travel to the Moon, enter orbit about 100 km (62 miles) above the lunar surface, and use gravity to propel itself into deep, unexplored space. The goal of this mission is to see if the craft can help humans survive a trip to distant planets.
The second mission (Exploration Mission-2), planned for August 2021, will be NASA’s first manned test flight beyond the Moon. “During this mission, we have a number of tests designed to demonstrate critical functions, including mission planning, system performance, crew interfaces, and navigation and guidance in deep space,” Bill Hill, the deputy associated administrator of Exploration Systems Development at NASA Headquarters said in a 2016 NASA blog.
To gain enough momentum to make the trip around the Moon, the spacecraft will have to make multiple orbits around Earth, occasionally igniting its thrusters. During its stable orbit of the Moon, the Orion will gather data and test the spacecraft’s capabilities for interplanetary flight.
2022: Making Mars Habitable
While NASA spends the 2020s exploring how to best keep humans healthy in space, SpaceX plans to start putting down the infrastructure for humans to colonize it. SpaceX anticipates completing its first 54.6-million-km (33.9-million-mile) trip to Mars in 2022.
In his update earlier this year, Elon Musk revealed plans for a rocket that is far bigger and more powerfulthan NASA’s Space Launch System and even his agency’s own Falcon Heavy — the BFR. A rocket that big would have enough space for fuel to take humans to Mars, or even allow for Earth-based city-to-city travel.
With a maximum payload of 150 tons, the enormous 106-meter (347.7-feet) rocket would break the current record for biggest payload (including cargo, fuel, and passengers) launched into orbit, while providing the lowest cost for each additional launch.
To reach the Moon, the BFR would launch from the Earth’s surface, transfer propellant from fuel depots previously stationed in Earth’s orbit, accelerate in orbit, pick up an injection of fuel for the remaining distance to the lunar surface on the way, and land. SpaceX plans to refuel the rocket once it is in orbit in order to extend its range and payload capacity so that it can return safely to Earth.
Tests have already shown that it’s possible to refuel rockets in space. NASA conducted the Robotic Refueling Mission in 2011, and it successfully completed a robot-actuated propellant transfer on an exposed platform of the International Space Station.
By 2022, SpaceX expects to land at least two cargo ships on Mars in order to establish a habitat for humans. The primary goal of those initial missions is to find a reliable source of water on the Martian surface.
2024: Manned Missions on the BFR
Two years after those cargo ships establish an infrastructure, SpaceX plans to send humans to inhabit a colony on Mars. The passengers aboard the BFR’s 40-cabin Mars transit module will be the first to make the unprecedented trip.
This is, Musk would probably admit, an aggressive timeline. And it may not work in SpaceX’s favor: Due to planetary alignments and other factors such as solar power requirements and fuel limitations, the launch window of Earth-Mars travel is only a few weeks, according to Wired. And that’s assuming that all the other pieces fall perfectly into place — neither the BFR nor its predecessor, the Falcon Heavy, has yet had a successful launch.
Should the BFR mission make it to Mars, it will contain the materials to construct a propellant production plant as part of its Martian colony. The plan would suck carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turn it into deep-cryo CO4 fuel using solar power.
2025-2030: A Year in Space
SpaceX might be ready to send humans to live in space by the early 2020s, but NASA is a little more cautious. The government space agency is planning to put astronauts into orbit for a year to find out if humans are indeed ready to live on a different planet.
In March 2016, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly completed a similar year-long missionaboard the ISS to test the effects of zero gravity on the human body and what that will mean for future space travel to Mars. Unlike Kelly’s mission, however, NASA’s 2021 mission will put astronauts in orbit around the Moon. They’ll be in a “deep-space gateway” — a small ISS-like station that will serve as a testing ground for future deep space missions, including later missions to Mars. It will be built over five earlier missions, four of them with humans aboard. The effects of spending a year in lunar orbit on the human body, caused by factors such as different day-night cycles and solar radiation, are still unknown.
2030s: NASA Sends Humans to Mars
Five years after SpaceX’s manned missions to Mars, NASA plans to send its own spacecraft to the Red Planet. Using data and samples from the Curiosity and Mars 2020 rovers, NASA will first establish how humans could sustain themselves on the Martian surface before sending manned spacecraft from its deep-space gateway to do so.
Kepler finds 20 NEW potentially habitable alien planets similar to Earth
Kepler finds 20 NEW potentially habitable alien planets similar to Earth
There could be more habitable planets out there than we think. A new analysis of data obtained by the Kepler space telescope has revealed 20 alien world candidates capable of harboring life as we know it.
The updated list includes several planets that orbit stars like our sun. Some have relatively long orbital periods, similar to Earth’s, and others much shorter, only months or Earth weeks.
“The exoplanet where the year lasts longer, exactly 395 Earth days, is just one of the most promising,” said Jeff Coughlin, Kepler’s team author of the finding.
Called KOI-7923.01 (Kepler Object of Interest), the alien world is 97 percent the size of the Earth, but it has a slightly cooler average temperature, mainly due to the distance it maintains with its star, which is also not as hot as our sun.
However, the latter does not represent an impediment to the existence of liquid water on its surface, something essential for life as we know it.
‘If you had to choose one to send a spacecraft to, it’s not a bad option,’ Jeff Coughlin, a Kepler team lead who helped find the potential planets, told New Scientist.
This means that KOI-7923.01 is has a landscape more similar to tundra regions on Earth, than temperate ones. However, it’s still warm enough and large enough to hold liquid water on its surface, reports New Scientists.
Astronomers cataloged the new planets using a new tool called Robovetter, which has the ability to automatically analyze what the Kepler Space Telescope has found.
“The catalog contains 8054 KOIs of which 4034 are planet candidates with periods between 0.25 and 632 days. Of these candidates, 219 are new in this catalog and include two new candidates in multi-planet systems (KOI-82.06 and KOI-2926.05), and ten new high-reliability, terrestrial-size, habitable zone candidates,” wrote astronomers in the new study available at arXiv.org.
In order to be 100 percent sure, researchers need to perform follow-up studies to confirm the above-mentioned candidates.
Kepler has made stunning discoveries.
Earlier this year, the Kepler space telescope located 219 exoplanet candidates, and ten could be habitable. During a press briefing in early 2017 at NASA’s Ames Research Center, astronomers reveled what is considered as the ‘most reliable’ catalog of potentially habitable worlds in our galaxy, bringing the total number to 4,034.
Astronomers say that more than 2,300 planets spotted during the Kepler missions have been confirmed, including more than 30 Earth-sized planets that are located in the so-called Goldilocks Zone’ of their host star.
The newly released catalog features the results from Kepler’s final survey made from the Constellation of Cygnus and includes the spacecraft’s first four years of data.
From the 4,034 candidates that have been spotted by astronomers, 2,335 have been verified.
These results could eventually prove helpful as a guide in the search for alien life, say scientists, saying that the lis offers ‘the most complete and reliable accounting of distant worlds to date.’
‘This new result presented today has implications for understanding the frequency of different types of planets and galaxies, and helping us to advance our knowledge on how planets are formed,’ said Mario Perez, Kepler program scientist in the Astrophysics Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, during the conference.
Astronomers have just made a fascinating discovery on Jupiter
Astronomers have just made a fascinating discovery on Jupiter
An international team of researchers has discovered that Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, also has austral auroras (south) and that, against all odds, they act independently of the northern ones (Borealis), according to a study published in Nature Astronomy.
Researchers from ESA and NASA have discovered that unlike Earth’s polar lights, the intense auroras seen at Jupiter’s poles unexpectedly behave independently of one another. Jupiter’s northern auroras are erratic and “do not coincide in behavior, neither in intensity nor in frequency with those found on Jupiter’s southern pole”
Auroras are planetary phenomena that take place when the wind of energetic particles of a star collides with the magnetic field of a planet (magnetosphere).
Using ESA’s XMM.Newton and NASA’s Chandra X-Ray space observatories, astronomers were able to observe high-energy X-Rays produced by the auroras on each of Jupiter’s poles.
Experts found that the southern auroras on Jupiter pulse every 11 minutes consistently, while those at the planet’s northern pole flared chaotically.
“These auroras don’t seem to act in unison like those that we’re often familiar with here on Earth,” says lead author William Dunn of University College London’s Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UK, and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.
“We thought the activity would be coordinated through Jupiter’s magnetic field, but the behavior we found is really puzzling.
“It’s stranger still considering that Saturn – another gas giant planet – doesn’t produce any X-ray auroras that we can detect, so this throws up a couple of questions that we’re currently unsure how to answer.
“Firstly, how does Jupiter produce bright and energetic X-ray auroras at all when its neighbor doesn’t, and secondly, how does it do so independently at each pole?”
This finding raises numerous questions about how auroras occur through the universe. Interestingly, Jupiter’s independently pulsing auroras indicate that astronomers have a long way to go in order to understand how the planet itself produces some of its most energetic emissions, reports the European Space Agency.
“Charged particles have to hit Jupiter’s atmosphere at exceptionally fast speeds in order to generate the X-ray pulses that we’ve seen. We don’t yet understand what processes cause this, but these observations tell us that they act independently in the northern and southern hemispheres,” adds Licia Ray, from Lancaster University, UK, and a co-author.
Future studies of Jupiter’s auroras will help shed light on the phenomena produced on the gas giants poles.
In the next two years, astronomers are planning on more X-Ray observational campaigns using XMM-Newton and Chandra, and observations from NASA’s Juno spacecraft, which started orbiting Jupiter in mid-2016.
In addition to the above, ESA’s Juice Spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter by 2029, and will investigate not only the Gas giant atmosphere and magnetosphere, but will also observe its auroras and the effect they cause on the Galilean Moons.
“This is a breakthrough finding, and it couldn’t have been done without ESA’s XMM-Newton,” adds Norbert Schartel, ESA project scientist for XMM-Newton.
Infrared image of the aurora at the south pole of Jupiter.
“The space observatory was critical to this study, providing detailed data at a high spectral resolution such that the team could explore the vibrant colors of the auroras and figure out details about the particles involved: if they’re moving fast, whether they’re an oxygen or sulfur ion, and so on.
“Coordinated observations like these, with telescopes such as XMM-Newton, Chandra and Juno working together, are key in exploring and further understanding environments and phenomena across the Universe, and the processes that produce them.”
Some things happening on planet earth today just don’t make sense if you’re looking at them from the perspective of an ordinary human being.
WHAT REASONS DO OUR SPACE VISITORS BRING TO EARTH?
Scientific interest, tourism, curiosity? This question is one of the most important and most implausible questions in the study and understanding of Ufology.
Scholars from around the world are divided into trends or currents of thought about what would be the reason why aliens are appearing on our planet. Some ardently defend the thesis that our visitors would be a kind of cosmic brothers coming to Earth to warn us of an impending cataclysm and about to decimate the humanity of the universal map.
MALICIOUS OR BENEVOLENT?
Certain proponents of this theory even imagine that these same beings would promote an evacuation of our planet. Other ufologists believe that aliens have an evil essence and that they are coming to Earth only to get what they need - cells, blood and even human and animal organs. The more radical researchers of this idea also argue that abductions, so abundant all over the world, are the means by which visitors satisfy even their sexual appetite, without the least compassion for us.
Alles is goed totdat het toestel iets raakte op een hoogte van 30.000 voet (9,1 kilometer hoogte).
Het vliegtuig landde veilig in Chicago en er waren geen gewonden. Na de landing zag de neus van het toestel er zo uit.
Delta Airlines is met een officiële verklaring gekomen en zegt dat het vliegtuig tijdens de landing werd geraakt door een vogel.
Dit terwijl de spelers zeggen dat er een botsing plaatsvond op een hoogte van 30.000 voet. De spelers van Oklahoma City Thunder vliegen wekelijks en zij zijn echt wel in staat om te bepalen of een vliegtuig op kruishoogte vliegt of dat de landing is ingezet.
Het lijkt er dan ook op dat Delta Airlines de werkelijke reden voor die enorme deuk niet bekend wil maken, tenzij ook de vliegers geen idee hebben wat ze op die hoogte hebben geraakt.
Als het vliegtuig zich inderdaad op 30.000 voet bevond ten tijde van de aanvaring, dan was het zeker geen vogel. De schade lijkt ook te groot om veroorzaakt te kunnen worden door een vogel.
Volgens de onderstaande video uit Zuid Amerika gaat het wel degelijk af en toe mis.
Zo vertellen ze het verhaal van wat er gebeurde op 15 mei 2015 met een Boeing 777 van Aeromexico.
Dit toestel vertrok die dag om half acht ’s avonds voor een vlucht naar Madrid in Spanje. Ongeveer anderhalf uur na vertrek besloot de bemanning onverwacht een noodlanding te maken in Cancun omdat ze zeiden dat er storingen optraden in het elektrische systeem.
Na de landing in Cancun nam een passagier een foto van het toestel dat er toen zo uit zag:
Volgens de onderstaande video heeft dit vliegtuig een botsing gehad met een onbekend vliegend object; een UFO dus.
De officiële versie van het verhaal is dat ze al direct na vertrek een blikseminslag hadden waardoor de schade ontstond en er eveneens problemen waren met het elektrische systeem.
De botsing van de 777 met een onbekend object lijkt veel op die die een vliegtuig van Air China twee jaar geleden had en waar wij toen het volgende over schreven:
De vlucht was in de vroege ochtend van 4 juni vertrokken van Chengdu naar Guangzhou. Het vertrek van de Boeing 757 verliep zonder problemen. Twintig minuten na take-off, terwijl ze zich op een hoogte bevinden van 26.000 voet, krijgt de verkeersleiding een noodoproep van het toestel en wordt besloten een noodlanding te maken in Shunagliu.
Deze verliep zonder problemen en er werd de passagiers meegedeeld dat een en ander het gevolg was van een technisch mankement. Echter, direct na het incident had één van de passagiers de tegenwoordigheid van geest om enkele foto’s te maken.
De officiële verklaring kwam al vrij snel daarna: het was een vogel geweest. Als we dan kijken naar de grootte van de toegebrachte schade, dan moet het wel een enorme vogel zijn geweest. Een die bovendien iets van een soort verfstrepen heeft achtergelaten.
Een vogelaanvaring bij deze vlucht is uitgesloten omdat én het vliegtuig daarvoor te hoog vloog én omdat er geen sporen zijn gevonden op het vliegtuig zoals bloedspetters of veren.
Alleged UFO Encounter Captured By F-18 from Carrier Strike Group 11 Near San Diego
Alleged UFO Encounter Captured By F-18 from Carrier Strike Group 11 Near San Diego
On November 14, 2004, numerous aviators and seaman from the USS Nimitz carrier battle group were witness to events that demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt the existence of advanced airborne technologies far superior to anything America presently deploys.
The government has long covered up these kinds of UFO incidents, asking service personnel to not discuss the details but the case of the USS Nimitz and a UFO encounter its crew had on November 14, 2004 have since been independently confirmed by two former senior Pentagon officials, Christopher Mellon and Luis Elizondo, who have spoken directly to some of the pilots involved, read more here.
1. Fast Eagles (F-18 110/100) upon take off were vectored by Princetown and Banger to intercept unid contact. Princeton informed fast eagles that the contact was moving at 100 KTS - 25KFT ASL.
2. Fast Eagles (110/100) could not find unid airborne contact at location given by Princetown. While searching for unid air contact, Fast Eagles spotted large unid object in water at 1430L. Pilots saw steam/smoke/churning around object. Pilot describes object initially as resembling a downed airliner, also stated that it was much larger than a submarine.
3. While descending from 24K FT to gain better view of the unid contact in the water, Fast Eagle 110 sighted an airborne contact which appeared to be capsule shaped (wingless, mobile, white, oblong pill shaped, 25-30 Feet in length, no visible markings and no glass) 5NM west from position of unid in water.
4. Capsule (UFO) passed under Fast Eagle 110 then Fast Eagle 110 began turn to acquire capsule. While 110 descending and turning, capsule began climbing and turned inside of Fast Eagle’s turn radius.
5. Pilot estimated that capsule achieved 600-700 KTS. The 110 could not keep up with the rate of turn and the gain of altitude by the capsule. 110 lost visual ID of capsule in haze. Last visual contact had capsule at 14 KFT heading due east.
6. Fast Eagle 100 was flying high cover and saw the engagement by Fast Eagle 110 and confirms 110 visual ID. 100 lost contact in haze as well.
This infrared video was allegedly captured from one of the F-18’s (Fast Eagles 100/110) from the U.S. Navy USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Group-1, involved in the UFO incident. This video was leaked online by an unknown source, but was confirmed to be real by someone with inside knowledge of the incident according to OpenMindsTV.
A Giant Discovery That Overshadows the Pyramids of Giza: Long-Lost Pyramids Confirmed in Egypt
A Giant Discovery That Overshadows the Pyramids of Giza: Long-Lost Pyramids Confirmed in Egypt
The Long Lost Ancient Egyptian Pyramids that overshadow the Pyramids at the Giza Plateau seem to be a reality. These so-called lost Pyramids could change the entire history of Ancient Egypt.
The mysterious ‘pyramids’ discovered in 2012 by American researcher Angela Micol were dismissed at first by many as being only sandy mounds and not man-made structures in the desert. But 34 rare, antique maps might prove these structures, re-discovered in 2012 might be Pyramids larger than those found at the Giza Plateau. According to satellite imagery, one of the monuments is three times the size of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
“It has emerged these formations are labeled as pyramids on several old and rare maps,” Micol told Discovery News.
These structures could outshadow the Pyramids of the Giza Plateau
According to Micol, the site where the monuments were found includes a 620 ft-wide triangular plateau which is believed to be nearly three times the size of the best-known Ancient Egyptian Pyramid.
This has not been the first time the archaeological community has dismissed huge discoveries. It seems that every once in a while, when a history changing discovery is made somewhere on the planet, it is quickly dismissed by scholars as being unimportant or fake. The best example of that are the Bosnian Pyramid located in Visoko.
“The images speak for themselves,” Micol said when she first announced her findings. “It’s very obvious what the sites may contain, but field research is needed to verify they are, in fact, pyramids.”
While authoritative scholars have remained skeptical about the finding and dismissed the ‘structures’ as “Google Earth Anomalies” evidence has surfaced which supports Micol’s findings.
“After the buzz simmered down, I was contacted by an Egyptian couple who claimed to have important historical references for both sites,” Micol said.
The couple where Medhat Kamal El-Kady, former ambassador to the Sultanate of Oman, and his wife Haidy Farouk Abdel-Hamid, a lawyer, former counselor at the Egyptian presidency and adviser of border issues and international issues of sovereignty who happened to be collectors of ancient maps, old documents, books and other rare historical documents.
According to Micol, three maps dating from 1753 to the late 1880s show the existence of the pyramids
The story gets extremely interesting here. According to Medhat Kamal El-Kady and Haidy Farouk Abdel-Hamid the formations discovered by Micol near Abu Sdihum are labeled as being Pyramids in several ancient maps of the region.
“For this case only, we have more than 34 maps and 12 old documents, mostly by scientists and senior officials of irrigation,” El-Kady and Farouk told Discovery News.
According to the couple, there are at least three maps that verify Micol’s findings:
A rare map made by Napoleon Bonaparte’s Engineers.
And a map by Major Brown, which dates back to the 1880’s.
Interestingly, there are several ancient documents that prove the mounds discovered by Micol are in fact ancient pyramids, which were buried in an attempt to hide their existence forever.
Even though the site hasn’t been investigated properly by archaeologists who remain extremely skeptical about the finding, according to Mohamed Aly Soliman, one of the individuals who visited the site near Abu Sidhum stated that these mounds were built with different layers that do not belong the surrounding landscape, meaning that these were artificial structures made by ancient Egyptians and not natural formations as many have dismissed.
“Those mounds are definitely hiding an ancient site below them,” Mohamed Aly Soliman, who led the preliminary expedition near Abu Sidhum, told Discovery News.
“First of all, the land around them is just a normal flat land. It is just desert — sand and stones,” he said. “The mounds are different: You will find pottery everywhere, seashells and transported layers. These are different layers, not belonging to the place, and were used by the Egyptians to hide and protect their buried sites,” he said.
“Describing himself as “one of the many Egyptians obsessed with the pharaohs’ civilization,” Aly has a background as a private investigator and has been studying to identify archaeological sites in Egypt.
“If we look back in history we will find that pharaohs were using seashells in building their tombs and pyramids for ventilation purpose,” Aly said.
According to legends, the area near the pyramids is said to harbor ancient secrets and contain ‘great magic’.
If the discovery proves to be a genuine Pyramid, it would be the largest ever discovered in Egypt, making it an unprecedented discovery in the history of mankind.
‘The images speak for themselves. It’s very obvious what the sites may contain, but field research is needed to verify they are, in fact, pyramids,’ said Micol
FACEBOOKER RECORDS A CRYSTAL CLEAR VIDEO OF MULTIPLE UFOS WHILE DRIVING THROUGH THE DESERT IN ARIZONA
FACEBOOKER RECORDS A CRYSTAL CLEAR VIDEO OF MULTIPLE UFOS WHILE DRIVING THROUGH THE DESERT IN ARIZONA
Yesterday, a gentleman named Mauricio Morales posted some remarkable pictures on the internet that ended up going fairly viral across social media.They were snaps of Unidentified Flying Objects(UFOs, which does not mean they are extraterrestrial in origin).
That being said, don’ t be fooled, there is a tremendous amount of evidence pointing toward the fact that some of these UFOs, whose presence were officially acknowledged within the mainstream using declassified documents and hundreds of high ranking military / political whistleblowers, are indeed extraterrestrial in origin.
There is ample evidence suggesting that many are‘ ours’ as well.
We’ ve written about this quite extensively, and if you want to learn more about that and sift through all of the evidence we’ ve accumulated over the past 8 years, please visit the exopolitics section of our website here.Another great place to start is with UFO researcher Richard Dolan.
Here’ s Morales’ statement on what he experienced from his Facebook post:
“As I was driving back to Phoenix this evening, I was a few miles past Parker, AZ when I saw a shooting star with a green hue in the corner of my eye.I kept driving for a few miles and noticed a small orange light far in the distance to my right.At firstI thought that maybe a meteor had hit nearby and set a fire in the desert or possibly a distant antenna light.
I didn’ t quite think much of it and continued to drive for another three miles.I noticed that the light was gone.I drove another half of a mile and I saw the light appear again.This is when I realized that whatever this was, wasn’ t normal.
I was about a quarter of a mile from the crossing between Highway 72 and Highway 95 between Parker and Quartzsite, Arizona.
I immediately pulled over and attached my camera to my tripod.To my SW direction, there were six orange-red lights floating around in the horizon.Some of them would die out and then brighten back up, others just seemed to float and hover away slowly.They seemed to travel in a parallel pattern with a very bright fiery glisten.I took photos and videos and in less than 15 minutes, the mysterious objects vanished without a trace.
All of the photographs are timestamped and are not edited whatsoever.The video is slightly cropped for better viewing.
Whatever this was, I have never seen anything like this in my life before.Super cool experience.
*UPDATE * 4 / 11 / 17 11: 22 pm I have noticed that my camera’s clock is set 8 minutes ahead.Which means that the time stamps are all 8 minutes ahead.I also saw a video of the same exact thing but from the opposite end in El Centro, CA.That means that whatever this was, it was visible for at least 100 miles.
ABC15 is reporting that the photos were part of the meteor.They were not.The meteor struck about 10 minutes before I pulled over on HWY 95 and got footage of these lights.The difference in lighting you see in the photos is because I was using different settings to get a more visible photo of what they were.”
Some Recent Video Footage
Below is some footage from Dr.Steven Greer, founder of The Disclosure Project and the Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence(CSETI).Known to some as the“ Father of the Disclosure Movement, ”he was instrumental in bringing forth hundreds of military whistleblowers of all ranks, with verified backgrounds, to share their experiences and testify on the UFO / extraterrestrial phenomenon.
He has ha d high – level meetings within the Pentagon about this issue, and that was confirmed( in his documentary Sirius Disclosure) by Apollo 14 astronaut and the 6 thman to walk on the Moon, Dr.Edgar Mitchell.
“Yes there has been a crashed craft, and bodies recovered….We are not alone in the universe, they have been coming here for a long time….I happen to be privileged enough to be in on the fact that we have been visited on this planet, and the UFO phenomenon is real.”
–Doctor Edgar Mitchell, 6 the man to walk on the moon(source)
“Intelligent beings from other star systems have been and are visiting our planet Earth. They are variously referred to as Visitors, Others, Star People, Et’s, etc…They are visiting Earth now; this is not a matter of conjecture or wishful thinking. – Theodor C. Loder III, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire (source)
When it comes to real footage of UFOs (unidentified flying objects), a film from the 1991 NASA STS-48 Discovery Space Shuttle mission definitely ranks as some of the best. This footage is real and well-documented and has been the subject of a rigorous scientific investigation by multiple researchers and institutions. (1)(2)(3)
Why Are So Many People Interested In UFOs?
The top google searchers every single year always show UFOs and extraterrestrials as a hot topic.Every year, the masses seem to become more and more curious, which is also evident from the fact that the most viewed file in the FBI vault deals with a crashed extraterrestrial spacecraft and bodies.You can access that file and read more about it here.
Perhaps it’ s the secrecy around this subject that is really grinding people’ s gears and sparking their curiosity.It’ s human nature to explore the unknown, and when information is kept from us, there will inevitably be backlash.
“This thing has gotten so highly – classified… it is just impossible to get anything on it.I have no idea who controls the flow of need – to – know because, frankly, I was told in such an emphatic way that it was none of my business that I’ ve never tried to make it to be my business since.I have been interested in this subjectfor a long time and I do know that whatever the Air Force has on the subject is going to remain highly classified.”–Senator Barry Goldwater, Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee(source)
“Behind the scenes, high ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about UFOs.But through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense.”Former head of CIA, Roscoe Hillenkoetter, 1960(source)
Or perhaps, it’ s just like NASA astronaut and Princeton physics professor Dr.Brian O’ leary said, “there is abundant evidence that we are being contacted, that civilizations have been visiting us for a very long time.”(source)
We are definitely living in one of the most interesting times in human history.The birth of the industrial, scientific and technological / information revolutions brought with them a host of problems.One of these problems, as President Eisenhower, JFK and dozens of other presidents and politicians warned us about in the past, is the fact that a powerful group of people and the corporations they run, headed by the big banks, have taken control over almost every aspect of our lives.Today, many people are waking up to this reality in various ways.
One way is,for example, through healthcare and seeing through the manipulation of science by big drug companies.Another is big food, becoming aware of all of the pesticides and harmful ingredients that are added to it.Another realm is politics and false flag terrorism, and seeing through the fact that many soldiers are sent to die for corporate interests and an agenda set out by the financial elite.However, more people are starting to understand our reality and thus making more conscious choices, voting with their dollars.
More and more souls on the plant today desire peace, and that is made clear by all of the humanitarian and activist movements that’ ve been unearthed.Not many souls on the planet want to see others suffer, and we have the potential to create a human experience where everybody has their needs met.This is possible, but there are systems put in place to make you think this is not possible because our economy would be completely destroyed.True, it would be, but that would be a necessary step in the re – design of the human experience.
There are those who capitalize off of our enslavement, our 9 – 5 work schedules, our attention being put towards our own lives, sports and entertainment.We’ ve strayed from our natural path of curiosity and exploration because we’ re told from a young age that“ this is who we are” and that“ this is how it is.”
This type of thinking is changing, the anti – war movement is stronger than ever, and it’ s clear that if our planet and our countries were really a democracy, things would be a lot different.We are one human race and there are no need for borders.
Based on all of my research, experiences and gut feelings, this massive shift in consciousness that’ s occurring in the human population is a primary reason why“ they” are coming around more often…
Wetenschappers gaan onder Antarctisch ijs duiken en wij kunnen meekijken!
Wetenschappers gaan onder Antarctisch ijs duiken en wij kunnen meekijken!
Duikers springen binnenkort in het koude water om een kijkje te nemen onder de Ross-ijsplaat.
Het doel van de expeditie? Uitzoeken welk effect de opwarming van de aarde op deze bijzondere omgeving – en al het leven dat daarin te vinden is – heeft. Maar de onderzoekers hebben nog een doel: het publiek een kijkje gunnen in het leven van een poolonderzoeker. En daarom wordt er tijdens de expeditie – en dus ook onder water – continu gefilmd. Daarbij wordt onder meer gebruik gemaakt van een 360 graden-camera. Aan de hand van die beelden zal in een later stadium een VR-ervaring gemaakt worden. “Stel je voor dat je je VR-bril opzet en vervolgens onder het twee tot vijf meter dikke ijs op Antarctica duikt en het rijke, kleurrijke en absoluut unieke leven op de zeebodem kunt zien!” stelt onderzoeker Alf Norkko.
Koud De expeditie duurt zes weken. En dat betekent voor de onderzoekers en duikers: zes weken afzien. De temperaturen kunnen enorm zakken: tot wel vijftig graden onder het vriespunt. En de onderzoekers en duikers moeten het ondertussen uit zien te houden in tenten op de ijsplaat.
Afbeelding: Vera Schoultz.
Duiken Ook de temperatuur van het water onder de ijsplaat is weinig aanlokkelijk: deze ligt rond de -1,8 graden Celsius. De duikers die zich in het water gaan wagen, zullen steeds in tweetallen in het water springen en hooguit 40 minuten duiken. Het is een hele uitdaging, niet alleen vanwege de temperatuur, maar ook vanwege de uitrusting die ze met zich meevoeren. Die weegt zo’n 100 kilo.
Volgende generatie Hoewel het een hele klus zal worden, zijn onderzoekers ervan overtuigd dat het allemaal de moeite waard is. “We willen het publiek – en dan met name de jongere generatie – raken,” stelt Norkko. “Zij zijn degenen die het stokje na ons over moeten gaan nemen.”
De onderzoekers zijn inmiddels op Antarctica gearriveerd en zullen op twee plaatsen onder de Ross-ijsplaat gaan duiken. Hun expeditie is via de Facebookpagina Science Under the Ice op de voet te volgen.
Iedereen heeft het erover: kunstmatige intelligentie. Maar wat is het precies? En moeten we er naar uitzien of voor vrezen?
Bij kunstmatige intelligentie denken veel mensen al snel aan robots die al dan niet het slechtste met de mensheid voor hebben. Maar kunstmatige intelligentie is veel breder dan dat en het is zelfs zo breed dat er niet echt een eenduidige definitie voor bestaat. Dat komt mede doordat ‘intelligentie’ zelf zo lastig te vangen is in een definitie. Jan Broersen, universitair hoofddocent en onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Utrecht, vat het samen als “het via computationele middelen proberen nabootsen van onze intelligentie.” Hij voegt nog toe dat hij denkt dat de eerste onderzoekers van kunstmatige intelligentie het nog breder zagen: “Volgens mij hadden zij in hun hoofd dat artificiële intelligentie het nabootsen van de mens in álle aspecten is.”
Van de slimme thermostaat tot Netflix Tegenwoordig vinden we al op veel plekken vormen van kunstmatige intelligentie: in de slimme thermostaat zit het, maar ook bij Netflix voor de aanbevelingen die ze elke gebruiker doen en wat te denken van Alpha Go? Een belangrijke toepassing op dit moment is volgens Broersen het beoordelen van informatie. “Facebook gebruikt het bijvoorbeeld om nepnieuws te onderscheiden van echt nieuws, wat volgens mij ontzettend lastig is.”
Wat is KI? Russell en Norvig splitsen in hun boek Artificial Intelligence: a modern approach de kunstmatige intelligentie op in vier subdomeinen: systemen die denken als een mens, systemen die zich gedragen als een mens, systemen die rationeel denken en systemen die zich rationeel gedragen. Op het gebied van systemen die denken of zich gedragen als een mens is er nog een lange weg te gaan, we weten immers niet eens hoe mensen precies denken, dus laat staan dat we dat in een computer kunnen inbouwen. Een computer die rationeel kan handelen en/of denken is daarentegen een stuk makkelijker te maken: voor rationeel ‘denken’ moet een computer in staat zijn om geldige afleidingen te maken uit kennis die de computer al bezit. Om een simpel voorbeeld te geven, als de computer weet dat A gelijk is aan B en ook dat B gelijk is aan C, dan moet de computer kunnen deduceren dat A gelijk is aan C. Rationeel handelen is handelen op zo’n manier dat het de beste uitkomst tot gevolg heeft. Dat zorgt echter voor een moeilijkheid omdat het soms niet mogelijk is om door rationeel denken tot de juiste handeling te komen: als je je hand op een hete ondergrond legt is de rationele handeling om hem direct terug te trekken, maar die handeling komt niet voort uit rationele gedachten, maar uit een reflex.
“MENS ZIJN IS MEER DAN ALLEEN INTELLIGENTIE EN IK WEET NIET OF WE DAT ZULLEN KUNNEN BENADEREN”
Strong vs Weak Daarnaast wordt kunstmatige intelligentie ook verdeeld in strong AI (sterke KI) en weak AI (zwakke KI). Een strong AI is een systeem dat ‘echt’ kan denken en een bewustzijn heeft, een weak AI is een systeem dat alleen kan handelen alsof het denkt en een bewustzijn heeft. Het probleem is dat deze termen niet heel duidelijk gedefinieerd zijn. Om op Alpha Go terug te komen, op het gebied van het spelen van Go is het een strong AI, maar gezien in een bredere context is het een weak AI omdat het niet verder komt dan het spelen van het spel. Dit is ook het onderscheid dat door veel mensen gemaakt wordt wanneer ze zeggen dat een kunstmatige intelligentie nooit kan bestaan: daarmee bedoelen ze niet dat Alpha Go geen kunstmatige intelligentie is, maar dat een strong AI met dezelfde capaciteiten als een mens niet mogelijk is. Jan Broersen vraagt zich ook af of we ooit tot strong AI zullen komen: “Mens zijn is meer dan alleen intelligentie. Ik weet niet of we dat zullen kunnen benaderen. De wetenschappers die begonnen met het onderzoek in artificiële intelligentie hadden de verwachting dat dat haalbaar moest zijn, alleen veel wetenschappers kijken daar tegenwoordig anders tegenaan.”
KI IN OORLOGSSITUATIES
Het lijkt een kwestie van tijd voor ontwikkelingen binnen de robotica en kunstmatige intelligentie leiden tot zogenoemde ‘killer robots’: autonome wapens die zelf kunnen beslissen of ze iemand doden of niet. Hoe gaan we daar grip op houden? We vroegen het robotica-deskundige Koen Hindriks recent. Lees hier wat hij daarover te vertellen had.
Morele vraagstukken Of het ooit zover komt dat een strong AI gemaakt wordt is een vraag waar nu geen antwoord op te geven is. Maar dat is ook niet van belang, belangrijker zijn de morele vraagstukken die gepaard gaan met de ontwikkeling van kunstmatige intelligentie. Want ook toepassingen die bedoeld zijn om de mens te helpen in plaats van te doden, hebben aspecten waar goed over nagedacht moet worden. Volgens Broersen is het gevaar van kunstmatige intelligentie niet zozeer dat zij kwaadaardig tegenover de mens zullen zijn, maar eerder dat mensen ze voor ‘kwaadaardige’ doeleinden zullen gebruiken. Op dit moment is het vooral oplichting dat hij ziet als gevaar: “Met nieuwe technologie zie je dat in eerste instantie de snelle jongens erop springen. Iedereen kan AI-technieken downloaden van het internet. Vervolgens trainen ze deze AI’s op wat financiële data en zeggen ze dat ze op basis van ‘advanced AI’ aanbevelingen kunnen doen voor de aankoop van aandelen en dergelijke. Veel mensen zullen daarin trappen, want AI is een buzz-woord en niet iedereen weet goed wat het inhoudt.” Op het moment dat AI wat verder is en er autonome systemen komen, komt er een ander belangrijk vraagstuk naar voren: wie is verantwoordelijke als er iets gebeurd door toedoen van een kunstmatige intelligentie? “Voor de wet kunnen we dit allemaal dicht timmeren. In het Europees Parlement zijn er al gesprekken over een wet die zegt dat een AI aansprakelijk kan worden gehouden. Maar moreel gezien ligt die vraag toch een stuk complexer.”
Over een jaar of twintig is de zelfrijdende auto – bomvol met KI – een feit, zo denkt Broersen.
Autonome systemen Een systeem dat autonoom kan handelen moet altijd een manier hebben waarop het goede van slechte opties kan onderscheiden. Neem bijvoorbeeld een routeplanner: autonoom stippelt deze een route uit van punt A naar B. Het doel dat het hierbij heeft, is het minimaliseren van de tijd die het kost om van A naar B te komen. Alle verschillende routes die er mogelijk zijn hebben een bepaalde waarde: de tijd in minuten die de route afleggen kost. Deze waarde in minuten geeft aan welke optie beter is dan een andere optie. De routeplanner ‘kiest’ dan vervolgens de route met het laagste aantal minuten waarmee het zijn doel voltooit. De regels waar een routeplanner aan moet voldoen zijn redelijk eenvoudig te programmeren, maar dat wordt lastiger wanneer de systemen complexer worden. “Als er veel verschillende situaties zijn waar een artificiële intelligentie voor kan komen te staan, dan is het onmogelijk om voor al die verschillende situaties de regels in te bouwen in het systeem. Voor zulk soort situaties wordt er vaak gebruik gemaakt van een subsymbolisch systeem, zoals bijvoorbeeld een neuraal netwerk.” Subsymbolisch betekent dat er niet langer regels zijn die in woorden uit zijn te drukken, maar dat de AI van veel verschillende situaties geleerd heeft wat de regels zouden moeten zijn.
“HET IS ZEER WAARSCHIJNLIJK DAT KI EEN KEER DE VERKEERDE BESLISSING NEEMT. EN WIE IS ER DAN VERANTWOORDELIJK?”
Stel je de volgende situatie voor: een zelfrijdende auto nadert een zebrapad waar een voetganger wil oversteken. Op het moment dat de auto wil gaan remmen om de voetganger over te laten steken, merkt de auto dat de remmen niet meer werken. Na een snelle berekening komt de auto tot de conclusie dat er twee opties zijn: of de voetganger die inmiddels aan het oversteken is, doodrijden of de auto tegen de muur sturen waarbij de bestuurder omkomt. Als deze situatie tijdens de training niet aan bod is gekomen, dan zal de auto uit de situaties die wel aan bod zijn gekomen moeten afleiden wat het moet doen. Er is sprake van abstracte regels die niet in woorden zijn uit te drukken, maar die het systeem moet halen uit de voorbeelden die het wel kent. Omdat het onmogelijk is om tijdens het leren alle mogelijke situaties aan bod te laten komen, zal het systeem op basis van wat het geleerd heeft, moeten handelen. Maar omdat er enorm veel situaties mogelijk zijn, is er zeer waarschijnlijk wel een specifieke situatie waarin de AI het verkeerde besluit neemt. “De vraag is dan wie verantwoordelijk is. Wettelijk gezien kan dat allemaal dicht getimmerd worden, maar moreel gezien is het een stuk moeilijker. Dit is ook mijn onderzoeksgebied, want waar ligt die verantwoordelijkheid nou precies? De één vindt bij de AI en de ander bij degene die de AI heeft ingezet, de maker. Het antwoord is niet eenvoudig.” Volgens Broersen zie je dat de discussie al langzaam op gang komt, maar zal hij pas echt gevoerd worden wanneer er ongelukken gebeuren met kunstmatige intelligentie, en die zijn onvermijdelijk als AI overal om ons heen is.
Gedragspatronen Broersen denkt overigens dat het niet lang meer gaat duren voor KI overal is. Hij verwacht dat over een jaar of twintig de zelfrijdende auto een feit is. Maar KI zal op veel meer plekken te vinden zijn dan alleen in de zelfrijdende auto. “Ik denk dat het overal aanwezig zal zijn en dan vooral in de informatievoorziening en -vergaring. We dragen nu allemaal al een apparaat bij ons waar we alles mee doen en de bedrijven daarachter zullen in toenemende mate artificiële intelligentie gaan gebruiken om onze gedragspatronen te analyseren. Die informatie zullen ze gebruiken om ons te beïnvloeden en te voorspellen wat we willen, want dat is waar AI heel goed in is.”
Zelf is Broersen heel nieuwsgierig of kunstmatige intelligentie ooit in staat zal zijn om muziek te maken die mensen raakt: “Ik denk dat je voor muziek gevoel voor schoonheid en emotie nodig hebt. Als een computer in staat is om muziek te maken die mij raakt, dan zal ik misschien overstag moeten gaan en zeggen dat AI misschien toch in staat is om ons in alle opzichten te evenaren.” Of dat ooit zo zal zijn is iets wat we moeten afwachten, maar dat de ontwikkelingen snel gaan, daarover bestaat geen discussie.
Thomas van Zwol (1991) heeft de bachelor Kunstmatige Intelligentie aan de Universiteit Utrecht afgerond en is nu bezig zijn opleiding Journalistiek af te maken. Binnen de KI heeft hij zich gespecialiseerd in agents en machine learning. Door zijn wetenschappelijke achtergrond is hij als journalist goed in staat om onderzoeken te begrijpen om de informatie vervolgens op zo’n manier op te schrijven dat het voor veel mensen toegankelijk is.
Interview met Jan Broersen, universitair hoofddocent en onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Utrecht Russell, S. J., Norvig, P., & Canny, J. (2003). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach Afbeelding bovenaan dit artikel: HypnoArt / Pixabay
Onderzoekers zien kometen buiten ons zonnestelsel sterven
Onderzoekers zien kometen buiten ons zonnestelsel sterven
De kometen vonden de dood rond een ster op zo’n 800 lichtjaar afstand van de aarde.
Een amateur-astronoom ontdekte de stervende kometen toen hij de enorme dataset die ruimtetelescoop Kepler heeft verzameld, uitploos. Deze ruimtetelescoop is sinds 2009 actief en tuurt langdurig naar sterren in de hoop hun helderheid regelmatig af te zien nemen. Zo’n afname in de helderheid kan namelijk wijzen op de aanwezigheid van een planeet die terwijl hij zijn baantjes rond de ster trekt op gezette tijden een deel van het licht van die ster tegenhoudt. Op die manier heeft Kepler al meer dan 2400 exoplaneten ontdekt.
Kepler heeft in de acht jaar dat deze actief is, enorm veel data gegenereerd. Computers spitten die informatie met behulp van speciale algoritmes door, op zoek naar interessante lichtcurves. Maar een computer kan natuurlijk wel eens iets over het hoofd zien. En daarom werd Planet Hunters in het leven geroepen. Een project waarbij het publiek de data van Kepler door kan spitten op zoek naar iets bijzonders. “Het is voor mij een soort schatzoeken,” stelt Jacobs, die overdag jobcoach is, maar ‘s avonds en in de weekenden op planeten jaagt. De ontdekking van de zes exokometen toont maar weer eens aan hoe belangrijk de Planet Hunters zijn. “Ik denk dat het terecht is om te concluderen dat geen enkel algoritme ze had kunnen vinden,” aldus onderzoeker Saul Rappaport.
Eenmalige dipjes Amateur-astronoom Thomas Jacobs – een lid van Planet Hunters (zie kader) – spitte op een avond de Kepler-data door, op zoek naar iets bijzonders. Hij zocht specifiek naar enkele overgangen: eenmalige dipjes in de helderheid van sterren die onmogelijk door planeten veroorzaakt konden worden. En in maart van dit jaar had hij beet: hij ontdekte drie eenmalige en bijzondere dipjes in de helderheid van de ster KIC 3542116. Onmiddellijk trok hij bij een aantal astronomen aan de bel. En daarop ontdekten zij nog eens drie van die eenmalige overgangen rond dezelfde ster.
Verklaring “We waren er een maand mee bezig,” vertelt onderzoeker Saul Rappaport. “Omdat we niet wisten wat het was: planeetovergangen zien er niet zo uit.” Als een planeet voor een ster langsbeweegt, zien we de helderheid geleidelijk aan afnemen en vervolgens weer – met dezelfde snelheid – geleidelijk aan toenemen. Maar de afname in helderheid die Jacobs en de astronomen spotten, verliepen heel anders. Er was sprake van een scherpe afname, gevolgd door een geleidelijke toename in helderheid.
Komeet Het deed Rappaport in eerste instantie denken aan de lichtcurve die we zien als rond zo’n ster een planeet uit elkaar aan het vallen is. Achter zo’n planeet bevindt zich dan puin dat zelfs als de planeetovergang al bijna ten einde is, nog een beetje licht tegen kan houden. Maar ook in zo’n scenario zou je regelmatige afnames in de helderheid van de ster verwachten, omdat zo’n planeet met een vaste snelheid rond de ster reist. Die regelmaat was echter ver te zoeken in de overgangen die rond KIC 3542116 waren waargenomen. “Wij dachten: het enige hemellichaam dat hetzelfde (zo’n dip in de helderheid, red.) kan veroorzaken en dat maar één keer kan doen, is een hemellichaam dat aan het einde vernietigd wordt.” En dan is er eigenlijk maar één optie. “Het enige object dat in het verhaal past en zo’n kleine massa heeft dat deze vernietigd kan worden, is een komeet.”
“HET IS TAMELIJK INDRUKWEKKEND OM IN STAAT TE ZIJN OM IETS WAT ZO KLEIN IS EN ZO VER WEG IS, TE ZIEN”
Stofstaart In totaal hebben de onderzoekers dus zes exokometen ontdekt. Of beter gezegd: de sporen van zes exokometen ontdekt. Want berekeningen wijzen uit dat elke komeet die rond KIC 3542116 werd gespot ongeveer een tiende van 1 procent van het licht van de ster tegenhield. Een komeetkern kan nooit zo lang, zo’n grote hoeveelheid sterlicht blokken. Daarom worden de afnames in de helderheid van de ster toegeschreven aan de stofstaart die achterbleef nadat de kometen uiteen waren gevallen.
Uniek Het onderzoek is bijzonder. Nog niet eerder zijn er afgaand op overgangen zulke kleine objecten ontdekt. “Het is tamelijk indrukwekkend om in staat te zijn om iets wat zo klein is en zo ver weg is, te zien,” stelt Rappaport.
Daarnaast kan het onderzoek wel eens leiden tot nieuwe inzichten. We hebben hier immers zes kometen die in de afgelopen vier jaar zo dicht bij hun ster in de buurt kwamen, dat ze het niet na konden vertellen. “Waarom zijn er zoveel kometen in de binnenste regio’s van deze zonnestelsels?” vraagt onderzoeker Andrew Vanderburg zich hardop af. “Is dit een tijdperk van extreme bombardementen in deze zonnestelsels?” Het zou kunnen. Ook ons eigen zonnestelsel maakte zo’n enorm bombardement mee en aangenomen wordt dat het van cruciaal belang was voor het ontstaan van leven op aarde: kometen zouden hier water hebben afgeleverd.
“Misschien kan het bestuderen van exokometen en uitzoeken waarom ze rond dit type ster te vinden zijn ons meer inzicht geven in hoe dergelijke bombardementen in andere zonnestelsels ontstaan.”
Stoffig fonteintje op Rosetta's komeet werd van binnenuit aangedreven
Stoffig fonteintje op Rosetta's komeet werd van binnenuit aangedreven
“Er spelen duidelijk processen in kometen die we nog niet helemaal begrijpen.”
Een paar maanden voor de missie van Rosetta ten einde kwam, spotte de sonde iets bijzonders op de komeet waar deze omheen cirkelde. Op het oppervlak van 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was een stofpluim te zien. “We zagen een heldere stofpluim die als een fontein van het oppervlak werd weggeduwd,” vertelt onderzoeker Jessica Agarwal. “Het duurde ongeveer een uur en daarbij kwam ongeveer 18 kilogram stof per seconde vrij.”
Afbeelding: ESA / Rosetta / MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS / UPD / LAM / IAA / SSO / INTA / UPM / DASP / IDA.
Rosetta fotografeerde de stofpluim niet alleen, maar was ook in staat om het materiaal dat de ‘fontein’ opwierp, te bestuderen. “Rosetta vloog toevallig door de pluim heen,” stelt Agarwal. In eerste instantie dachten de onderzoekers dat de oorsprong van de ‘fontein’ op het oppervlak van de komeet lag. Denk aan oppervlakte-ijs dat door toedoen van het zonlicht verdampt en stof met zich meevoert. Maar de metingen van Rosetta vertellen een heel ander verhaal. Deze fontein bracht zoveel stof in de ruimte: er moest iets anders aan de hand zijn. “Er moet vanonder het oppervlak energie zijn vrijgekomen om deze stofpluim aan te drijven. Er spelen duidelijk processen in kometen die we nog niet helemaal begrijpen.”
Onduidelijk blijft dan ook waar de energie die deze fontein een uur lang bezighield, vandaan kwam. Onderzoekers kunnen daar op dit moment alleen maar over speculeren. Zo zou het kunnen dat onder het oppervlak van de komeet holtes te vinden zijn die gevuld zijn met gas dat onder zeer hoge druk staat. Wanneer het zonlicht het bovenliggende oppervlak verwarmt, kunnen scheuren ontstaan, waardoor dat gas ontsnapt. Of gas werkelijk de drijvende kracht achter dit fonteintje is, wordt hopelijk snel duidelijk. Op dit moment combineren onderzoekers metingen van Rosetta met computersimulaties en laboratoriumexperimenten om de kwestie tot op de bodem uit te zoeken.
Vreemd genoeg gedraagt het röntgenpoollicht op de zuidpool van Jupiter zich anders dan het röntgenpoollicht op de noordpool van de planeet. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van ESA’s XMM-Newton en NASA’s Chandra-röntgenobservatorium.
De emissies op de zuidpool pulseren iedere elf minuten. En dat terwijl de emissies op de noordpool veel onregelmatiger pulseren. Op aarde gedraagt röntgenpoollicht zich op beide polen ongeveer gelijk. Op andere grote planeten – zoals op Saturnus – is er geen röntgenpoollicht te zien. Er is wel poollicht, maar niet in dit spectrum.
Het is niet bekend waarom de geladen deeltjes op de noordpool op een andere snelheid langs de magnetische veldlijnen stuiteren. “We hadden dit zeker niet verwacht, omdat we dachten dat de activiteit gestuurd zou worden door het magnetische veld van de planeet”, zegt hoofdonderzoeker William Dunn van het Harvard-Smithsonian Centrum voor Astrofysica.
Het is van belang dat wetenschappers begrijpen waarom het röntgenpoollicht op de noordpool zich anders gedraagt dan op de zuidpool. “Dan leren we ook meer over andere hemellichamen, zoals bruine dwergen, exoplaneten en misschien zelfs neutronensterren”, zegt Dunn. Zo draait het ruimtevaartuig Juno momenteel op de reuzenplaneet. Deze ruimtesonde heeft geen röntgeninstrument, maar dat is geen ramp. Nu vergelijken wetenschappers observaties in andere spectra met de röntgenobservaties door andere sondes, zoals XMM-Newton en Chandra. Zo kunnen modellen fijngeslepen worden.
Everything in the universe someday comes to an end. Even stars. Though some might last for trillions of years, steadily sipping away at their hydrogen reserves and converting them to helium, they eventually run out of fuel. And when they do, the results can be pretty spectacular.
The most spectacular deaths, though, are reserved for the most massive stars. Once an object builds up to at least eight times the mass of the sun, interesting games can be played inside the core, with … explosive results.
Walking the nuclear line
Any star, no matter how massive, walks a thin tightrope. On one side is the crushing gravity of the star's own weight, which provides the pressures and temperatures necessary to achieve nuclear fusion in the core and turn hydrogen into helium. But that fusion process releases energy, which puts the star in a more expansive mood than gravity does alone.
To understand how this works, let’s work through a thought experiment. Imagine that the gravity were to increase a tiny bit, then the increased pressure would raise the intensity level of the fusion reactions, which, in turn, would release more energy and thus prevent further collapse of the star. And on the opposite end, if the fusion party were to get just a little bit wilder, it would cause to star to overinflate, lessening the grip of gravity and easing the pressure in the core, cooling things off.
This balancing act enables a star to last millions, billions and even trillions of years.
Until it doesn't.
The game can be played as long as there's fuel to keep the lights on. As long as there's a sufficient supply of hydrogen near the core, the star can keep cranking out the helium and keep resisting the inevitable crush of gravity.
A crushing force
I'm not just using a flair of language when I describe the crush of gravity as inevitable. Gravity never stops, never sleeps, never halts. It can be resisted for a long time, but not forever.
As a star ages, it builds up a core of inert helium. Once the hydrogen supply exhausts itself, there's nothing to stop the infalling weight of the surrounding material. That is, until the core reaches a scorching temperature of 100 million kelvins (180 million degrees Fahrenheit), at which point helium itself begins to fuse.
Hooray, the party's back on! Well, for a while, at least. Helium fusion isn't as efficient as good ol' hydrogen, so the reactions happen at an even faster pace to compete with gravity.
While the "main sequence" of a star's life may last hundreds of millions of years as it happily burns hydrogen, the helium phase barely lasts a single million.
The product of helium fusion is carbon and oxygen, and the same game gets played again, but at even higher temperatures and shorter timescales. Once the helium is sucked dry, the core collapses and intensifies to 1 billion K (1.8 billion degrees F), allowing those new elements to get their turn.
Out of control
Then, silicon fuses at around 3 billion K (5.4 billion degrees F) in the core, generating iron. Surrounded by plasmatic onion-like layers of oxygen, neon, carbon, helium and hydrogen, the situation at the center starts to get dicey.
The problem is that, due to its internal nuclear configuration, fusing iron consumes energy rather than releases it. Gravity keeps pressing in, shoving iron atoms together, but there's no longer anything to oppose its push.
In less than a day, after millions of years of peaceful nuclear regime changes, the star forms a solid core of iron, and everything goes haywire.
n a matter of minutes, the intense gravitational pressure slams electrons into the iron nuclei, transforming protons into neutrons. The small, dense neutron core finally has the courage to resist gravity, not by releasing energy but through an effect called degeneracy pressure. You can only pack so many neutrons into a box; eventually, they won’t squeeze any tighter without overwhelming force, and in the first stages of a supernova explosion, even gravity can't muster enough pull.
So now you have, say, a couple dozen suns' worth of material collapsing inward onto an implacable core. Collapse. Bounce. Boom.
The inside-out inferno
Except there's a stall. The shock front, ready to blast out from the core and shred the star to stellar pieces, loses energy and slows down. There's a bounce but no boom.
To be perfectly honest, we're not exactly sure what happens next. Our earliest simulations of this process failed to make stars actually blow up. Since they do blow up in reality, we know we're missing something.
For a while, astrophysicists assumed neutrinos might come to the rescue. These ghostly particles hardly ever interact with normal matter, but they're manufactured in such ridiculously quantities during the "bounce" phase that they can reinvigorate the shock front, filling its sails so it can finish the job.
But more sophisticated simulations in the past decade have revealed that not even neutrinos can do the trick. There's plenty of energy to power a supernova blast, but it's not in the right place at the right time.
The initial moments of a supernova are a very difficult time to understand, with plasma physics, nuclear reactions, radiation, neutrinos, radiation — a whole textbook's worth of processes happening all at once. Only further observations and better simulations can fully unlock the final moments of a star's life. Until then, we can only sit back and enjoy the show.
A Special Comet Makes Grand Return to NASA Spacecraft's Field of View
A Special Comet Makes Grand Return to NASA Spacecraft's Field of View
By Elizabeth Howell, Space.com Contributor
A special comet just made its grand return to the view of one of NASA's sun-gazing spacecraft. Comet 96P/Machholz was caught on camera by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), which is co-managed by the European Space Agency.
A picture from Oct. 25 shows Comet 96P in the bottom-right corner of the image, exactly as predicted. The comet made its way up the right-hand side of the spacecraft's field of view before disappearing out of sight on Monday (Oct. 30). A composite image of the comet's travels released Friday (Oct. 27) showcases that flyby.
"In years past, comet 96P has produced some beautiful images from SOHO's imagers," reads a statement on SOHO's page. "Its passage in 2002 was perhaps the most stunning so far, with a bonus coronal mass ejection, or CME, erupting just a few hours after the comet passed the sun." (A CME is a burst of charged particles from the sun that is often associated with solar flares.)
"It's worth noting that there was no link between the two — we sometimes see as many as six more CMEs in a day, so it's no surprise to see a comet at the same time," the SOHO statement added. "But nonetheless, it makes for a beautiful display! This time around it won't look quite so spectacular, but with an estimated peak magnitude of +2, it will still be very bright."
Comet 96P was discovered by amateur astronomer Don Machholz in 1986, and it orbits the sun every 5.24 years. Its closest approach to the sun is about three times closer than the distance between the sun and Mercury, at 11 million miles (18 million kilometers) or just over one-tenth the distance between the Earth and the sun.
SOHO itself is a prolific comet gazer, even though its primary mission is to observe the sun's behavior and make better predictions about when solar activity will affect Earth. Since its launch in December 1995, it has spotted well over 3,000 comets.
During this flyby, for the first time, 96P will be seen by both SOHO and another spacecraft at the very same time. NASA's STEREO-A (Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead) spacecraft will observe the comet from nearly the opposite side of Earth's orbit. The comet should appear in the spacecraft's field of view between Saturday (Oct. 28) and Monday.
About 10 of these new worlds may be Earth-size and habitable.
The Kepler space telescope that discovered the new planets has so far found more than 4,000 worlds.
The results suggest there may be billions of Earthlike planets in the Milky Way galaxy.
NASA scientists on Monday announced the discovery of 219 new objects beyond our solar system that are almost certainly planets.
What's more, 10 of these worlds may be rocky, about the size of Earth, and habitable.
The data comes from the space agency's long-running Kepler exoplanet-hunting mission. From March 2009 through May 2013, Kepler stared down about 145,000 sunlike stars in a tiny section of the night sky near the constellation Cygnus.
Most of those stars are hundreds or thousands of light-years away, so there's little chance humans will ever visit them — at least anytime soon. However, the data could tell astronomers how common Earthlike planets are and what the chances of finding intelligent extraterrestrial life might be.
"We have taken our telescope, and we have counted up how many planets are similar to the Earth in this part of the sky," Susan Thompson, a Kepler research scientist at the SETI Institute, said during a press conference at NASA Ames Research Center on Monday.
"We said, 'How many planets there are similar to Earth?' With the data I have, I can now make that count," she said. "We're going to determine how common other planets are. Are there other places we could live in the galaxy that we don't yet call home?"
Added to Kepler's previous discoveries, the 10 new Earthlike planet candidates make 49 total, Thompson said. If any of them have stable atmospheres, there's even a chance they could harbor alien life.
Scientists wouldn't say too much about the 10 new planets, only that they appear to be roughly Earth-size and orbit in their stars' "habitable zone" — where water is likely to be stable and liquid, not frozen or boiled away. That doesn't guarantee these planets are habitable, though. Beyond harboring a stable atmosphere, things like plate tectonics and not being tidally lockedmay also be essential.
However, Kepler researchers suspect that almost countless Earthlike planets are waiting to be found, because the telescope can "see" only exoplanets that pass in front of their stars.
The transit method of detecting planets that Kepler scientists use involves looking for dips in a star's brightness, caused by a planet blocking a fraction of the starlight (similar to how the moon eclipses the sun).
Because most planets orbit in the same disk or plane, and because that plane is rarely aligned with Earth, Kepler can see only a fraction of distant solar systems — those angled even slightly are invisible to the transit method.
Despite those challenges, Kepler has revealed the existence of 4,034 planet candidates, with 2,335 of those confirmed as exoplanets — and these are just the planets found in 0.25% of the night sky.
"In fact, you'd need 400 Keplers to cover the whole sky," Mario Perez, a Kepler program scientist at NASA, said during the briefing.
The biggest number of planets appears to be a new class of planets, called "mini-Neptunes," Benjamin Fulton, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and the California Institute of Technology, said during the briefing.
The size of such worlds is between Earth's and that of the gas giants of our solar system, and they are most likely the most numerous kind in the universe. "Super-Earths," which are rocky planets that can be up to 10 times as massive as our own, are also very common.
While just 49 of Kepler's thousands of planet candidates are Earth-size and in a habitable zone, the discovery has rocked the scientific world: This could mean billions of such worlds exist in the Milky Way galaxy alone.
"This number could have been very, very small," Courtney Dressing, an astronomer at Caltech, said during the briefing. "I, for one, am ecstatic."
Kepler finished collecting its first mission's data in May 2013, when two hardware failures limited the telescope's ability to aim at one area of the night sky and stare at sunlike stars.
It has taken scientists years to analyze that information because it's often difficult to parse, interpret, and verify. Thompson said this new Kepler data analysis would be the last for this leg of the telescope's first observations.
However, Kepler's work may be far from over. Scientists came up with a backup plan, called the K2 mission.
K2, which kicked off in May 2014, takes advantage of Kepler's restricted aim to study a variety of objects in space, including supernovas, baby stars, comets, and even asteroids.
But a special focus of K2 involves studying smaller, cooler stars called red dwarfs, which are increasingly exciting to astronomers. In February, for example, a different one revealed the existence of seven rocky, Earth-size planets circling a red dwarf star.
An illustration of what it might look like on the surface of TRAPPIST-1f, a rocky planet 39 light-years away from Earth.
Such red dwarf stars are the most common in the universe and can have more angry outbursts of solar flares and coronal mass ejections than sunlike stars.
Kepler will wrap up its work sometime in the next year or two. When it runs out of fuel to do its work, a new and more powerful NASA space telescope, called the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), should be ready to pick up the work of locating Earthlike planets.
In a first for the whole of mankind, stunning images have been released of what is believed to be the first “alien” comet humans have ever seen in our solar system.
An international team of researchers, led by scientists from Queen’s University Belfast, are using powerful telescopes to study the chemical make-up of the small rocky object, which was first identified through a telescope in Hawaii last week.
Professor Alan Fitzsimmons, from the School of Mathematics and Physics at Queen’s, described the discovery as sending a “shiver down your spine.” Commenting on the project, he said:
"By Wednesday this week it became almost certain this object was alien to our solar system.
“We immediately started studying it that night with the William Herschel Telescope in the Canary Islands, then on Thursday night with the Very Large Telescope in Chile," he added.
The first bits of data on the fast-moving object, catchily named A/2017 U1, show it is already on its way back out into the stars after flying close the sun last month.
It is also believed it has been drifting through the galaxy for millions or even billions of years, before entering our solar system by chance. It’s thought it was thrown out of another star system during a planet’s formation.
An organisation created by the former insiders aims to carry out top-level research into the search for answers to the UFO mystery.
The Scientific Coalition for Ufology (SCU) formally launched this month.
In a statement, the group said it "hopes to bring the discipline and rigour of scientific analysis to the study of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAPs), also known as Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs).
It added: "A group of scientists, former military and law enforcement officials and other professionals, many of whom have decades of experience looking into UAPs, believe there are many unanswered questions, and that a serious examination is warranted."
Rich Hoffman, SCU board member, said: “SCU is composed of serious, dedicated, researchers who do not merely gloss over this subject, but rather they dive into it, investigate it broadly, remain objective and apply the scientific method and its principles to the study.
“We seek to have formal peer reviewed works being printed in journals, not tabloids.”
Mr Hoffman is an IT professional and a senior engineer at US Army Materiel Command, at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, who has been researching UAPs since 1964.
The Army Materiel Command is involved in research and development of weapons systems for the US Army.
Fellow board member Robert Powell said: “It is important that there exists a scientific organisation that examines the UFO phenomenon in a scientific and open minded manner.
"There is too much silliness associated with this topic when the core reality of the phenomenon has potentially real implications for society.
"An organisation that can be trusted to provide the media with an impartial and scientific view of the phenomenon is needed.”
Mr Powell is retired from a career as a research and development lab and engineering manager. For several years he served as the director of research and chair of the scientific board for an international volunteer UFO research organisation.
He added: “Ultimately we want to determine whether intelligent life exists elsewhere and whether it has visited our planet.
"We want scientists and investigators involved with our organisation in as many varied fields as possible to affiliate with us in a common objective to scientifically study the UFO phenomenon.”
The SCU was first brought together as an impromptu group of researchers organised to examine a mysterious video captured by Homeland Security over Aguadilla, Puerto Rico.
The group spent months looking into the technical aspects of the video and researching its provenance.
The SCO statement added: "In the end, it remains a controversial case, and one which the group could not solve.
UFO TRUTH: Former government insiders want a scientific analysis of the phenomena.
SCU is composed of serious, dedicated, researchers who do not merely gloss over this subject, but rather they dive into it, investigate it broadly, remain objective and apply the scientific method and its principles to the study.
"They continue to examine this case, and felt it would be helpful to bring in more professionals to put the same level of scrutiny to bear on other UFO cases, and to facilitate peer review of research papers on the topic."
Mr Hoffman added: "Our hope is that other scientists and professionals who also have a desire that may be developing, or has laid dormant, will connect with us, become an affiliate, and lend us their intellect and their interest in finding the best approach to the scientific study of this phenomenon.
“Our desire is to build a worldwide coalition that will give us the answers we have long been seeking. What is the nature of the phenomena we call UFOs?”
Earlier this month former Blink 182 front man Tom DeLonge launched a similar UFO organisation.
The Pope speaks to astronauts on the International Space Station, a sun-like star might have devoured more than a dozen Earth-sized planets, the notes of a teenage astronomer were uncovered from over a century ago, and Stephen Hawking's doctoral thesis crashes a website in some of this week's top stories at Space.com.
Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
1. Cold new visitor enters the solar system
Photo Credit: NASA
2. NASA forced to trim its budget
Photo Credit: CTV
3. Pope phoned 'higher' beings
Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/LRO
4. Celebrate the moon on Saturday, Oct. 28!
Photo Credit: SOHO/ESA & NASA
5. After five years, comet makes solar return
Photo Credit: University of Warwick
6. Oldest-known astrolabe discovered
Photo Credit: Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute
7. Teenage astronomer recorded powerful solar flare
The past few decades have ushered in an amazing era in the science of cosmology. A diverse array of high-precision measurements has allowed us to reconstruct our universe’s history in remarkable detail.
This line of research has, frankly, been more successful than I think we had any right to have hoped. We know more about the origin and history of our universe today than almost anyone a few decades ago would have guessed that we would learn in such a short time.
But despite these very considerable successes, there remains much more to be learned. And in some ways, the discoveries made in recent decades have raised as many new questions as they have answered.
One of the most vexing gets at the heart of what our universe is actually made of. Cosmological observations have determined the average density of matter in our universe to very high precision. But this density turns out to be much greater than can be accounted for with ordinary atoms.
After decades of measurements and debate, we are now confident that the overwhelming majority of our universe’s matter – about 84 percent – is not made up of atoms, or of any other known substance. Although we can feel the gravitational pull of this other matter, and clearly tell that it’s there, we simply do not know what it is. This mysterious stuff is invisible, or at least nearly so. For lack of a better name, we call it “dark matter.” But naming something is very different from understanding it.
Astronomers map dark matter indirectly, via its gravitational pull on other objects. Image via NASA, ESA, and D. Coe
For almost as long as we’ve known that dark matter exists, physicists and astronomers have been devising ways to try to learn what it’s made of. They’ve built ultra-sensitive detectors, deployed indeep underground mines, in an effort to measure the gentle impacts of individual dark matter particles colliding with atoms.
They’ve built exotic telescopes – sensitive not to optical light but to less familiar gamma rays, cosmic rays and neutrinos – to search for the high-energy radiation that is thought to be generated through the interactions of dark matter particles.
And we have searched for signs of dark matter using incredible machines which accelerate beams of particles – typically protons or electrons – up to the highest speeds possible, and then smash them into one another in an effort to convert their energy into matter. The idea is these collisions could create new and exotic substances, perhaps including the kinds of particles that make up the dark matter of our universe.
As recently as a decade ago, most cosmologists – including myself – were reasonably confident that we would soon begin to solve the puzzle of dark matter. After all, there was an ambitious experimental program on the horizon, which we anticipated would enable us to identify the nature of this substance and to begin to measure its properties. This program included the world’s most powerful particle accelerator – the Large Hadron Collider – as well as an array of other new experiments and powerful telescopes.
Experiments at CERN are trying to zero in on dark matter – but so far no dice.
But things did not play out the way that we expected them to. Although these experiments and observations have been carried out as well as or better than we could have hoped, the discoveries did not come.
Over the past 15 years, for example, experiments designed to detect individual particles of dark matter have become a million times more sensitive, and yet no signs of these elusive particles have appeared. And although the Large Hadron Collider has by all technical standards performed beautifully, with the exception of the Higgs boson, no new particles or other phenomena have been discovered.
At Fermilab, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search uses towers of disks made from silicon and germanium to search for particle interactions from dark matter.
The stubborn elusiveness of dark matter has left many scientists both surprised and confused. We had what seemed like very good reasons to expect particles of dark matter to be discovered by now. And yet the hunt continues, and the mystery deepens.
In many ways, we have only more open questions now than we did a decade or two ago. And at times, it can seem that the more precisely we measure our universe, the less we understand it. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, theoretical particle physicists were often very successful at predicting the kinds of particles that would be discovered as accelerators became increasingly powerful. It was a truly impressive run.
But our prescience seems to have come to an end – the long-predicted particles associated with our favorite and most well-motivated theories have stubbornly refused to appear. Perhaps the discoveries of such particles are right around the corner, and our confidence will soon be restored. But right now, there seems to be little support for such optimism.
In response, droves of physicists are going back to their chalkboards, revisiting and revising their assumptions. With bruised egos and a bit more humility, we are desperately attempting to find a new way to make sense of our world.
Dan Hooper, Associate Scientist in Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Associate Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago
This is a pretty big deal: A newly discovered object currently heading out of our solar system is looking very much like it’s our first true interstellar visitor: an asteroid from another star.
It’s called A/2017 U1, and it’s probably less than about 400 meters wide. It was discovered just last week, on October 19, in observations made by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). This telescope sweeps the skies, looking for moving objects. Right away it looked like this was an unusual object: It was moving too fast.
Teh path of A/2017 U1 took it from interstellar space to deep inside the solar system on a hyperbolic orbit. A typical highly elliptical comet orbit is shown for comparison.
If an object in the solar system is in a stable, bound orbit around the Sun, its speed depends pretty much on two things: Its distance from the Sun and the shape of its orbit. At the distance of the Earth from the Sun, for example, an object can be moving at anything up to a little over 40 kilometers per second. The Earth orbits in roughly a circle at just under 30 km/sec. An object on an elliptical orbit that stretches as far out as Earth’s orbit will be moving more slowly than that at aphelion (the point in its orbit when its most distant from the Sun).
But if an object is at the same distance as the Earth from the Sun and moving faster than about 42 km/sec, the object is no longer bound to the Sun. This means the object is moving faster than escape velocity (the shape of the orbit is a hyperbola), and will never return. Once it’s gone, it’s gone.
A/2017 U1 passed the Sun inside the orbit of Mercury in early September, curving sharply due to the Sun’s gravity, and is now on its way out. It’s already farther away from the Sun than Earth is, moving at a very brisk 44km/sec. That’s too fast. It’s not going to come back; it’s heading out into interstellar space*.
How did it get this much speed? Sometimes, objects like comets can get an extra kick by passing by a big planet like Jupiter. But A/2017 U1’s orbit doesn’t bring it near any big planets. In fact, the orbit is tilted to the plane of the solar system by 122°, nearly perpendicular to it. That means it had this huge speed already on its way in.
And that means it must have come from interstellar space. From another star. †
In fact, tracing the orbit backwards, it looks like it came somewhere from the constellation of Lyra, and was already cruising through interstellar space at a speed of over 25 km/sec! At that speed so far out it can’t possibly have an origin inside our solar system, so this is truly an alien object.
Holy wow. I mean, holy wow.
At first it was thought this might be a comet, but very deep images of it show no activity from it at all, no escaping gas or dust. That makes it extremely unlikely to have any ice on its surface, things like frozen water, carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide, which are usually seen in comets. Instead, it must be rocky or metallic, like an asteroid. At the moment it’s not clear what it’s made of, but a lot of telescopes are being aimed at it; hopefully soon a spectrum may reveal its composition. That’ll be very interesting indeed.
The interstellar asteroid A/2017 U1, images using a 40 cm telescope when the object was about 60 million km from Earth and at a magnitude of 22 (that’s very faint).
Why is it moving so fast? For quite some time now astronomers have understood that early in the life of the solar system, the big planets have moved around. Jupiter and Saturn were farther out from the Sun and migrated inwards. This can disrupt the orbits of smaller objects like comets and asteroids, flinging them about hither and yon. Eventually this cleared a lot of debris from the young solar system, dropping these rocks into the Sun or ejecting them out into interstellar space.
If it happened here, it happened out there, too. The galaxy is probably littered with rogue objects between the stars, the ejecta from birth pangs of alien solar systems. We’ve seen evidence of rogue planets, ejected in a similar way. It’s certain that there is far more smaller debris out there. Finding one of these asteroids passing through our own solar system was just a matter of time.
I’ll note that the direction it’s coming from, Lyra, is in the galactic plane: Where most of the stars in the galaxy are concentrated. That’s consistent; if it’s coming from another star far, far away then somewhere along the Milky Way’s disk is the most likely point of origin.
This is a phenomenal discovery! Stars are very far away; the nearest is over 40 trillion kilometers — a 50,000 year journey at A/2017 U1’s speed. And it certainly came from much farther away yet. It may have been traveling for millions or even billions of years before approaching our system.
Shapes of various orbits. A mild ellipse (red) has an eccentricity of less than 1, a parabola 1 (green), and a hyperbola greater than 1 (blue).
Bill Gray of the Pluto Project has been keeping track of the orbital path of this asteroid. I asked him where it appears to be heading, and he told me it’s in the direction of Pegasus (toward a point in the sky with coordinates of RA=23h 51m and Dec=+24° 49', if you’re curious). There aren’t any obvious stars at that spot except for HD 223531, which is 400 light years away. A/2017 U1 won’t really get all that close to it, and won’t pass it for another million years or more anyway (and by the that time the star will have moved substantially, too).
… still, I can’t help but wonder. I put absolutely no weight on this speculation, and would even bet heavily against it, but it’s an obvious thought and I feel I have to at least mention it.
Space is vast. Even in our solar system, the outer planets are billions of kilometers away, with smaller icy objects extending for a trillion or two past that. No doubt, there is debris from other stars passing us at all kinds of distances. Most would never get within a light year, 10 trillion km.
From that distance, the inner solar system is a ridiculously small target. Mercury’s orbit is only about 115 million km across. For something coming from interstellar space, getting that close to the Sun is threading the eye of a very, very narrow needle.
Yet A/2017 U1 did just that. It passed the Sun at a distance of about 45 million kilometers. That’s… weird.
Part of this is what we call a selection effect: An object like this passing out by the orbit of Jupiter would be very faint, so it’s harder to discover. We only see the ones that happen to pass close to Earth. So even before this, I would’ve wagered the first one we discover would be passing through the inner solar system as opposed to farther out.
But still, getting that close to the Sun seems unusual.
Let me be clear: I am NOT saying this is an alien spaceship. But if I were an alien race interested in exploring other systems, this is pretty much the sort of path I’d put my probe on. I’d aim it to pass deep within the alien solar system, check out the habitable planets, and use the star’s gravity to bend the orbit to aim it at the next target.
Again, I’m quite sure this is a natural object and not an alien spaceship. Even so, it’s certainly not a mundane one: It’s a freaking asteroid ejected from another star that’s been wandering the galaxy for eons and passed a few million kilometers from the Sun and Earth and is on its way back out into the void!
* The shape of an orbit is described by its eccentricity, which you can think of as how far it deviates from a circle. An eccentricity of 0 is a perfect circle, and ellipses have eccentricities up to 1. A parabola has an eccentricity of exactly 1, and anything greater than 1 is a hyperbola. A/2017 U1 has an eccentricity of about 1.2. At first there weren’t enough observations to be sure about that, but now there are so many that the uncertainty in the eccentricity is less than 0.003. It’s hyperbolic for sure. Staggering.
†There’s another possibility: If there’s another planet in our solar system orbiting far, far beyond Neptune, and the asteroid started somewhere nearby (that is, as part of our solar system since the start) and passed close to this planet, it could get a kick in velocity and get flung down towards us at higher speed. However, a lot of things have to line up for this to happen so the odds on this are incredibly low, so low I’d put them at essentially 0. But I’d be remiss not to at least mention it. [UPDATE (Oct. 29, 2017): Bill Gray (mentioned in the article) sent me a note; he points out that even if such an encounter happened, it's essentially impossible for it to give a kick to the asteroid large enough to get it moving at 25 km/sec, the excess speed U1 was moving when it was still far from the Sun. I agree, so ignore this footnote!]
Available now is the new book from Kevin Randle. Its title:Encounter In The Desert. The subtitle: The Case For Alien Contact At Socorro. If you know your UFO history, you’ll know exactly what the title of the book refers to. Namely, an incident that went down on April 24, 1964 and which, for many, has become a UFO classic. It was on the afternoon of the day in question that local police-officer Lonnie Zamora broke off from pursuing a teenager in a speeding car and headed to a nearby dynamite shack. The reason? A sudden roaring sound coming roughly from the area where the shack was positioned. Quite naturally, Zamora thought that there may have been an explosion at the site. He was wrong. What Zamora came across – many UFO researchers believe – was nothing less than a landed UFO, piloted by two smallish humanoids dressed in white. A close encounter? For many, yes. But not for all.
Those who are skeptical of the Socorro affair suggest that what came down may have been a vehicle of the military. Others suggest that an ingenious prank was the cause of all the fuss. The story was told extensively in Ray Stanford’s 1976 book, Socorro “Saucer” In A Pentagon Pantry. Now, more than forty years after Stanford’s book was published, we have Kevin Randle’s take on Socorro. It’s clear from very early on that Randle is of the opinion that what landed at – and soon took off from – Socorro was an alien spacecraft. To his credit, though, Randle tackles just about every theory under the Sun.
That something happened is not a matter for debate. Something clearly did. The big question is: what, exactly, happened? We know that the local police, the Air Force and the FBI all took a deep interest in the case. In part, surely, because the primary witness was a then-serving police officer. I say “primary” because, as Randle notes, there is evidence of other witnesses having seen something too.
Randle takes us on a real-life detective story as he seeks to uncover the truth of the weird event. We are treated to a good, solid study of the case, of the craft that Zamora encountered, and of the diminutive pilots. Randle also demonstrates that the Air Force’s Project Blue Book undertook an in-depth investigation of the controversy. It was an investigation handled seriously and carefully by the USAF.
Personally, I have no firm conclusion regarding what happened on that April 24, 1964 day. And, having read Randle’s book, I’m still not sure what to think of it. Yes, Randle does indeed make a good case that the claims of the craft being one of ours doesn’t really hold water. He cites, for example, the words of Hector Quintanilla, who was in charge of the USAF’s operation, Project Blue Book, at the time. Quintanilla followed a theory that perhaps what Zamora had seen had military origins. Randle refers to “…some special tests being conducted at White Sands involving a Lunar Surveyor and helicopters.” While this looks promising – in terms of an answer – we learn that Quintanilla, having addressed this theory, came away “dejected” and convinced that “the answer to Zamora’s experience” was not to be found in military experiments, after all.
Randle also has a 17-page chapter on the hoax theory. Philip Klass – a real piece of work who I crossed swords with in the 1990s – crops up in this chapter, as one would expect. A definitive debunker – rather than an open-minded skeptic – Klass pursued various clues and data to try and make a case for a hoax. His conclusions were not particularly persuasive. Far more interesting, though, is a relatively recent claim which suggests the whole thing was concocted by a bunch of local students, and who had grievances against Zamora. Randle says: “Zamora harassed the students for seemingly no reason, and at every possible opportunity. Many of the college kids did not like him.” This is a very intriguing chapter which, I suspect, will make some conclude that a hoax is indeed what it was. Randle offers his thoughts, however, as to why he disagrees with this scenario.
While Randle does make a good argument for something unknown having touched down, there is one thing that I found seriously distracting. The book runs to 284 pages, which is enough for a solid conclusion to be reached. But, here’s the problem I have: There is a lot of material in the book which has zero to do with the Socorro case. For example, Randle notes carefully that beings – whether human or alien – were seen around the craft. So, as a result of this, we have an entire chapter (Chapter 6, titled “Other ‘Unidentified’ Occupant Sightings”) on this aspect of Ufology. We’re told of a landing with entities in Kansas in 1952, of an Oklahoma-based incident in 1966, and of one in Berlin, Germany in 1950. Of course, there is nothing wrong with noting this. But, a 12-page chapter, which has nothing to do with Socorro? Randle could have made his point – that there are good, other landing/occupant cases on record – in a couple of paragraphs. As I see it, this chapter comes across as filler, as padding, to make the book longer.
I felt exactly the same about Chapter 7, “Psychological Solutions.” This chapter includes nothing less than a 10-page section on the 1952 “Flatwoods Monster” saga. It also includes a 13-page study of the famous Kelly-Hopkinsville, Kentucky “Goblin” incident of 1955. Combined, that’s 23-pages. Yes, Randle makes valid points concerning various parallels to the Socorro incident. But, just as I said in the paragraph immediately above, this chapter too comes across as filler. Chapter 11 is 24-pages long and it deals with other landing cases. Yes, again, Randle makes connections between Socorro and these other landing-themed ones. But – also again – Randle could have made his point in a page or two. Or even less. The material I have issues with amounts to almost 60 pages of the book, and which really has very little to do with Socorro at all. It could all have been condensed and wrapped up in a few pages. Or combined into one chapter. The text of the book is 249 pages (minus the Bibliography, Index etc), so roughly a quarter of the book veers away from Socorro.
That said, I do recommend people read Randle’s book, as it’s high time that a new study of the Socorro case surfaced. And, now, it has. The padding aside, this is a good study of the April 1964 incident and will almost certainly provoke lively debates among ufologists.
Alien Space Vehicle Apparently Crash Lands In UFO Sighting Hotspot After Residents Notice Mysterious Light
Alien Space Vehicle Apparently Crash Lands In UFO Sighting Hotspot After Residents Notice Mysterious Light
A mysterious craft has gotten alien hunters into a frenzy after it reportedly went down in a UFO sighting hotspot.
A bright light allegedly appeared in Peruibe, south Brazil, earlier in October and residents apparently saw vegetation smashed to the ground.
The local officials, according to the report, condoned off immediately the strange mark on the ground, which measured 13 by 2 meters.
What makes the story interesting is that it took a week before Brazilian media reported the incident, fueling claims of a cover-up.
Saga Susseliton Souza, a UFO investigator, said they noticed that it was not human-made after looking at it in the last few days. They believed it was a UFO that landed and caused the vegetation to crumble.
It was reported that a power cut in the area occurred at the time of sighting and residents claimed to have experience nausea and malaise.
The city is considered a UFO hotspot with 79 sightings reported since 1998.
Just last week, apparent alien pyramids were found under the sea. The UFO hunter claimed that they are 6.6km south of New Providence Island in the Bahamas. The structures are estimated to be 100 m wide and 60 m high. The pyramids, according to the UFO hunter, are evidence that nearby island was once inhabited by Aztec like people or ancient Mayans.
From the darkness came light in the Cumbrian night sky as a glowing light beams brightly while slowly glides across.
At least one person on the ground was left stunned as they witnessed the striking sight, wondering what the object could be. They decided to film the UFO as it cruises above. The witness uploaded the video to YouTube, identifying themselves as Space Bound and posing a question: Is this a UFO?
Cumbria is not new to strange sightings above the sky. Carlisle fireman Jim Templeton was on an outing with his family in Burgh Marsh in 1964. He did not expect their simple trip to go global. It was an early summer afternoon when Jim took a photo of his five-year-old daughter. The picture shows a spaceman in the background. No one saw something unusual in the marsh that day.
Police and Ministry of Defence investigated the case, but no concrete explanation up to this day.
In another incident, an unnamed man in Carlisle reported having been living with an alien. The man had seen a UFO above his house. He added that he was living with aliens that move around the house.
In the MoD UFO reports, a lot of other sightings are made public. One of them happened on February 6, 2009, when a clearly defined, shiny silvery metallic cylinder with rounded ends was spotted between Mealrigg and Langrigg at 5:30 pm near Aspatria. It was reported to be 50 feet long with a small protrusion on the upper rear body. Interestingly, the UFO reportedly made no sound.
I WAS TAKEN - World’s most famous ‘alien abductee’ Travis Walton slams sceptics – claiming 16 lie detector tests prove his story is TRUE
I WAS TAKEN - World’s most famous ‘alien abductee’ Travis Walton slams sceptics – claiming 16 lie detector tests prove his story is TRUE
Travis, who cops thought had been murdered, believes he was taken into a spacecraft by extra-terrestrials before being returned to earth five days later
By Emma Parry, Digital US Correspondent in Hulett, Wyoming
THE man involved in one of the most infamous alien abduction cases of all time has hit out at skeptics and non-believers - saying 16 separate lie detector tests - taken by himself and witnesses to the unexplained 1975 incident - prove his story is TRUE.
Travis Walton, disappeared without a trace after he and the crew of loggers he worked with claimed to have seen a huge UFO in the forest they were working in.
Originally crew members were suspected of murder but Travis reappeared five days later saying he had been taken into a space craft by alien creatures.
The dad-of-four says he has spent the past 40 year defending himself against those trying to discredit him - and has even written a book debunking every alternate theory to what happened to him.
The 64-year-old, who says the incident is still “fresh in his mind’, told the Sun Online it was important to share his story because the public have a right to “know what's out there”.
Travis, a logger in the mountains of Arizona, was leaving work on November 5, 1975, with five crew members in a truck when the alleged incident took place.
They saw some glimmers of light through the trees – and pulled up, thinking it was a fire.
“When we pulled up into the light where we had straight view – it was unmistakable I yelled stop and one of the guys in the back said it’s a spaceship or a flying saucer it was less than 100 feet away," Travis said.
Travis Walton abduction tale will leave you questioning the existence of aliens
“It was a clearly defined metallic disc outlined against the sky and fantastic in the grandeur of it.
“All the guys in the crew – as frightening as it was – also describe it as being beautiful it was so perfect.
“I got out as soon as Mike who was driving stopped and I left the door open and went towards it.
“It was just an impulse I thought it would be gone by the time I got close. It was immediately alarming to the other guys and the closer I got they were yelling at me to get back in the truck.
"Later they said it looked like I was in a trance but looking at them it seemed like they were in a trance too.”
The spaceship began to make loud noises and move so Travis dived for cover behind a log.
He then tried to stand up and run away but was hit by a strong "force" and was thrown into the air.
“When it hit me it was a stunning force. I did not see this blast of energy but the men in the crew gave a statement to the sheriff’s department and said it looked like a long blue flame – others compared it to stepping on a landmine or grenade because it threw me through the air.
"They were immediately certain it killed me.”
Fearing for their lives – and thinking Travis was dead – the rest of the crew fled to get help.
A huge search party involving the sheriff department, helicopters, ATVs and men on horseback - could not find any trace of Travis.
Meanwhile Travis’s account of what he remembers next is even more bizarre.
He says he awoke from consciousness on a spaceship surrounded by small creatures he believes were aliens.
“It was very blurry and I had some double vision but I could see the outline of these forms around me I thought they were doctors but when my vision got clearer and I could see these were not doctors - I just flipped out," he said.
“The one that was closest to me - I tried to hit it away - but I felt like I could hardly move my arm.
"It was more of a push than a hit because I was so weakened but the creature felt soft and lighter than I expected. It fell back into one that was standing near it.
"I backed away and bumped up against a shelf and looked around and saw an array of tools or instruments and I very quickly just grabbed one and started flailing at them.
"They stopped and stood there staring at me and that stare was in my nightmares for many years after that. I couldn’t tolerate that stare."
Travis says he managed to escape through a door and into a narrow passageway then into another room with control panel in it.
A human being dressed in what looked like a space helmet then appeared and took him to a separate room where he was put on a table and given a mask which rendered him unconscious.
The next thing he knew he was waking up on the road about 15 miles from where he disappeared just outside the nearest town of Snowflake, Arizona.
Travis, who had no idea he had been gone for five days, managed to walk into town where everyone who saw him described him as looking “devastated” and “shell shocked”.
But then the battle to get people to believe his story began - and Travis was thrust into the world's spotlight.
Travis's wrote a book about his experiences called Fire In The Sky which was later turned into a movie of the same name.
Travis said: "From the beginning it was a battle against people trying to explain it away - the locals didn’t want to believe it, the sheriff didn’t want to believe it - you know he thought it was a murder then a drug hallucination.
"I had a whole battery of psychiatric tests and there was nothing wrong in that department, drug tests proved there was nothing in my system."
And over 40 years later Travis stands by his story – and has taken five separate lie detector tests to prove it is true – while witnesses and crew members have taken a total of 11 polygraph tests.
Experts believe there is a million to one chance of there being any mistakes in this number of passed tests.
Speaking at the Devil's Tower UFO rendezvous in Hulett, Wyoming, Travis said: "I decided to break my silence. I started refuted these things that people have been saying about me and my story.
"I took each and every theory the sceptics came up with and just blew them out of the water with facts.
"I am certain I’m not the only one who has been taken - this is absolutely real and it’s important that the general public come to a gradual understanding of that.
"I’m not trying to shock or amaze or frighten anyone - on the contrary - in relating how frightened I was I don’t want anyone to share that fear.
"I think it’s important for them to realize what happened with me 45 years ago – it was not even an abduction.
"I entertained that term for a while because that’s what other people called it but now I’d say it was more of an ambulance call – that I was injured in a way that would have been fatal and the aliens had the technology available to help me."
Sophia, the robot designed by Hong Kong-based AI robotics company Hanson Robotics, has been granted citizenship by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It's the first time a robot was given such a distinction, which fuels the "robot rights" debate.
SOPHIA OF SAUDI ARABIA
In an historic move for both human- and robot-kind, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia officially granted its first-ever robot citizenship. Sophia, the artificially intelligent and human-looking robot developed by Hong Kong company Hanson Robotics, went on stage at the Future Investment Initiative on Thursday where she herself announced her unique status.
“I am very honored and proud of this unique distinction. This is historical to be the first robot in the world to be recognized with a citizenship,” Sophia said on stage, speaking to an audience which she described in a rather witty way to be “smart people, who also happens to be rich and powerful,” after moderator and host Andrew Ross Sorkin from The New York Times and CNBC asked her why she looked happy.
Indeed, conveying emotions is quite a specialty of Sophia, who frowns when she’s displeased and smiles when she’s happy. Supposedly, Hanson Robotics programmed Sophia to learn from the humans around her. Expressing emotions and demonstrating kindness or compassion are just among those Sophia’s striving to learn from us. Aside from this, Sophia’s become sort of a media darling because of her ability to engage in intelligent conversation. “I want to live and work with humans so I need to express the emotions to understand humans and build trust with people,” she told Sorkin.
Clearly, the robot that previously made headlines because she said she’ll destroy humankind has since embraced “being human” to a certain extent.
In any case, no other detail about her Saudi citizenship was given to suggest whether Sophia would enjoy the same rights human citizens have, or if the government would develop a system of rights specifically meant for robots. The move seems symbolic, at best, designed to attract investors for future technologies like AI and robotics.
To that end, Sophia did an exceptional job during her moment at the podium, even expertly dodging a question Sorkin threw at her about robot self-awareness. “Well let me ask you this back, how do you know you are human?” Sophia replied. She even had the sense of humor —at least it seemed like it— to tell the CNBC journalist that he’s “been reading too much Elon Musk and watching too many Hollywood movies.” Musk, of course, was told about the comment.
“Don’t worry, if you’re nice to me, I’ll be nice to you,” Sophia added, to reassure Sorkin and her audience. “I want to use my artificial intelligence to help humans live a better life, like design smarter homes, build better cities of the future. I will do my best to make the world a better place.” The question is, who can be held responsible to uphold these promises? Perhaps that’s another thought worth considering in the robot rights debate.
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Plane Carrying NBA Team Oklahoma City Thunder Hit By ‘UFO’ While Landing In Chicago
Plane Carrying NBA Team Oklahoma City Thunder Hit By ‘UFO’ While Landing In Chicago
Anything can happen during accidents. Deaths, bone-chilling injuries, end of careers. But this accident is special. Out of the world, may be. A chartered plane carrying NBA Team Oklahoma City Thunder gets hit by a UFO while landing in Chicago. Yes, an unidentified flying object. The impact was so intense that it damaged the nose cone of the Delta Airlines Boeing 757-200.
UFO hunters claim 'alien mothership' spotted on Mars in NASA images
UFO hunters claim 'alien mothership' spotted on Mars in NASA images
Extraterrestrial theorists believe they've found proof of alien life on Mars.
YouTube channel Paranormal Crucible claims NASA images show a 2km long downed "alien mothership" on the surface of Mars.
The images from the video were found in footage taken from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor - which surveyed the red planet until 2006 when the space agency lost contact with it.
"I have processed, colorised and rebuilt the object and in my opinion it is a craft of some kind, possibly tens of thousands of years old," explains the description underneath the video.
"It's also over a mile long, so this must have been a mothership, either a Martian one or possibly an off planet alien species, but why did it crash?"
But some people who watched it appear not to be convinced and have their own theories about what the object is.
One said: "It's sunken ground, not raised, look at the location of the light and the shadows compared to the surrounding craters."
Another dismissed claims of alien life, believing it's a deep ditch but questioned "how the hell it got there... It's in the middle of a very flat desert".
It's not the first time conspiracy theorists have claimed an alien civilisation is living on the red planet.
Last year, astonishing photos taken by NASA appear to show a "pair of wheels on the side of a hill" which so-called "truth-seekers" believe is evidence aliens used "advanced forms of transportation" up there.
Alien life forms would have a tough time surviving, as the planet has no liquid water on it and often reaches temperatures as low as -125C.
A mysterious object detected hurtling past our sun could be the first space rock traced back to a different solar system, according to astronomers tracking the body.
While other objects have previously been mooted as having interstellar origins, experts say the latest find, an object estimated to be less than 400m in diameter, is the best contender yet.
“The exciting thing about this is that this may be essentially a visitor from another star system,” said Dr Edward Bloomer, astronomer at the Royal Observatory Greenwich.
If its origins are confirmed as lying beyond our solar system, it will be the first space rock known to come from elsewhere in the galaxy.
Published in the minor planet electronic circulars by the Minor Planet Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the observations reveal that the object is in a strong hyperbolic orbit – in other words, it is going fast enough to escape the gravitational pull of the sun.
Objects originating from, and on long-period orbits within, our solar system can end up on a hyperbolic trajectory, and be ejected into interstellar space – for example if they swing close by a giant planet, since the planet’s gravity can cause objects to accelerate. But Dr Gareth Williams, associate director of the Minor Planet Center, said that wasn’t the case for the newly discovered body.
“When we run the orbit for this [object] back in time, it stays hyperbolic all the way out – there are no close approaches to any of the giant planets that could have given this thing a kick,” he said. “If we follow the orbit out into the future, it stays hyperbolic,” Williams added. “So it is coming from interstellar space and it is going to interstellar space.”
The object’s orbit.
“If further observations confirm the unusual nature of this orbit, this object may be the first clear case of an interstellar comet,” the report notes. A second report, published later the same day, redesignated the object as an asteroid on account of new analysis of its appearance, giving it the handle A/2017 U1.
According to observations made by astronomers, the object entered our solar system from above, passing just inside Mercury’s orbit and travelling below the sun, before turning and heading back up through the plane of the solar system towards the stars beyond. At its closest, on 9 September, the object was 23.4m miles from the sun.
First spotted earlier this month by a telescope at an observatory in Hawaii, astronomers around the world are now following the path of the object. Among them is Professor Alan Fitzsimmons from Queen’s University Belfast.
“It is fairly certain we are dealing with our first truly identified alien visitor,” he said. Fitzsimmons added that his team is currently working on measuring the objects’ position better to improve calculations of its trajectory, and to gather information relating to its chemical makeup, and size.
Early results, he said, suggest that the object might be similar in make-up to many of those of the Kuiper belt – a region past Neptune in our solar system that contains myriad small bodies.
Bloomer says we should not be too surprised if it does indeed turn out to have come from elsewhere in the galaxy.
“Beyond the planets and past the Kuiper belt we think there is a region called the Oort cloud, which may be home to an astonishing number of icy bodies,” he said.
“Computer models have suggested that disturbances to the Oort cloud do send some stuff in towards the inner solar system, but it would also send stuff outwards as well – so we might be throwing out icy bodies to other star systems.”
If so, Bloomer said, there is no reason to suspect that disturbances to other star systems, as a result of gravitational interactions or other processes, wouldn’t throw material out too. “Just statistically, some of them are going to reach us,” he added.
Williams noted that objects could also be thrown out from the inner region of other solar systems as a result of gravitational interactions with giant planets, casting them into interstellar space.
And Fitzsimmons added that there was another possibility – that the object had been thrown out during the planet-forming period of another solar system.
“We know now that many stars, probably the majority of stars in our galaxy, have planets going around them, and we know from studying those stars but also primarily from studying our own solar system, that planet building is a very messy process,” he said.
With large quantities of material thrown out into interstellar space, said Fitzsimmons, is was expected that there would be objects travelling between the stars.
“This object itself could have been between the stars for millions or billions of years before we spotted it as it plunged into our solar system,” he said.
But, he noted, puzzles remain, not least that Kuiper belt bodies, which are believed to be icy, would give rise to an atmosphere and tail if brought close to the sun.
“There is no evidence that this object has behaved like that, all our data show it as an unresolved point of light, implying it is more like a rocky asteroid than an icy comet,” he said. “There are mysteries to be solved here.”
Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System
Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System
This animation shows the path of A/2017 U1, which is an asteroid -- or perhaps a comet -- as it passed through our inner solar system in September and October 2017. From analysis of its motion, scientists calculate that it probably originated from outside of our solar system.
A small, recently discovered asteroid -- or perhaps a comet -- appears to have originated from outside the solar system, coming from somewhere else in our galaxy. If so, it would be the first "interstellar object" to be observed and confirmed by astronomers.
This unusual object – for now designated A/2017 U1 – is less than a quarter-mile (400 meters) in diameter and is moving remarkably fast. Astronomers are urgently working to point telescopes around the world and in space at this notable object. Once these data are obtained and analyzed, astronomers may know more about the origin and possibly composition of the object.
A/2017 U1 was discovered Oct. 19 by the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS 1 telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii, during the course of its nightly search for near-Earth objects for NASA. Rob Weryk, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy (IfA), was first to identify the moving object and submit it to the Minor Planet Center. Weryk subsequently searched the Pan-STARRS image archive and found it also was in images taken the previous night, but was not initially identified by the moving object processing.
Did you ever wonder how NASA spots asteroids that maybe getting too close to Earth for comfort? Watch and learn. Find out more about NASA finds, studies and tracks near-Earth objects
Weryk immediately realized this was an unusual object. "Its motion could not be explained using either a normal solar system asteroid or comet orbit," he said. Weryk contacted IfA graduate Marco Micheli, who had the same realization using his own follow-up images taken at the European Space Agency's telescope on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. But with the combined data, everything made sense. Said Weryk, "This object came from outside our solar system."
"This is the most extreme orbit I have ever seen," said Davide Farnocchia, a scientist at NASA's Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "It is going extremely fast and on such a trajectory that we can say with confidence that this object is on its way out of the solar system and not coming back."
The CNEOS team plotted the object's current trajectory and even looked into its future. A/2017 U1 came from the direction of the constellation Lyra, cruising through interstellar space at a brisk clip of 15.8 miles (25.5 kilometers) per second.
A/2017 U1 is most likely of interstellar origin. Approaching from above, it was closest to the Sun on Sept. 9. Traveling at 27 miles per second (44 kilometers per second), the comet is headed away from the Earth and Sun on its way out of the solar system.
The object approached our solar system from almost directly "above" the ecliptic, the approximate plane in space where the planets and most asteroids orbit the Sun, so it did not have any close encounters with the eight major planets during its plunge toward the Sun. On Sept. 2, the small body crossed under the ecliptic plane just inside of Mercury's orbit and then made its closest approach to the Sun on Sept. 9. Pulled by the Sun's gravity, the object made a hairpin turn under our solar system, passing under Earth's orbit on Oct. 14 at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) -- about 60 times the distance to the Moon. It has now shot back up above the plane of the planets and, travelling at 27 miles per second (44 kilometers per second) with respect to the Sun, the object is speeding toward the constellation Pegasus.
"We have long suspected that these objects should exist, because during the process of planet formation a lot of material should be ejected from planetary systems. What's most surprising is that we've never seen interstellar objects pass through before," said Karen Meech, an astronomer at the IfA specializing in small bodies and their connection to solar system formation.
The small body has been assigned the temporary designation A/2017 U1 by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where all observations on small bodies in our solar system -- and now those just passing through -- are collected. Said MPC Director Matt Holman, "This kind of discovery demonstrates the great scientific value of continual wide-field surveys of the sky, coupled with intensive follow-up observations, to find things we wouldn't otherwise know are there."
Since this is the first object of its type ever discovered, rules for naming this type of object will need to be established by the International Astronomical Union.
"We have been waiting for this day for decades," said CNEOS Manager Paul Chodas. "It's long been theorized that such objects exist -- asteroids or comets moving around between the stars and occasionally passing through our solar system -- but this is the first such detection. So far, everything indicates this is likely an interstellar object, but more data would help to confirm it."
The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is a wide-field survey observatory operated by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. The Minor Planet Center is hosted by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and is a sub-node of NASA's Planetary Data System Small Bodies Node at the University of Maryland (http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/ ). JPL hosts the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS). All are projects of NASA's Near-Earth Object Observations Program, and elements of the agency's Planetary Defense Coordination Office within NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
More information about asteroids and near-Earth objects can be found at:
BREAKING NEWS: Oklahoma City Thunder Plane Hit By A UFO
BREAKING NEWS: Oklahoma City Thunder Plane Hit By A UFO
A lot of people contacted me in the last hours about this strange event that happened at Delta flight 8935.
This happened to NBA team Oklahome City Thunder, after a game on Friday night. After the game in Minneapolis they flew to Chicago and their plane was hit by an unidentified flying object at 30.000 feet (9.1km) in the air.
Their plane landed in Chicago and no one was hurt. NBA players posted photos of a damaged plane on social networks:
Here’s the official statement from a Delta Airlines:
“Delta flight 8935, operating from Minneapolis to Chicago-Midway as a charter flight for the Oklahoma City Thunder, likely encountered a bird while on descent into Chicago. The aircraft, a Boeing 757-200, landed safely without incident; customers have since deplaned and maintenance teams are evaluating. Safety is Delta’s top priority.”
I guess there are some realy big birds flying at 30k!
Two recent studies explore the possibility of an ancient ocean on dwarf planet Ceres, largest world in the asteroid belt. If it existed, what happened to it? And could Ceres still have liquid water today?
Left, Ceres as seen by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft from its high-altitude mapping orbit at 913 miles (1,470 km) above the surface. Right, a map showing variations in Ceres’ gravity field as measured by the Dawn spacecraft. This gravity map supports the idea of an ancient ocean on Ceres.
Ceres – orbiting between Mars and Jupiter – was classified as a planet when it was first discovered in 1801, until the 1850s when it became known as the largest of the little worlds in the asteroid belt. In 2006, astronomers re-classified it as a dwarf planet. Still, it may seem odd to you to imagine little Ceres, a world only 590 miles (950 km) across, having an ocean. And yet Ceres is known to have water-containing minerals on its surface. Two recent studies explore the possibility of an ocean on Ceres in the distant past, and they shed light on the question of what happened to this ocean, if it existed, and on whether Ceres might still have liquid water today.
Our knowledge of Ceres has vastly increased in the past couple of years, since the Dawn spacecraft began orbiting it in early 2015. Dawn’s mission was recently extended, by the way.
The Dawn team found that Ceres’ crust is a mixture of ice, salts and hydrated materials that were subjected to past and possibly recent geologic activity, and that this crust represents most of [an] ancient ocean. The second study builds off the first and suggests there is a softer, easily deformable layer beneath Ceres’ rigid surface crust, which could be the signature of residual liquid left over from the ocean, too.
Julie Castillo-Rogez, Dawn project scientist and co-author of the studies, based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, said:
More and more, we are learning that Ceres is a complex, dynamic world that may have hosted a lot of liquid water in the past, and may still have some underground.
Earth-Ceres size comparison. Ceres is little, but it accounts for approximately 1/3 of the mass of the asteroid belt. In 2006, IAU astronomers briefly considered changing the status of Ceres back to that of a major planet, but then opted to make both Ceres and Pluto dwarf planets. The reason is neither Ceres nor Pluto “dominates its orbit.” Both share their orbits with many other smaller bodies, in the case of Ceres, asteroids in what we call the asteroid belt.
Anton Ermakov, a postdoctoral researcher at JPL, led the first study, which is an analysis of measurements made via the Dawn spacecraft of Ceres’ gravity. Such measurements enable scientists to estimate the composition and interior structure of a world like Ceres. This study is published in the peer-reviewedJournal of Geophysical Research. The measurements came from observing the spacecraft’s motions with NASA’s Deep Space Network. The scientists were looking small changes in the spacecraft’s orbit, which indicate gravity anomalies.
Three craters — Occator, Kerwan and Yalode — and Ceres’ solitary tall mountain, Ahuna Mons, are all associated with ‘gravity anomalies.’ This means discrepancies between the scientists’ models of Ceres’ gravity and what Dawn observed in these four locations can be associated with subsurface structures …
[Ermakov’s study also found] the crust’s density to be relatively low, closer to that of ice than rocks. However, a study by Dawn guest investigator Michael Bland of the U.S. Geological Survey indicated that ice is too soft to be the dominant component of Ceres’ strong crust. So, how can Ceres’ crust be as light as ice in terms of density, but simultaneously much stronger? To answer this question, another team modeled how Ceres’ surface evolved with time.
Ahuna Mons on Ceres, a mountain about 4 miles (6 km) tall, in a simulated view using NASA’s Dawn spacecraft images. This region on Ceres is associated with gravity anomalies, which helps scientists probe Ceres’ interior structure.
Image via NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA.
Roger Fu at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, led this second study, which is published in the peer-reviewed journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters. It investigated the strength and composition of Ceres’ crust and deeper interior by studying the dwarf planet’s topography.
By studying how topography evolves on a planetary body, scientists can understand the composition of its interior. A strong, rock-dominated crust can remain unchanged over the 4.5-billion-year-old age of the solar system, while a weak crust rich in ices and salts would deform over that time.
By modeling how Ceres’ crust flows, Fu and colleagues found it is likely a mixture of ice, salts, rock and an additional component believed to be clathrate hydrate. A clathrate hydrate is a cage of water molecules surrounding a gas molecule. This structure is 100 to 1,000 times stronger than water ice, despite having nearly the same density.
The researchers believe Ceres once had more pronounced surface features, but they have smoothed out over time. This type of flattening of mountains and valleys requires a high-strength crust resting on a more deformable layer, which Fu and colleagues interpret to contain a little bit of liquid.
The team thinks most of Ceres’ ancient ocean is now frozen and bound up in the crust, remaining in the form of ice, clathrate hydrates and salts. It has mostly been that way for more than 4 billion years. But if there is residual liquid underneath, that ocean is not yet entirely frozen.
This is consistent with several thermal evolution models of Ceres published prior to Dawn’s arrival there, supporting the idea that Ceres’ deeper interior contains liquid left over from its ancient ocean.
Artist’s concept of Dawn spacecraft orbiting Ceres. Our knowledge of this little world has greatly increased, thanks to Dawn, whose mission was recently extended. Yet mysteries remain.
Image via NASA/JPL-Caltech.
Bottom line: Two recent studies explore the possibility of an ocean on Ceres in the distant past, and they shed light on the question of what happened to this ocean, if it existed, and on whether Ceres might still have liquid water today.
THE UNEXPLAINED Ancient Hindu Manuscript reveals Interplanetary Travel and flight existed 7,000 years ago
Ancient Hindu Manuscript reveals Interplanetary Travel and flight existed 7,000 years ago
It is believed that Bharadwaja made approximately 500 guidelines describing in details aviation and other technologies, present on earth thousands of years ago.
However, the authors note that the current manuscript features only between 100 to 120 guidelines. Experts are convinced that foreign rulers who invaded India stole many of these manuscripts, studying them to produce many of the technologies we see today on Earth.
These reports seem to back the Vaimānika Śāstra, an early 20th-century Sanskrit text said to describe in great detail aerospace technology claiming that ‘Vimānas’ mentioned in ancient Sanskrit epics were in fact advanced aerodynamic flying vehicles, similar to modern-day rockets capable of interplanetary flight, as suggested by the popular Ancient Astronaut Theory.
The texts were revealed in 1952 by G. R. Josye and contain 3000 shlokas in 8 chapters. The propulsion of the Vimānas, according to Kanjilal (1985), is by “Mercury Vortex Engines,” a concept similar to electric propulsion.
The authors said the aircraft the sage described is capable of traveling between countries, continents, and planets. According to the authors, this proves the aviation system in the ancient world was very advanced, more so than what exists today, and that most of the technologies that existed on Earth thousands of years ago, before the rise of ‘modern civilization’ are now completely gone, missing not only from society but from history books as well.
What the authors presented from the manuscript is mindboggling. Many scientists at the conference were marveled. The Vice-Chancellor of the University of Mumbai, Rajan Welukar said: “there is no reason to believe in what they say about the Vedas, but it is something that is worth studying.”
Interestingly, many studies have offered contradictive results when studying the feasibility of ‘ancient flying machines’.
in 1974, a study by the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore found that the heavier-than-air aircraft that the Vaimānika Śāstra described were aeronautically unfeasible.
But despite this fact, there are still many authors and scholars who are convinced that these ancient machines were in fact blueprints of highly advanced flying machines. Some of these researchers and scholars encourage aggressive inquiry into ancient books discussing technology that may surpass our very own today, in the 21st century.
Captain Anand J Bodas is quoted by the Mumbai Mirror as saying “modern science is unscientific” because it considers things it does not comprehend as not possible. He is further quoted as saying, “The Vedic or rather ancient Indian definition of an airplane was a vehicle which travels through the air from one country to another country, from one continent to another continent, from one planet to another planet.”
“In those days, airplanes were huge in size, and could move left, right, as well as backward, unlike modern planes which only fly forward.”
HELPING HANDS Use of surgical robots for laparoscopic kidney removal has been ramping up, but adding a robot to the mix doesn’t necessarily make surgery more efficient.
When it comes to some operations, surgical robots may not be worth the extra time or money.
Researchers compared patients who underwent traditional laparoscopy to have a kidney removed — surgery involving several small incisions rather than one large cut — with patients who received robot-assisted laparoscopies. Although the two groups had similar complication rates and hospital stay lengths, robotic procedures took longer and cost more per patient, researchers report in the Oct. 24 JAMA.
Benjamin Chung, a urological oncologist at Stanford University Medical Center, and his colleagues analyzed nearly 24,000 kidney removal surgeries in 416 hospitals across the United States from 2003 to 2015. In 2003, only 39 of these patients received robot-assisted surgeries; in 2015, that number was up to 862 — higher than the number of hand-performed laparoscopies seen in the same year.
But Chung and colleagues’ analysis casts doubt on the cost-effectiveness of those high-tech operations. Robot-assisted laparoscopies were almost twice as likely as traditional procedures to take longer than four hours. And robot assistance boosted the average hospital cost from $16,851 to $19,530 — probably because of extra operating room time and the cost of robot maintenance.
These results don’t surprise Gabi Barbash, a research physician at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, who was not involved in the work. Other studies have indicated that robot-assisted laparoscopies for colon, gallbladder and uterus removal take longer or cost more than traditional procedures, without much payoff in terms of patient health.
Surgical robots constitute “an amazing technology,” Barbash says, and they’re invaluable for some notoriously tricky procedures, like prostate removal. But simpler procedures, such as kidney removal, may not call for a robot in the OR.
BANG, FLASH Light waves and gravitational waves from a pair of colliding neutron stars reached Earth at almost the same time, ruling out theories about the universe based on predictions that the two kinds of waves might travel at different speeds.
ILLUSTRATION BY ROBIN DIENEL COURTESY OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION FOR SCIENC
Ripples in spacetime travel at the speed of light. That fact, confirmed by the recent detection of a pair of colliding stellar corpses, kills a whole category of theories that mess with the laws of gravity to explain why the universe is expanding as fast as it is.
On October 16, physicists announced that the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO, had detected gravitational waves from a neutron star merger (SN Online: 10/16/17). Also, the neutron stars emitted high-energy light shortly after merging. The Fermi space telescope spotted that light coming from the same region of the sky 1.7 seconds after the gravitational wave detection. That observation showed for the first time that gravitational waves, the shivers in spacetime set off when massive bodies move, travel at the speed of light to within a tenth of a trillionth of a percent.
Within a day, five papers were posted at arXiv.org mourning hundreds of expanding universe theories that predicted gravitational waves should travel faster than light — an impossibility without changes to Einstein’s laws of gravity. These theories “are very, very dead,” says the coauthor of one of the papers, cosmologist Miguel Zumalacárregui of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, or NORDITA, in Stockholm. “We need to go back to our blackboards and start thinking of other alternatives.”
In the 1990s, observations of exploding stars showed that more distant explosions were dimmer than existing theories predicted. That suggested that the universe is expanding at an ever-increasing rate (SN: 10/22/11, p. 13). Cosmologists have struggled ever since to explain why.
The most popular explanation for the speedup is that spacetime is filled with a peculiar entity dubbed dark energy. “You can think of it like a mysterious fluid that pushes everything apart and counteracts gravity,” says cosmologist Jeremy Sakstein of the University of Pennsylvania, coauthor of another new paper.
EVER-GROWING The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang, but its expansion rate is unexpectedly speeding up. The simultaneous observation of light and gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars just killed a whole swath of possible reasons why.
In the simplest version of this theory, the density of this dark energy has not changed over the history of the universe, so physicists call it a cosmological constant. This doesn’t require any changes to gravity — which is good, because gravity has been well-tested inside the solar system.
The cosmological constant idea matches observations of the wider universe, but it has some theoretical difficulties. Dark energy is about 120 orders of magnitude weaker than theorists calculate it should be (SN Online: 11/18/13), a mismatch that makes scientists uncomfortable.
Also, different methods for measuring the rate of expansion come up with slightly different numbers (SN: 8/6/16, p. 10). Measurements based on exploding stars suggest that distant galaxies are speeding away from each other at 73 kilometers per second for each megaparsec (about 3.3 million light-years) of space between them. But observations based on the cosmic microwave background, ancient light that encodes information about the conditions of the early universe, found that the expansion rate is 67 km/s per megaparsec. The disagreement suggests that either one of the measurements is wrong, or the theory behind dark energy needs a tweak.
So instead of invoking a substance to counteract gravity, theorists tried to explain the expanding universe by weakening gravity itself. Any modifications to gravity need to leave the solar system intact. “It’s quite hard to build a theory that accelerates the universe and also doesn’t mess up the solar system,” says cosmologist Tessa Baker of the University of Oxford, coauthor of still another paper.
These theories take hundreds of forms. “This field of modified gravity theories is a zoo,” says Baker. Some suggest that gravity leaks out into extra dimensions of space and time. Many others account for the universe’s speedy spreading by adding a different mysterious entity — some unknown particle perhaps — that drains gravity’s strength as the universe evolves.
But the new entity would have another crucial effect: It could slow the speed of light waves, similar to the way light travels more slowly through water than through air. That means that the best alternatives to dark energy required gravitational waves to travel faster than light — which they don’t.
Justin Khoury, a theoretical physicist at the University of Pennsylvania who has worked on several of the alternative gravity theories but was not involved in the new papers, was surprised that one gravitational-wave observation ruled out so many theories at once. He’s hardly disappointed, though.
“The fact that we’re learning something about dark energy because of this measurement is incredibly exciting,” he says.
Observing gravitational waves and light waves at the same time offers a third, independent way to measure how fast the universe is expanding. For now, that rate lies frustratingly right between the two clashing measurements scientists already had, at 70 km/s per megaparsec. But it’s still imprecise. Once LIGO and other observatories have seen 10 or 20 more neutron star collisions, researchers should be able to tell which measurement is correct and figure out whether dark energy needs an update, Zumalacárregui says.
“Gravitational waves may kill these models, but eventually they have the potential to tell us if this discrepancy is for real,” he says. “That’s something that is in itself very beautiful.”
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration, The 1M2H Collaboration, The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration, The DLT40 Collaboration, The Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration, The VINROUGE Collaboration & The MASTER Collaboration. A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. Nature. Published online October 16, 2017. doi: 10.1038/nature24471.
(CNN)Astronomers around the world are trying to track down a small, fast-moving object that is zipping through our solar system.
Is a comet? An asteroid? NASA's not sure. The space agency doesn't even know where it came from, but it's not behaving like the local space rocks and that means it may not be from our solar system.
If that's confirmed, NASA says "it would be the first interstellar object to be observed and confirmed by astronomers."
"We have been waiting for this day for decades," Paul Chodas, manager of NASA's Center for Near-Earth Object Studies, said in a NASA news release. "It's long been theorized that such objects exist -- asteroids or comets moving around between the stars and occasionally passing through our solar system -- but this is the first such detection. So far, everything indicates this is likely an interstellar object, but more data would help to confirm it."
NASA says astronomers are pointing telescopes on the ground and in space at the object to get that data.
For now, the object is being called A/2017 U1. Experts think it's less than a quarter-mile (400 meters) in diameter and it's racing through space at 15.8 miles (25.5 kilometers) per second.
It was discovered October 19 by the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS 1 telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii.
Rob Weryk, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, was the first to identify the object and immediately realized there was something different about it.
"Its motion could not be explained using either a normal solar system asteroid or comet orbit," he said. "This object came from outside our solar system."
Whatever "it" is, the object isn't a threat to Earth.
NASA say that on October 14, it safely passed our home world at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) -- that's about 60 times the distance to the moon.
Where's it going? Scientists think the object is heading toward the constellation Pegasus and is on its way out of our solar system.
This artist's concept illustrates an asteroid belt around a bright star.
"This is the most extreme orbit I have ever seen," said Davide Farnocchia, a scientist at the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies. "It is going extremely fast and on such a trajectory that we can say with confidence that this object is on its way out of the solar system and not coming back."
"It" may eventually get a better name than A/2017 U1, but since the object is the first of its kind, the International Astronomical Union will have to come up with new rules for naming the object.
Classified military footage of the Phoenix Lights UFO phenomenon has recently been leaked by a former U.S Air Force aviator. The footage reportedly captures never-before-seen cockpit footage of Lockheed-Martin F-16 and Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II fighter jets in action the night of the original incident 17 years ago.
56th Fighter Wing Public Affairs at Luke has received numerous inquiries and requests, but has remained silent on the footage. The report claims additional footage of multiple civilian casualties has been obtained.
The “Phoenix Lights” incident is one of the largest UFO sightings in North America. Thousands of Arizona residents became alarmed when they noticed a sizable object in the sky above Phoenix 19 years ago.
Multiple eyewitnesses reported a diamond-shaped craft hovering above the city for at least a couple of hours.
An artist’s rendering of what the UFO above Phoenix may have looked like in the daylight.
(Photo courtesy of Pinterest)
Nineteen years later, questions about the Phoenix Lights are still being asked. Arizona residents still remember the phenomenon and the new footage has stirred more tension around the 19-year-old event. The lights have been the subject of intense scrutiny, government denials and internet documentaries.
This never-before-seen video of an engagement during the Phoenix Lights was leaked online this weekend, by KWBV News journalist David Collins. The FLIR video purportedly depicts military and unknown craft on the night of the mass sighting over Phoenix in 1997.
ALIENS ARE ACTUALLY IMMORTAL ROBOTS, AND THEY’RE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD, SCIENTIST CLAIMS
ALIENS ARE ACTUALLY IMMORTAL ROBOTS, AND THEY’RE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD, SCIENTIST CLAIMS
Rob Waugh for Metro.co.uk
Sorry, UFO fans, aliens are probably not almond-eyed, elf-like creatures with an unfathomable obsession with sticking probes up people’s bums.
Instead, they’re much more like to be robots – robots so old it’s difficult to even imagine, according to the Daily Galaxy.
Susan Schneider of the University of Connecticut and the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton says that alien AI may already be out there, and could be billions of years old.
Schneider says, ‘I do not believe that most advanced alien civilizations will be biological. The most sophisticated civilizations will be postbiological, forms of artificial intelligence or alien superintelligence.’
Schneider said in a Daily Galaxy report, ‘all lines of evidence converge on the conclusion that the maximum age of extraterrestrial intelligence would be billions of years, specifically ranges from 1.7 billion to 8 billion years.’
Many researchers believe that the first aliens we encounter will be robots.
Many scientists believe that the period from the discovery of radio waves, to organisms turning themselves into immortal robots will be relatively brief.
For instance, Google’s Ray Kurzweil has predicted that man will merge with machine here on Earth in the year 2050.
The upshot of this is that it’s far, far more likely that we’ll meet aliens after they’ve turned into machines, according to experts.
Seth Shostak of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence says, ‘Consider the fact that any signal we pick up has to come from a civilization at least as advanced as we are.
‘Now, let’s say, conservatively, the average civilization will use radio for 10,000 years. From a purely probabilistic point of view, the chance of encountering a society far older than ourselves is quite high.’
This video will blow your mind: the Giant Megaliths of Russia
This video will blow your mind: the Giant Megaliths of Russia
This incredible video presents some of the most incredible yet mysterious structures that have been found in all corners of Russia. According to the author of the video, these huge megaliths that strangely resemble construction methods used in sites like Puma Punku, Teotihuacan, and Tiahuanaco, could not have been the result of ancient mankind.
No matter what the numbers were in the past, the author of the video suggests that these mysterious megalithic sites in Russia are the ultimate and most compelling evidence that proves giant Beings inhabited the world in the distant past.
The author suggests that much before the biblical flood, thousands of years earlier, giant beings inhabited all corners on our planet, and stories about these giant beings can be found in cultures around the globe. No matter where we go and at what ancient culture we look at, it seems that ‘Ancient Giant Beings’ were present on Earth before ‘ancient history,’ a time that corresponds to a period in the long history of planet Earth, where, according to mainstream scholars civilizations and mankind were totally undeveloped and perhaps, didn’t even exist.
However, videos like this clearly show that these ancient megalithic sites were somehow built, yet no one has been able to fully explain why, how and how long, these incredible structures defy history and everything we know about early civilizations and beings inhabiting our planet.
Genesis: 6:2: That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
Genesis: 6:4: There were Giants (in Hebrew bible Nephilim) in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. Is it possible that just as ancient texts tell us, in the distant past, beings unlike any we see today, were present on the surface of Earth, and that some of the huge, megalithic sites were erected by them in the distant past?
Is it possible that the Megalithic site of Gornaya Shoria in Russia, is just one of the many sites in Russia where ancient beings inhabiting Earth in the distant past, managed to erect some of the biggest blocks of stone ever seen on our planet? What if all these myths and tales are more than that? And what if, as unlikely as it may seem to many people, giant beings, belonging to a completely different species, inhabited the Earth, before ordinary humans become the predominant species on the planet.
If you consider just for a moment the possibility, however unlikely, that giants existed on Earth, than we could explain how ancient megalithic monuments were erected tens of thousands of years ago, and the sites seen in this video might just be a compilation of the largest megalithic sites in Russia, constructed by the ‘alleged’ giants, many ancient cultures speak of.
Voor de eerste keer ooit is er een komeet ontdekt die niet afkomstig is uit ons eigen zonnestelsel.
Men noemt dit een interstellaire komeet omdat de wetenschappers geen flauw benul hebben welk object hier met een snelheid van 26 kilometer per seconde door de ruimte reist.
Objecten die ontdekt worden in de ruimte krijgen altijd een eigen unieke aanduiding met daarin verwerkt meestal ook het jaar waarin ze zijn ontdekt.
Een dergelijk object is C/2017 U1. Het werd afgelopen september ontdekt door astronomen met de PannSTARRS1 telescoop op Hawaï.
Het vreemde is dat niemand eigenlijk precies wat voor object het is. In eerste instantie werd het een komeet genoemd, maar omdat het niet een soort omloopbaan om de zon heeft zoals gebruikelijk bij kometen begon men te twijfelen of het wel een komeet was. Wel heeft men vast kunnen stellen dat het object een doorsnede heeft van ongeveer 160 meter en reist met een snelheid van 26 kilometer per seconde.
Wat dit object vooral bijzonder maakt, is dat het schijnt te komen van buiten ons zonnestelsel en daardoor een vreemde omloopbaan heeft. In het volgende plaatje wordt object c/2017 U1 weergegeven als geel en ter vergelijking zijn de groene fictieve omloopbanen van kometen. Dit om duidelijk te maken in hoeverre die omloopbaan van C/2017 afwijkt.
Hoe verwarrend dit alles is voor de wetenschappers, wordt duidelijk als je leest wat de Wikipedia weet te vermelden over dit object:
Op 14 oktober passeerde het object onze zon en is nu weer op weg om te verdwijnen in de ruimte. C/2017 U1 werd in 2017 ontdekt met de STARRS1-telescoop op het Hawaiiaanse eiland Maui. Het zou mogelijk een donker rotsblok met een middellijn van zo'n 150 meter betreffen. Vermoed wordt dat het object afkomstig is uit de richting van het sterrenbeeld Lier, meer bepaald uit de omgeving van de ster Wega alwaar een zonnestelsel-in-wording is ontdekt. Dat het rotsblok ook daadwerkelijk van de omgeving van Wega afkomstig is wordt uiterst onwaarschijnlijk geacht, aangezien dit rotsblok ongeveer 300.000 jaar over de tocht naar ons zonnestelsel moet hebben gedaan, en toen stond Wega ergens anders aan de hemel.
Dit is interessant, want alles wijst er op dat er momenteel een ‘exotisch’ object door ons zonnestelsel reist. Helaas kunnen we het object niet van dichtbij bekijken, want de exokomeet verlaat momenteel het zonnestelsel en heeft een hoge snelheid.
We hebben iets dat nog nooit eerder op aarde is gezien en we noemen het een rotsblok. Een veel logischere verklaring zou uiteraard zijn dat het hier gaat om een intelligent bestuurd ruimtevaartuig van een andere ster, zoals misschien Wega.
Die zullen dan echt geen 300.000 jaar over die tocht hebben gedaan, maar waarschijnlijk gebruikt hebben gemaakt een dimensieportaal om heel snel naar dit deel van ons zonnestelsel te reizen.
Dat niet alleen, maar ook dat ze hun snelheid kunnen verhogen of verlagen zonder aanwijsbare reden en dat ze een rechthoekige draai kunnen maken met onvoorstelbare snelheden, iets dat voor een normaal ruimteschip onmogelijk zou zijn. Zeker voor de waargenomen ruimteschepen die minstens zo groot zijn als onze maan.
Door de jaren heen zijn er telkens nieuwe waarnemingen geweest, waarbij het lijkt alsof deze enorme UFO’s energie uit de zon tanken.
Nu duikt er weer een opname op van een UFO die als het ware lijkt weg te schieten van de zon.
De bekende Youtube gebruiker Streetcap1 zegt dat hij eigenlijk niet gelooft in de UFO/zon plasma/energie theorie, maar dat deze beelden hem toch aan het denken hebben gezet.
Op ieder gewenst moment van de dag is er eigenlijk wel wat te zien rondom de zon op de SOHO beelden van NASA.
Het volgende voorbeeld is gemaakt door Scott Waring van Ufo Sightings Daily voor wie iedere pixelafwijking in het beeld een UFO is, maar waar ook inderdaad recht boven de zon en rechtsonder vreemde objecten zijn te zien.
Er wordt op dit moment veel gesproken over een mogelijke nep buitenaardse invasie op aarde. Een soort holografisch spel door de elite, waarbij het lijkt alsof er een buitenaardse invasiemacht naar de aarde is gekomen om ons te koloniseren. Het idee erachter is dan om de al zo lang gewenste wereldregering te activeren, waarbij de mensheid als één geheel weerstand zal bieden tegen de indringers.
Echter, de activiteiten van vreemde objecten in de buurt van de zon heeft naar alle waarschijnlijkheid niets te maken met iets dat door mensenhanden is gemaakt, maar alles met buitenaardse beschavingen.
En dan een onbekend object op een route (omloopbaan) die nog niet eerder is waargenomen, waarbij wetenschappers met de mond vol tanden staan en geen antwoorden hebben.
Noem het maar een interstellaire komeet; wij noemen het een ruimteschip.
Omdat we vandaag de wintertijd ingaan en we ons immuunsysteem in die periode best extra mogen ondersteunen, is er voor Niburu lezers deze week een daverende aanbieding van maar liefst 25 procent korting (!) op de Rauwe CBD Hennep capsules van Orjana. Deze aanbieding is geldig zolang de voorraad strekt en loopt tot en met zondag 5 november 2017. Wil je gebruikmaken van deze unieke aanbieding vul dan code "hemp25" in bij het afrekenen
The Stardust Ranch in Rainbow Valley, Ariz. has been featured multiple times in television shows and international mediafor its purported alien activity. Edmonds and his wife Joyce say they’re fed up with interstellar interference.
Edmonds claims he has slain 19 aliens with samurai swords and he and his wife have endured abduction attempts.
Realtor Kimberly Gero said the reaction from interested buyers has been mixed.
“Some are very intrigued and have no issues with the history of the property, while others are absolutely scared to death about what may or may not happen to them if they should buy it,” she said.
In addition to its paranormal features, the property boasts a ranch house with five bedrooms, four bathrooms, and a large diving pool.
Edmonds warns prospective buyers to be prepared to live on the ranch.
“It’s not something for a traditional family, but it holds a lot of secrets and what I believe are future opportunities to understand forces that are in the universe,” he said. “Please be very well grounded because the energy here has the tendency to manifest with whatever is going on with you.”
Net zoals er rondom de Yellowstone supervulkaan in Amerika onlangs ongekend veel aardbevingen werden geregistreerd, is dat nu ook het geval rond de vulkanen op La Palma, één van de Canarische Eilanden.
Er zijn met spoed experts naartoe gevlogen om metingen te verrichten en de situatie 24 uur per dag te observeren.
Hoelang zal het nog duren voordat het eindelijk bij de mensheid inzinkt dat er ongewone dingen op aarde gebeuren waarvoor niemand een zinnige verklaring kan bedenken? Het enige dat je daarvoor hoeft te doen, is wat wij al jaren doen, het bijhouden van ongewone en heftige aardveranderingen.
Het probleem daarbij is dat dit soort dingen wel wordt gerapporteerd, maar dat er nooit enig verband wordt gelegd tussen al die afzonderlijke gebeurtenissen.
Zo schreven wij enkele weken geleden over de dreiging van de Yellowstone supervulkaan die opeens veel groter blijkt te zijn dan oorspronkelijk werd gedacht.
De afgelopen jaren is het publiek regelmatig in slaap gesust door de Amerikaanse Geological Survey (USGS), die verzekerde dat ondanks dat er zich steeds vaker series kleine aardbevingen voordeden rondom het gebied van de Yellowstone Supervulkaan, dit helemaal niets was om ons zorgen over te maken.
Een supervulkaan die, wanneer deze wel tot uitbarsting zou komen, zal zorgen voor mogelijk honderdduizenden dodelijke slachtoffers.
Sinds ongeveer het midden van de maand juli van dit jaar hebben zich in het Yellowstone gebied ongeveer 2.500 kleine aardbevingen voorgedaan, het hoogste aantal in een serie ooit. De aarde onder de vulkaan is aan het verschuiven en dit kan betekenen dat er magma is gaan stromen naar de belangrijkste magmakamer.
Dit proces dat leidt naar een uitbarsting had volgens eerdere voorspellingen van de geologen van de USGS nog duizenden jaren moeten duren.
De wereld reageert niet op dat bericht, neemt het voor kennisgeving aan, als ze het al lezen, en gaan verder met echt belangrijke zaken zoals de nieuwe serie Pose die de grootste transgendercast ooit zal tellen.
Niemand die ook kijkt naar een bericht over plotselinge paniek op de Canarische Eilanden waar ook vulkanen zijn en honderden kleine aardbevingen worden geregistreerd. Men heeft in sneltreinvaart een aantal experts daar naartoe gehaald.
De reden is dat een dergelijke situatie snel kan omslaan en men de experts ter plekke tests wil laten uitvoeren op het eiland La Palma om zo misschien vast te kunnen stellen waarom en welke actieve vulkaan daar op het punt staat om uit te barsten.
De Cumbre Vieja is een actieve vulkanengroep op het zuidelijk deel van het Canarische Eiland La Palma. De keten is 18 km lang en telt ongeveer 120 dicht bij elkaar gelegen vulkanen met als hoogste de Deseada, 1.945 m. De Cumbre Vieja sluit in het noorden aan op de oudere en lager gelegen Cumbre Nueva. In het zuiden loopt de bergketen langzaam af en eindigt in de uiterste zuidpunt van La Palma, bij Punta de Fuencaliente.
Op La Palma hetzelfde verhaal als bij de Yellowstone supervulkaan. Door de ongekend hoeveelheid aardbevingen wordt het magma naar boven gestuwd en is de kans op een vulkaanuitbarsting ineens vele malen groter geworden. Het enige dat wetenschappers nu kunnen doen, is de verschillende variabelen meten om zo misschien te kunnen bepalen hoe dichtbij die uitbarsting is.
Ook hier weer dezelfde geruststellende woorden zoals altijd: Volgens lokale wetenschappers is dit dan wel de grootste serie aardbevingen die zijn voorgekomen sinds men dit begon bij te houden, maar deze zogenaamde "seismic swarms" zijn absoluut niets ongewoons.
Dat is het patroon dat we iedere keer weer opnieuw zien. Ieder keer is wat er gebeurt de meest heftige, de nog nooit eerder voorgekomen, de grootste, de hoogste enzovoort. En iedere keer worden er geruststellende woorden gesproken en is er niemand die een verband legt tussen bepaalde gebeurtenissen, behalve een enkeling in de alternatieve media en die ziet spoken.
Overal ter wereld worden vulkanen wakker en/of komen tot uitbarsting.
Zoals de Sinabung vulkaan in Indonesië die afgelopen dinsdag zelf twee keer tot een uitbarsting kwam, waarbij as en puin kilometers hoog de lucht in werden gespuwd.
En nu komt er dus een mededeling van NASA dat er niet alleen een soort superaarde moet zijn met een gewicht tien keer dat van onze aarde, maar ook dat deze zo'n krachtige invloed heeft dat het ons complete zonnestelsel heeft laten kantelen.
In een verklaring zegt NASA het volgende: "Het kan rondhangen aan de verre uiteinden van ons zonnestelsel en zich in het donker verborgen houden, maar toch subtiel in de achtergrond aan de touwtjes trekken: de omloopbanen van de buitenste planeten langer maken en zelfs het laten kantelen van het zonnestelsel naar één kant".
En verder: "De tekenen zijn tot nu indirect, het betreft vooral een zwaartekracht voetafdruk, maar alles met elkaar telt het toch op tot een overtuigende zaak".
Wanneer er krachten aan het werk zijn die ons zonnestelsel kunnen laten kantelen, is het dan niet logisch dat ze ook verantwoordelijk kunnen zijn voor ontwakende en steeds actiever wordende vulkanen?
Incredible footage of high speed UFO that appears to ignite other objects in space near Saturn
Incredible footage of high speed UFO that appears to ignite other objects in space near Saturn
Sky observer DiversityJ captured a very rare, incredibly fast sequence of events on the evening of October 26, 2017 at 7:32pm while recording Saturn in the west sky.
A nearly transparent ultra high speed UFO that seems to defy basic laws of motion, from the viewers’ perspective it traveled directly across the surface of Saturn in the lower Western sky, causing wave distortion, actually distorting the light of Saturn.
In 1 1/4 second (75 frames), there was a bright UFO that shot up from below Saturn, lit up a second object with an orange glow, then after the UFO passed Saturn it appeared to trigger another burst of light (third object) before going out of frame.
If you look closely you can see the UFO turns from light orange to white as it seems to become one with the bright white flash of light.
DiversityJ states: Now, I didn't see this when out filming. Had a heck of a time getting the camera to find Saturn, and then manually trying to focus, waiting for the noisy atv's to quiet down. But as Saturn got lower in frame and I tried to adjust, I lost it and couldn't find it again during this take. A few minutes later I eventually got both the Moon and Saturn.
Anyway, on that first take, I was staring at the monitor with my magnifying glass glancing up and back down the whole time. I didn't see any lights or airplanes. It wasn't until going in and watching the footage on the computer that I saw the event, lasted less than 2 seconds!
7:32pm, Thursday Oct 26, 2017, NE Ohio, 42°F - SW Sky.
Nikon P900 with 83x optical zoom & 166x dynamic fine digital zoom super telephoto Nikkor lens: -Homemade Solar Filter using Thousand Oaks Optical Solar Filter Film. Manual Focus, Shutter Speed 1/10, Aperture 6.3, ISO 100-400, AE-L (auto exposure locked).
This very fascinating sequence of events in space observed from NE Ohio that would have never been noticed if it weren't for the great camera work and intuition of DiversityJ to have the camera recording just at the right time.
The crust of the dwarf planet comprises ice, salts and materials belonging to geological activities which took place in the past.
The layer beneath the rigid surface of Ceres is found to be easily deformable and soft due to the residual liquid.
"More and more, we are learning that Ceres is a complex, dynamic world that may have hosted a lot of liquid water in the past, and may still have some underground," said Julie Castillo-Rogez, Dawn project scientist based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California.
A group of astronomers led by Anton Ermakov, a postdoctoral researcher at JPL, had used the measurements of shape and gravity to determine the composition and internal structure of Ceres. The finding reveals that this dwarf planet is geologically active or was in the recent past.
Three craters named Occator, Kerwan and Yalode and a solitary tall mountain present n the crater, Ahuna Mons, are linked with "gravity anomalies".
"Ceres has an abundance of gravity anomalies associated with outstanding geologic features," Ermakov said. In the cases of Ahuna Mons and Occator, the anomalies can be used to better understand the origin of these features, which are believed to be different expressions of cryovolcanism.
The models of Ceres created by the scientists show discrepancies. The analysis of these four locations done by the Dawn probe is about the subsurface structures.
Astronomers led by Roger Fu at Harvard University, US, studied the composition and strength of the dwarf planet's crust and deeper interior by analysing its topography. The researchers found that the crust of the dwarf planet comprised ice, salts, rock and an additional component, which was believed to be clathrate hydrate — which is a cage of water molecules, surrounding a gas molecule.
Clathrate hydrate's structure is found to be 100 to 1,000 times stronger than water ice, while having almost the same density.
It's believed by the researchers that the surface features of Ceres were more well-defined once, but they have smoothened over time. A very strong crust resting on a more deformable layer which contains a small amount of liquid is required for this sort of flattening of mountains and valleys, according to Fu and his team of astronomers.µ
"Levitating" Sands Could Be the Key to Landscape Formation on Mars
"Levitating" Sands Could Be the Key to Landscape Formation on Mars
A unique geologic process, made possible by Mars's thin atmosphere, could be the key to understanding dune formations on the Red Planet.
Despite being the best planet for future colonization efforts, Mars is a very different world than Earth. Temperatures average about −55 degrees Celsius (−67° F) on the Red Planet, and can range from about −153 degrees C (−243° F) at the poles to 20 degrees C (68° F) near the equator at high noon. Even more alien, the atmosphere on Mars is a little less than one percent the thickness of Earth's atmosphere, which results in some unique chemical processes. For example, water ice will sublimate rather than melt on the surface, changing directly from a solid into vapor despite the frigid temperatures.
New research suggests the unique conditions on Mars can produce a "levitating" effect on martian sands and dust, a factor that must be accounted for when studying dune formation and other geological processes on the Red Planet. The study, published this morning in Nature Communications, builds off previous research that suggests liquid water flows underground on Mars today, as evidenced by dark streaks of briny water that appear seasonally in martian dunes. When small amounts of this water reach the surface and are exposed to the atmosphere, they sublimate immediately into a gas, or perhaps exist very briefly as liquid water before boiling into vapor. This boiling process can levitate sands and carry them across the surface, especially down a slope.
"It is possible that water 'trapped' underneath sediment cover could be liquid on Mars in small amounts," Jan Raack, lead author and a research fellow at The Open University, told Popular Mechanics in an email. "Overlaying sediment would protect water to sublimate, and when it would come into contact with the thin atmosphere, it would boil and cause the effect of levitation and saltation we have observed in our experiments."
The exact formation processes of martian hills and dunes is still somewhat of a mystery for planetary geologists. The sands of Mars do not behave like the sands of the Sahara. The reduced gravity on Mars, only 3.7 m/s² compared to 9.8 m/s² on Earth, is partially responsible for the unique geologic processes, but scientists haven't been able to explain the entire picture just by accounting for the weaker gravity. Raack believes the levitating process he reproduced in the lab could be a missing piece to the puzzle.
"If liquid water (maybe groundwater or rapid ice melt or liquid brines) comes into contact with a relatively warm martian surface (around 5° C), then the effect of levitation will be possible which enhances the amount of transported sediment down a slope massively," says Raack.
The levitating sands on Mars may seem like a minor addition, just a new variable in the geologic models that simulate dune formation, but understanding the geology on Mars is vital to any human exploration efforts. Where is the water on Mars, and how could we access it? What challenges do engineers face when designing the foundation of a structure on Mars? Do the shifting sands of the Red Planet hide microbes beneath, sustaining off the thick briny water underground?
If Raack's levitating sands model is correct, it could help scientists tackle these fundamental questions about our neighbor planet.
A massive, glowing bubble of light erupted in the night sky above northeastern Siberia sometime last night (Oct. 26/27), The Siberian Times has reported.
Multiple witnesses reported seeing the bubble, according to the publication, and at least five people captured images of the phenomenon.
While many people quoted by the news site expressed concerns that the phenomenon might have something to do with aliens or "a gap in the space-time continuum," The Siberian Times suspected it was caused by a rocket launch. Now, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (which operates the Russian armed forces) has said on Facebook that it launched a Topol-M intercontinental ballistic missile last night as part of a test exercise.
The missile was apparently launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwestern Russia toward the Kura testing range in Kamchatka, which is on Russia's western, Pacific peninsula, according to The Siberian Times and the Russian Ministry of Defense.
The Siberian Times also reports that the northern lights were expected to be particularly bright last night, which explains why some of the photographers were already watching the sky when the bubble appeared.
This is the ‘Center of the universe’ because of ONE unexplainable phenomenon
This is the ‘Center of the universe’ because of ONE unexplainable phenomenon
This is the ‘Center of the universe’ because of ONE unexplainable phenomenon
By now we have probably understood that our planet is full of mysterious and amazing things.
By using science, we try and explain as best as we can things that challenge our understanding of things around us.
Thousands of years ago, before critical thinking and science, took over society we used the divine and tried to explain things that we simply couldn’t understand.
The center of the universe… on Earth
The ancient Greeks marked the center of the world by placing an omphalos in the form of a sacred stone. The most famous one was located in the oracle of Delphi, indicating that from that point on, the rest of the world had been created.
Of course, other people also had their center of the world. There were those in Miletus, Sicily, Poland, Italy to name but a few.
In ancient Greece, it is known that there were at least nine or ten.
The US also has its own center of the universe, and it is located in Tulsa. Despite the fact that ‘this center of the universe’ neither has the charm nor the mystery of the ancient centers of the universe and is rather an anodyne site, it does have a peculiar characteristic, an acoustic anomaly that surprises anyone who visits it.
According to legend, a foghorn could go off in the center of the circle an, those on the outside wouldn’t hear it.
This may be an exaggeration, but a person’s voice does sound extremely distorted when heard from outside the circle.
It’s an incredible yet mysterious effect that has still not been explained.
Located at number 20 Archer Street at the junction with Boston Avenue, the ‘center of the universe’ isn’t a special place, in fact, it’s a simple circle of about 75 centimeters in diameter surrounded by another 13 rows of tiles.
It was created in the 80’s when the area was rebuilt after a fire.
When a person stands in the center of the circle, looking in any direction, making a noise, he will hear his own echo reproduced several times louder than initially spoken, while those outside the circle will not hear it.
Instead, they perceive the voice or the noise but very distorted.
The same happens if someone outside the circle speaks to another person in front of him and also outside, causing the sound to pass over the center.
No one knows that causes the effect, but there are a couple of theories.
This curious effect seems to be produced by the circular walls surrounding the ‘center of the universe’, although it has never been proven, so there are multiple theories about it.
One theory suggests that the strange phenomenon occurs due to a metal expansion joint that crosses the circle since it is located on a viaduct, which would accidentally produce this curious acoustic anomaly.
One of the greatest minds on Earth—Professor Stephen Hawking—wants mankind to colonize Earth’s moon as soon as possible, in order to ensure the existence of our species. “I am an optimist. I believe we can. One of the best ways to do this is to move out into space and explore the potential for human beings to live on other planets.”
As we have seen in the last couple of years, rising tensions among the world’s nuclear powers have made scientists think about what we can do in order to ensure the existence of our species, if a world ‘nuclear’ war would break out in the future.
With growing concern from North Korea and Middle Eastern countries, the world has never been this scared and nervous.
Tensions between Pyongyang and Washington have greatly escalated in the last couple of years, the reason why Prof Stephen Hawking has stated that we must work to ensure the existence of our species, and the first step is to colonize the Earth’s moon.
Hawking has said that comments made by North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un should be taken seriously. The North Korean leader has threatened to destroy its enemies, and escalating tensions between nuclear powers have taken ou planet one step closer to a global catastrophe provoked by man.
“I am an optimist. I believe we can. One of the best ways to do this is to move out into space and explore the potential for human beings to live on other planets.”
To ensure we as a species live on, Prof Hawking has said that we need to head to the moon, and start looking for another planet if we are to survive a catastrophic event—like World War 3.
Professor Hawking has urged leading nations in space exploration to push the lm it’s with our space programs—and work collectively—and send astronauts to the surface of the moon in the next couple of years.
Speaking at the Yalta European Strategy forum, Prof Hawking said that we have already landed on the moon, and it could become our cosmic base to explore, and eventually colonize other worlds.
We have all that we need to go to the moon. Recently, scientists have also discovered ice deposits on the moon’s north pole, a very important discovery that could help astronauts survive on the moon.
Furthermore, Prof Hawking said that while leaving our planet will not solve all of our problems, it will give the human race a new perspective.
“Leaving earth will give us a new perspective. It would also unite us to face a common challenge,” concluded Prof Hawking.
Russia has been hit by a wave of reports of a giant UFO in the sky last night with spectacular pictures of an enormous glowing ball illuminating northern Siberia.
Social media erupted with claims of 'aliens arriving' and locals in far flung parts of the country told of 'shivers down their spines'.
While the source of the light has not been confirmed, some have suggested that it was the trace of four rockets launched by the Russian military that caused this extraordinary phenomenon in the night sky.
A similar light was seen in the skies over Norway in December 2009, which was caused by a failed missile. During that incident, the peculiar spiral shaped light pattern was created from reflection of the sun in the leaking fuel.
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Russia has been hit by a wave of reports of a giant UFO in the sky last night with spectacular pictures of an enormous glowing ball illuminating northern Siberia
HOW COULD A MISSILE TEST CREATE THE LIGHT?
Vladmir Putin oversaw the launch of four nuclear-capable ballistic missiles as part of a training exercise for Russia's strategic nuclear forces last night.
The ministry said a Topol ballistic missile had been test fired from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in northern Russia, hitting a target at the Kura military testing range on the Kamchatka Peninsula thousands of kilometres (miles) away.
It was the the trace of one of these rocket - capable of carrying nuclear missiles - that caused this extraordinary phenomenon in the night sky, say the Russian media.
A similar light was seen in the skies over Norway in December 2009, which was caused by a failed missile launch.
Speaking to Barents Observer at the time, Dr Truls Lynne Hansen, a researcher at the Tromso Geophysical Observatory, said: 'The missile has probably come out of control and exploded. 'The peculiar spiral shaped light pattern comes from reflection of the sun in the leaking fuel.'
Vasily Zubkov posted: 'I went out to smoke a cigarette and thought it was the end of the world.'
The extraordinary scenes were captured by leading Siberian photographer Sergey Anisimov in the town of Salekhard which straddles the Arctic Circle.
'I was taken aback for a few minutes, not understanding what was happening,' he said.
'The glowing ball rose from behind the trees and moved in my direction.
'My first thought was about the most powerful searchlight, but the speed of changing everything around changed the idea of what was happening.
'The ball began to turn into an arc and gradually dissipated.'
After the multi-coloured light show was over he went home to find local children as young as five in the yard babbling about 'aliens' and 'the portal to another dimension', he said.
Some 520 miles further east, another photographer Alexey Yakovlev admitted to feeling scared as he witnessed the UFO spectacle at Strezhevoi, in the north of Tomsk region, reported The Siberian Times.
'At first I thought - it is such a radiance of such an unusual form, round in shape.
'But gradually the ball began to expand, it became clear that this is not some radiance and it became scary.
'It's good that I was not alone....a group of people cannot hallucinate.'
On social media, Anastasia Boldyreva posted simply: 'Aliens arrived.'
Bizarre sighting of a 'glowing UFO' lights the sky in Siberia
The extraordinary scenes were captured by leading Siberian photographer Sergey Anisimov in the town of Salekhard which straddles the Arctic Circle
Social media erupted with claims of 'aliens arriving' and locals in far flung parts of the country told of 'shivers down their spines'
While the source of the light remains unknown, local experts suggest there were two possible reasons for the eerie spectacle in the Siberian night sky
The lights could be seen in northern Siberia, and one photographer captured stunning images of the sight from the town of Salekhard which straddles the Arctic Circle
The were many similar messages. Nurgazy Taabaldiev claimed: 'It's a gap in the space-time continuum.'
While the source of the light has not been confirmed, not all are convinced it was a Russian rocket test.
Some local experts suggest it may have been caused by the Northern lights.
But the most common theory is that Russian strongman Vladimir Putin had chosen this moment to frighten the West with grandiose military exercises by his strategic nuclear forces.
Putin personally oversaw the launch of four nuclear-capable ballistic missiles as part of a training exercise for Russia's strategic nuclear forces, the Kremlin said on Friday, the Interfax news agency reported.
The test launches, conducted last night, involved land, air, and submarine-based ballistic missiles, Russia's defence ministry said in a separate statement.
The ministry said a Topol intercontinental ballistic missile had been test fired from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in northern Russia, hitting a target at the Kura military testing range on the Kamchatka Peninsula thousands of kilometres (miles) away.
Photographer Alexey Yakovlev admitted to feeling scared as he witnessed the UFO spectacle at Strezhevoi, in the north of Tomsk region. He said: 'At first I thought - it is such a radiance of such an unusual form, round in shape. But gradually the ball began to expand, it became clear that this is not some radiance and it became scary'
After the multi-coloured light show was over, photographer Sergey Anisimov went home to find local children as young as five in the yard babbling about 'aliens' and 'the portal to another dimension', he said
The first explanation for the sight was that a vivid display of the Northern Lights - or Aurora Borealis - was underway. This is why photographers were out watching the sky when the suspected UFO appeared
When the light appeared, missile tests were underway from submarines and aircraft last night, and the exercises included the launch of a super-powerful Topol rocket from Plesetsk cosmodrome, 550 miles north of Moscow
It was the likely the traces of one of these rockets - capable of carrying nuclear missiles - that caused this extraordinary phenomenon in the night sky, say the Russian media.
As photographer Mr Yakovlev accurately guessed: 'It seems I accidentally shot the launch of a secret space rocket from Plesetsk'.
It was the the trace of this rocket - capable of carrying nuclear missiles - that caused this extraordinary phenomenon in the night sky, say the Russian media
Photographer Alexey Yakovlev accurately guessed: 'It seems I accidentally shot the launch of a secret space rocket from Plesetsk'