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  • Dat spacetripje komt nu wel erg dichtbij - HLN.be
  • Search and rescue operations might soon call on foldable drones to find victims
  • Is Elon Musk HIDING something? Mystery 'object' seen near SpaceX craft before 'feed CUT'
  • Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo Reaches Space for 1st Time in Historic Test Flight!
  • 'Smoking Gun' Planet: This Neptune-Size Alien World Is Evaporating in Record Time
  • New Steven Greer Huge Alien Disclosure of Close Encounters of the 5th Kind
  • NASA is planning four of the largest space telescopes ever. But which one will fly?
  • NASA is planning four of the largest space telescopes ever. But which one will fly?
  • Factory Robot Went Havoc, Impales Worker With Steel Spikes
  • Real life 'shrink ray' can reduce 3D structures to one thousandth of their original size - and could be used to make the next generation of miniature robots
  • Scientists are able to shrink objects
  • Mysterious Yellow Substance Removed From Hole in Space Station
  • It May Not Be So Easy For Humans To Procreate On Mars
  • Man fotografeert UFO in de lucht boven Australië. Wat heeft hij gezien?
  • Cage Match: Climate Experts Vs. Reality
  • Daytime Sighting of Orbs Over Buddhist Temple
  • CIA secretly created 'remote control' DOGS in the 1960s by surgically implanting electrodes in their brains, declassified documents reveal
  • The CIA Secretly Created Mind-Controlled Dogs
  • UFO filmed over Amman, Jordan 13-Dec-2018
  • sherman Records A Video Of Mysterious Lights Over Dark Atlantic
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    Beoordeel dit blog
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      Nog wat bijwerken
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    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
     
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    ">

    Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.

    In 2012 verloor ze haar moedige strijd tegen kanker!

    In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.

    BEDANKT!!!

    UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be. Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com. Ze geven een maandelijks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    16-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Search and rescue operations might soon call on foldable drones to find victims

    Search and rescue operations might soon call on foldable drones to find victims

     BY ALEXANDRU MICU

    A new shape-shifting drone promises to offer rescue teams robotic help even in those hard-to-reach areas.

    Foldable drone.

    The drone in it’s T-shape configuration (more on that later).
    Image credits UZH.

    Teams digging through collapsed or damaged buildings are often the only chance of salvation for those trapped after fires, earthquakes, or similar events. It’s obviously dangerous and laborious work. Not only are such structures very unstable, but they’re usually also very hard to navigate (on account of all the fallen rubble).

    Needless to say, having drones scour collapsed buildings ahead of human teams would be the safest course of action. However, drones would often have to enter such sites through narrow points — a crack in a wall, a partially open window, through bars — something the typical size of a drone does not allow. A team of researchers from the Robotics and Perception Group at the University of Zurich and the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems at the Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School (EPFL) plans to address this issue.

    The little drone that folded

    Our solution is quite simple from a mechanical point of view, but it is very versatile and very autonomous, with onboard perception and control systems,” explains Davide Falanga, researcher at the University of Zurich and the paper’s first author.

    The drone’s most obvious advantage over counterparts is its ability to morph in shape to tackle cramped environments. and guarantee a stable flight at all times. The team says they’ve drawn inspiration from birds that fold their wings mid-air to navigate narrow passages. In a very similar fashion, the drone can squeeze itself to pass through gaps and then go back to its previous shape while flying. The drone can also transport objects, including during this morphing process.

    Both teams collaborated closely to design the drone — a quadrotor with four propellers that rotate independently, each mounted on mobile arms outfitted with servo-motors that can fold around the frame. It also sports a video camera. What really keeps the drone aloft during these foldings is a control system designed and programmed by the team. It keeps tabs on each propeller’s position in real time, adjusting their thrust as the drone weaves and bobs through the air.

    The drone’s standard configuration is the traditional quadcopter X-shape (like these drones here), with the four arms stretched out and the propellers at the widest possible distance from each other. When faced with a narrow passage, the drone can morph into an H-shape, with all arms lined up along one axis. It can also take on an O-shape (with all arms folded as close as possible to the body) or a T-shape, which can be used to bring the onboard camera as close as possible to objects that the drone needs to inspect.

    The morphing drone can adopt different configurations according to what is needed in the field,” adds Stefano Mintchev, co-author and researcher at EPFL.

    The researchers plan to further improve the structure of their drone so that it can fold in all three dimensions. They also want to develop software that will make the drone truly autonomous, so it can find its own way through rubble and collapsed buildings in real-life scenarios. “The final goal is to give the drone a high-level instruction such as ‘enter that building, inspect every room and come back’ and let it figure out by itself how to do it,” says Falanga.

    • The paper “The Foldable Drone: A Morphing Quadrotor that can Squeeze and Fly” has been published in the journal IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters.

    https://www.zmescience.com/ }

    16-12-2018 om 01:37 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    15-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Factory Robot Went Havoc, Impales Worker With Steel Spikes

    Factory Robot Went Havoc, Impales Worker With Steel Spikes

    Factory Robot Went Havoc, Impales Worker With Steel Spikes

    A factory in China had a robot malfunction, which caused a worker to be impaled. The work in question managed to survive being impaled by 10 metal spikes.

    49-year-old Mr. Zhou was working a night shift at a porcelain factory in the Hunan province when he was struck by a falling robotic arm. The accident had him impaled with foot long, half-inch thick metal rods. At first, he was taken to a local hospital before he was transferred to the Xiangya Hospital of Central South University to be handled by specialists due to the nature and severity of his injuries. There were six steel rods fixed on a plate that pierces his right shoulder and chest. Four rods pierced other parts of his body. During the operation, doctors found that one of the rods missed an artery by just 0.1mm.

    Pen Factory Robot

    The reds were troublesome during the operation as they prevented doctors from carrying out X-Rays. This meant the surgery was essentially done blind. Surgeons worked throughout the night to remove all the rods. Mr. Zhou's condition is now stabilized and he will be undergoing treatment and physiotherapy to assist his recovery. He is already doing great however and has regained control of his right arm.

    Surgeon Factory Machine

    Mr. Zhou was lucky not to suffer the same fate as an American factor worker named Wanda Holbrook. The maintenance technician was killed by a rogue robot who had entered the area she was working in and then crushed her head. At the time, she was inspecting an area where components were assembled. This was when the robot entered the section she was working in, much to her surprise.

    These are not the only cases of deaths due to malfunctions and robots going rogue. In 2015, another car industry worker in Germany was also killed by a robot. The 22-year-old male, who is unnamed, was part of a team that was set up the stationary robot at a Volkswagen plant when it grabbed and crushed him against a metal plate. Another case last year, was when a construction worker somehow survived after he was electrocuted, the shock throwing him from his workstation, which caused him to be impaled through the anus by a four-feet steel bar.

    There was also the case of Tang Ming, 37 years old, who had accidentally touched live wires on a building site and the shock sent him flying backward onto the protruding metal rod. Rescuers wisely left the pole inside of him and rushed him to the hospital where surgeons managed to extract it. Ming had to undergo seven exhausting hours of surgery at the Sichuan University West China Hospital in Chengdu, capital of China's southwestern Sichuan Province.

    https://www.disclose.tv/ }

    15-12-2018 om 18:03 geschreven door peter

    0 1 2 3 4 5 - Gemiddelde waardering: 0/5 - (0 Stemmen)
    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Cage Match: Climate Experts Vs. Reality

    Cage Match: Climate Experts Vs. Reality

    Temperatures in Greenland and Iceland warmed cyclically until the 1930s, cooled through the 1970s, warmed until about ten years ago – and are now declining again.

    Nuuk Greenland Temperature

    Reykjavik Iceland temps

    Spreadsheet With Data Links

    During the 1930s, scientists said the Arctic was melting rapidly, glaciers were collapsing, and predicted 50 feet of sea level rise which would “wipe half of England from the map.

    GREENLAND’S GLACIERS MELTING, SAYS SCIENTIST

    It may without exaggeration be said that the glaciers, like those in Norway, face the possibility Of a catastrophic collapse”

    harrisburg dec 1939 greenland melting

    17 Dec 1939, Page 15 – Harrisburg Sunday Courier at Newspapers.com

    cairns post feb 1934 world heating up

    03 Feb 1934 – “WORLD HEATING UP.” – Trove

    Times have changed, and Greenland is gaining ice now.

    Greenland Gains Huge Amounts Of Ice For The Second Year In A Row | The Deplorable Climate Science Blog

    Greenland Ice Sheet’s 2017 weigh-in suggests a small increase in ice mass | NOAA Climate.gov

    NASA and the rest of team climate fraud responded to this quite predictably, by cooling the past and declaring the increase in ice to be the fastest melt on record – and accelerating.

    Spreadsheet With Data Links

    SCIENCE: Greenland ice sheet melting faster than ever recorded — Thursday, March 29, 2018

    Global warming normally occurs someplace where people don’t live and won’t bother to check. In places where people actually live, experts declare the cold weather to be caused by global warming.

    Read more at Real Climate Science

    Source: 

     { https://beforeitsnews.com/v3/ }

    15-12-2018 om 12:46 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.CIA secretly created 'remote control' DOGS in the 1960s by surgically implanting electrodes in their brains, declassified documents reveal

    CIA secretly created 'remote control' DOGS in the 1960s by surgically implanting electrodes in their brains, declassified documents reveal

    • CIA documents reveal that they tested on dogs in mind control experiments 
    • Officials have been trying to hide top secret documents for decades 
    • Files reveal that the CIA controlled dog's minds using electrodes in their skulls
    • 'Behaviour modification' experiments were an illegal mind control project
    • Files were released by The Black Vault, a declassified government records site  

    The CIA created remote control dogs by surgically implanting electrodes in their brains in 1963, newly released documents reveal. 

    US officials have been trying to hide the top secret 'behaviour modification' files for decades, but they have now been released under the country's Freedom of Information laws. 

    Experimenters implanted devices inside the skulls of six canines and used electrical stimulation to guide them through an open field, making them run, turn and stop.

    The top secret experiments were part of the infamous mind control project MKUltra. 

    Scroll down for video 

    Mind-control experiments using drugs, hypnosis and electronic devices were carried out by the CIA on dogs in 1963. Officials have been trying to hide the documents for decades but have recently been released under the Freedom of Information Act (Stock image)

    Mind-control experiments using drugs, hypnosis and electronic devices were carried out by the CIA on dogs in 1963. Officials have been trying to hide the documents for decades but have recently been released under the Freedom of Information Act (Stock image)

    The top-secret CIA program conducted hundreds of experiments sometimes on unwitting citizens to assess the potential use of LSD.

    They also used other drugs for mind control, information gathering and psychological torture.

    John Greenewald, founder of The Black Vault, a site specialising in declassified government records spent twenty years trying to obtain the documents.

    The files from the infamous project reveal the government agency also tested humans with psychotropic drugs, electrical shocks and radio waves. 

    'The specific aim of the research program was to examine the feasibility of controlling the behaviour of a dog, in an open field, by means of remotely stimulated electrical stimulation of the brain,' the documents state. 

    'Such a system depends for its effectiveness on two properties of electrical stimulation delivered to certain deep lying structures of the dog brain: the well-known reward effect, and a tendency for such stimulation to initiate and maintain locomotion in a direction which is accompanied by the continued delivery of stimulation.' 

    Researchers implanted a device inside six canines' skulls and guided them through an open field (schematic pictured), making them run, turn and stop. The top secret experiments were part of the infamous mind control project MKUltra

    Researchers implanted a device inside six canines' skulls and guided them through an open field (schematic pictured), making them run, turn and stop. The top secret experiments were part of the infamous mind control project MKUltra

    John Greenewald, founder of The Black Vault, a site specialising in declassified government records, put in the FOIA request. This document details plans to drug inmates at a prison hospital then interrogate them

    John Greenewald, founder of The Black Vault, a site specialising in declassified government records, put in the FOIA request. This document details plans to drug inmates at a prison hospital then interrogate them

    The researchers first tried out a plastic helmet but then settled on a new surgical technique that involved 'embedding the electrode entirely within a mound of dental cement on the skull', the documents state. 

    They ran the leads just below the dog's skin to a point between the shoulder blades, where the leads are brought to the surface and affixed to a standard dog harness. 

    Some of the dogs suffered side effects from the experiments, including infections caused by the head wound where they embedded the electrode into their brain. 

    In one letter an individual, whose name had been redacted, writes to a doctor with advice about experiments in animal mind control. 

    The writer of the letter proved to be an expert in the field of animal mind control and had undertaken the successful creation of six remote control dogs.   

    'As you know, I spent about three years working in the research area of rewarding electrical stimulation of the brain,' the person writes. 

    Pictures of dog brain structures indicating where electrodes would be surgically implanted. The researchers first tried out a plastic helmet but then settled on a new surgical technique that involved 'embedding the electrode entirely within a mound of dental cement on the skull', the documents state

    Scientists at first used a plastic helmet (schematic pictured) that delivered the stimulation to the dog's brain but then moved on to embedding the electrode within a mound of dental cement into the skull 

    Scientists at first used a plastic helmet (schematic pictured) that delivered the stimulation to the dog's brain but then moved on to embedding the electrode within a mound of dental cement into the skull 

    'In the laboratory, we performed a number of experiments with rats; in the open field, we employed dogs of several breeds.'

    The letter writer characterises the work with remote-controlling dogs as a success, describing 'a demonstrated procedure for controlling the free-field behaviours of an unrestrained dog.'

    The final report, published in 1965, titled 'Remote Control Behaviour with Rewarding Electrical Stimulation of the Brain', was attached to the letter. 

    The top-secret CIA program MKUltra conducted hundreds of experiments sometimes on unwitting U.S. citizens to assess the potential use of LSD. They also used other drugs for mind control, information gathering and psychological torture

    The top-secret CIA program MKUltra conducted hundreds of experiments sometimes on unwitting U.S. citizens to assess the potential use of LSD. They also used other drugs for mind control, information gathering and psychological torture

    By 1967, it seems unlikely that remote-controlled dogs were ever used in the field, as the letter writer outlines some of the limitations and challenges to any follow-up program going forward.   

    The files are not the only 'Behavioural Modification' document released by The Black Vault involving animals. 

    Numerous other files pertain to budgeting and acquisition for animal experimentation. 

    One declassified file details, with heavy redactions, the practical possibilities of training and equipping cats for 'foreign situation' field work.

    WHAT WAS MKULTRA

    In 1953, the then director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officially approved project MKUltra. 

    The code name MKUltra was given to the illegal program which performed experiments on human subjects.

    It was intended to help the US government keep up with experiments they believed the Soviets were conducting during the Cold War.

    They hoped to achieve this aim through 'the use of biological and chemical materials in altering human behaviour,' CIA director Stansfield Turner testified in 1977.

    The program engaged in many illegal activities; in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy. 

    MKUltra used numerous methodologies to manipulate people’s mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture. 

    Footage has since emerged of experiments conducted into the potential of weaponising LSD as a method of controlling or subduing enemy forces.

    Since that time, conspiracy theorists have expanded their claims about the kinds of techniques agencies like the CIA or others may have experimented with.

    15-12-2018 om 11:27 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    14-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Bob Lazar’s claims regarding Alien technology at Area 51

    Bob Lazar’s claims regarding Alien technology at Area 51

    Get over it.

    There has never been any Alien technology at Area 51  (or to be more specific, at the alleged S-4 by Papoose Lake claimed by Bob Lazar).  Gullible folks believe in fiction rather than in reality.

    There has never been any UFO/ET activity at Area 51, despite Bob Lazar‘s proverbial claims.

    Yes, Bob Lazar did tell a nice story.   In fact, a great story.   But the fact is that it simply remains just a story.  It appears to be a cleverly made story at that. Needless to say, it is extremely difficult to prove its authenticity.

    It is more important to ask why he had to tell his dubious and largely unsubstantiated story which seems to be persistently endorsed by debonair raconteur, George Knapp, who practically made a secondary career promoting Bob Lazar’s story.

    There is not one shred of tangible, solid, physical as well as irrefutable documentary evidence whatsoever that conclusively proves that Area 51 had anything to do with Aliens or UFOs.

    That is the bottom line.

    While open to the possibility of intelligent life elsewhere in this vast universe, the overwhelming majority of the world’s astronomers and scientists are skeptical about us ever been visited by any physical, extraterrestrial spacecraft of any kind, maneuvered or manipulated by any physical extraterrestrial biological entities of any kind.

    In the meantime, as far as Area 51 is concerned, it continues to be a vital research, development and test conglomerate facility managed by a detachment from Southern California’s Edwards Air Force Base (Air Force Test Center) and supported by our hard-earned tax dollars, for our national defense interest.

    PS:

    One of the lamest excuses held by fanatic believers of Bob Lazar is that he hadn’t changed his story over the years.  It’s not extremely difficult for any highly intelligent person  (and Lazar indeed was highly intelligent)  to keep telling the same story from the beginning, making sure not to change anything even after many years.

    …..

    Facebook = http://www.facebook.com/fernandon.hayakawa

    https://noriohayakawa.wordpress.com/ }

    14-12-2018 om 16:38 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Another El Niño on the horizon?

    Another El Niño on the horizon?

    The World Meteorological Organization has said there’s a “75–80% chance” of a fully-fledged El Niño event by February, 2019. Click in for a good video from ESA describing El Niños and their global effects.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) posted the video above on December 7, 2018, in response to an El Niño / La Niña update on November 27 from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The WMO said in late November there is a “75–80 percent chance” that a fully-fledged El Niño event will be with us by February 2019; however, it is not expected to be a strong event.

    WMO reported:

    Sea surface temperatures are already at weak El Niño levels in part of the tropical Pacific, although the corresponding atmospheric patterns have not yet materialized.

    ESA took the opportunity to post the explanatory video above, which describes El Niño and its cooler cousin, La Niña, as opposite phases of what is known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. They are complex, naturally occurring climatic phenomena, occurring at irregular intervals of between two and seven years.

    ESA explained:

    As the animation above shows, the first signs of an El Niño are a weakening of the trade winds and warmer-than-usual sea-surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. This not only affects fisheries off the coast of South America, but leads to a disruption in weather patterns around the world.

    These changing weather patterns can cause heatwaves, drought, wildfires and flooding in different places.

    But, again, the coming El Niño is expected to be on the weak side, unlike the 1997–98 El Niño event, which was regarded as one of the strongest El Niño events in recorded history, resulting in widespread drought, flooding and other natural disasters occurring across the globe. The 2014-16 El Niño event was also a very strong one.

    As for the coming event, the WMO said:

    Sea surface temperatures in the east-central tropical Pacific have been at weak El Niño levels since October 2018. However, the atmosphere has not yet responded to this additional warmth, and the upper level winds, cloud and sea level pressure patterns do not yet reflect typical El Niño features.

    Model forecasts suggest that this will change within the coming month or two. The chance of a full-fledged El Niño between December 2018 – February 2019 is estimated to be about 75-80 percent, and about 60 percent for it to continue through February-April 2019. Model predictions of the strength of the El Niño range from just a warm-neutral condition through to a moderate strength El Niño event, with sea surface temperatures peaking at approximately 0.8 to 1.2 degrees Celsius above average.

    The chance for a strong event (sea surface temperatures in the east-central tropical Pacific rising to at least 1.5 degrees Celsius above average) is currently low.

    Maxx Dilley, director of WMO’s Climate Prediction and Adaptation branch, added:

    The forecast El Niño is not expected to be as powerful as the event in 2015-2016, which was linked with droughts, flooding and coral bleaching in different parts of the world.

    Even so, it can still significantly affect rainfall and temperature patterns in many regions, with important consequences to agricultural and food security sectors, and for management of water resources and public health, and it may combine with long-term climate change to boost 2019 global temperatures.

    Bottom line: The World Meteorological Organization said in late November there is a “75–80% chance” that a fully-fledged El Niño event will be with us by February 2019; however, it is not expected to be a strong event. The European Space Agency responded with an excellent video describing El Niño events and their effects.

    { https://earthsky.org/ }

    14-12-2018 om 16:30 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Tornadoes From the Ground up Not in the Clouds as Once Thought

    Tornadoes From the Ground up Not in the Clouds as Once Thought

    Historically, scientists assumed tornado rotation began in storm clouds, creating a funnel that travels downwards. This theory matches what storm chasers commonly observe visually in the field. Viewers often report seeing funnel clouds gradually descending until they make contact with the ground.

    But new research combining a new type of Doppler radar with photos and videos of tornadoes formed by supercell thunderstorms shows the opposite is true: Tornadoes materialize from the ground up.

    Weather forecasters typically issue tornado warnings based on radar observations of strong rotation above the ground, but the new findings suggest forecasters must re-evaluate their warning procedure, according to the researchers.

    A tornado in Galatia, Kansas on 25 May 2012 as it was decaying.

    Credit: Jana Houser.

    “We need to reconsider the paradigms that we have to explain tornado formation, and we especially need to communicate this to forecasters who are trying to make warnings and issue warnings,” said Jana Houser, a meteorologist at Ohio University in Athens who will present the new findings here today at the American Geophysical Union’s Fall Meeting. “You are not going to really ever be finding strong evidence of a tornado descending, so we need to stop making that a priority in our forecasting strategies.”

    Research conducted in the 1970s suggested tornadoes form from rotation that starts several kilometers above Earth’s surface. The theory was that this funnel gradually sucked in air from below, descending until it touched the ground.

    Most meteorologists have accepted this theory of tornado formation, but a series of new observations from rapidly scanning radars has started to change that.

    One of the pivotal cases contributing to the new understanding of tornado formation occurred on May 31, 2013. On this day, the El Reno tornado formed in central Oklahoma and shattered previous tornado records. It was the widest tornado ever recorded, peaking at 4.2 kilometers (2.6 miles) wide, and had wind speeds of more than 480 kilometers per hour (300 miles per hour), the second-highest wind speeds recorded on Earth.

    Shot of the El Reno, Oklahoma EF-3 tornado near maximum width and peak intensity on 31 May 2013.

    Credit: Nick Nolte, CC-BY-3.0.

    Houser and a team of researchers from the University of Oklahoma happened to be monitoring the storm with a new type of mobile Doppler radar system that collected tornado wind speeds every 30 seconds. Afterwards, Anton Seimon, a geographer at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina who had chased the El Reno storm, collected hundreds of still photos and videos of the epic twister from citizens and fellow storm chasers.

    When Houser compared her radar data with images collected by Seimon, she noticed something odd. The images clearly showed a visible tornado at the ground several minutes before her radar picked it up.

    Puzzled, Houser went back through her radar data and analyzed the data taken at the ground. It is typically difficult to get good radar measurements at or near the ground, but Houser and her team had deployed their instrument on a slight rise and there were no obstructions between them and the tornado, so this time, they had data good enough to work with.

    Jana Houser standing next to the Rapid X-Pol radar instrument, a new type of rapidly-scanning mobile radar system, during a storm chase on 8 May 2012.

    Credit: Jana Houser.

    She found clear evidence of rotation at the ground before there was rotation at higher altitudes. Houser then examined other sets of tornado data and found that in many cases, tornado-strength rotation develops at or near the ground first, rather than starting in the cloud itself. In all four datasets she analyzed, none of the tornadoes formed following the classical “top-down” process.

    “It emphasizes the fact that we need to have strong, low-level, basically near-ground level rotation, located in the right spot, at the right time, with respect to the larger parent storm circulations in order to form a tornado,” Houser said.

    Contacts and sources:

     

    Source: 

    https://beforeitsnews.com/v3/ }

    14-12-2018 om 14:04 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Things That Go Boom in the Night: Earthquakes and Earth Lights

    Things That Go Boom in the Night: Earthquakes and Earth Lights

    As winter 2018 ensues here in America, the seasonal appearance of one of my favorite unusual natural phenomena–the so-called “mystery booms”–can generally be expected.

    Although these unusual “booms” have a wide variety of causes, seasonal appearances in the winter months are sometimes associated with cryoseisms (more commonly known as frost quakes). These are cooler-weather localized phenomena that occur when explosive pressure builds up below ground, often around the time of the first significant freeze of the winter. After groundwater saturation occurs following periods of heavy rain, if temperatures drop below freezing it can result in fractures that result in localized tremors, and sometimes loud “booms” associated with the event.

    While these localized “quakes” are an interesting seasonal phenomenon, there are interesting things that are sometimes associated with more conventional seismic phenomena too, such as luminous phenomena known as “earthquake lights.”

    Unexplained illumination photographed over Table Rock, North Carolina (image by Bill Fox).

    In fact, as of the time I’m writing this, a small 4.4 magnitude earthquake occurred earlier this morning near the Tennessee/North Carolina border, and many residents in my region felt the quake, including yours truly. At approximately 4:16 AM local time, I felt a light, but noticeable shaking that gently rocked my entire home. Presuming it was an earthquake (since my hometown of Asheville, North Carolina is right along the Brevard Fault), I noted the time before attempting to go back to sleep, so that I could gauge whether the timing would be correct if reports the following day indicated that a quake had indeed occurred.

    Sure enough, this morning reports from around the region were commenting on the earthquake (the primary 4.4 magnitude quake actually occurred at around 6:30 AM ET, so the light tremblor I felt must have preceded the later, more significant quake). It is not uncommon for lighter quakes to accompany such a seismic event, sometimes occurring before, and after the primary quake.

    Here’s where things get a little interesting though; before going back to sleep, the notion struck me to look out the window to see if there were any indications of what might have caused it (apart from my presumption that a small earthquake had just occurred). Looking out the window, I noted a bright light over the horizon in the distance, which was extremely vivid and approximately 1/4 the size of the full moon. Had this been one of the infamous earthquake lights?

    Earthquake lights are believed to be natural luminous phenomena that occur around regions where tectonic or seismic activity occur. These little-understood phenomena are a subject of much debate, and theories about their appearances and types of manifestation range from plasmas akin to ball lightning, to the release of gases that become airborne and may ignite, causing illuminations that become visible as they burn.

    A famous example of alleged earthquake lights that appear on a recurring basis here in my region are the Brown Mountain Lights, which have been studied a variety of times over the years (to-date, the most comprehensive scientific study occurred decades ago, as undertaken by George R. Mansfield in March and April of 1922; for more on this, see USGS Circular 646, “Origin of the Brown Mountain Light in North Carolina“). Although it was Mansfield’s contention that the distant headlights of locomotives could explain most of the lights, some anecdotal evidence may suggest that the lights are frequently seen in modern times, and often above the horizon (it is this writer’s opinion that a ball-lightning-like plasma may account for at least some of the appearances of the illuminations at Brown Mountain, as potentially documented in this footage obtained by Dr. Daniel B. Caton of Appalachian State University in 2016).

    All this to say, in essence, that there is a bit of history of “earthquake lights” around the Brevard Fault area, and coinciding with a small tremblor preceding a 4.4 magnitude earthquake in my region, the thought crossed my mind that I might finally be seeing one of these elusive nocturnal illuminations. It should be noted, of course, that the area over the horizon to the East where the light appeared also happened to be the general area where Venus would be visible in the early morning hours; the problem with the Venus theory, however, was that the sky was completely overcast, with a ceiling at about 36,700 feet (according to accuweather.com). Would Venus, bright though it is, have managed to cut through the dense cloud cover over Asheville this morning?

    In short, yes. Venus can appear extremely bright in the early morning sky, and dialing up some stargazing software, I was able to satisfactorily reproduce the conditions of my observation while looking due east at precisely 4:16 AM. Below is a screen grab of what I found:

    So at 4:16 AM as I lay awake considering whether I had just experienced an earthquake, I looked out the window and saw no earthquake light, but instead a nearby (and very bright) planet, whose reflected sunlight was cutting through the early morning overcast and giving the distinct impression of an illumination below the cloud ceiling.

    What can we learn from this? Well, one of the more interesting takeaways for me was the fact that Venus appeared just as bright in the distance even with a full cloud cover. Thanks to modern star-charting software, I was able to easily determine this (as I could have done even more easily at the time of the observation, by simply using a star watching app on my smartphone, had I not been more intent on trying to go back to sleep at that moment). However, I can see how the unusual brightness of Venus could easily give an observer the impression of a light source at a much lower altitude, due to its ability to cut right through the cloud cover.

    Although it’s often said that Venus is mistaken for being a UFO (probably more often than you’d think!), this would be all-the-more understandable considering that its curious brightness can cause it to look like a peculiar light hovering in front of distant clouds. In the meantime, as for any “real” earthquake lights, I suppose I’ll just have to keep looking!

    https://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    14-12-2018 om 11:23 geschreven door peter

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    13-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The New Trailer for the Alien Occupation Thriller Captive State Just Might Blow You Away

    The New Trailer for the Alien Occupation Thriller Captive State Just Might Blow You Away

    No, it’s not a Shadow of the Colossus movie. It’s Captive State.

    Photo: Focus Features

    We hate to be presumptuous, but this new trailer blew us away, so there’s a chance it might do the same for you.

    So fartrailers for Captive State have been good. No better, no worse, just good. The framing of the film, set in a world years after aliens have invaded and won, is excellent, but so far its trailers have focused on the film’s more personal aspects. This new trailer, though? Holy shit. It opens things up in a major, major way. Check it out.

    Look at all those aliens! Those spaceships! That political intrigue! The father-and-son dynamics! All of those things and more (like that awesome cast: John Goodman! Vera Farmiga!) make this movie look pretty special. Then again, that’s the job of a trailer—to make anything look good—so there’s always an outside chance the movie won’t live up to all this promise.

    But, we don’t think so. That footage and cast are too good, and director Rupert Wyatt is too talented to waste such an incredible premise. If the movie ended up being bad, it would be an awful disappointment.

    Captive State opens March 29.

    https://gizmodo.com/ }

    13-12-2018 om 23:17 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.10-year study documents massive, mysterious ecosystem deep beneath our feet

    10-year study documents massive, mysterious ecosystem deep beneath our feet

    Researchers have cataloged the extensive biosphere of life deep beneath the surface of the Earth

    Researchers have cataloged the extensive biosphere of life deep beneath the surface of the Earth

    (Credit: sazori/Depositphotos)

    Earth is teeming with life, but a new project shows most of it isn't where you'd expect. A decade-long study has now taken a census of one of the largest and least-understood ecosystems on the planet – the "deep biosphere" that extends several kilometers into the planet's crust. Among the finds are bizarre creatures that can survive at record depths, pressures and temperatures, and even "zombie" bacteria that may live (in a loose sense of the word) for millions of years at a time.

    The project, known as the Deep Carbon Observatory, is the result of an international collaboration of scientists over almost 10 years. Data was collected from hundreds of sites across the world, with samples taken on land from mines and boreholes 5 km (3.1 mi) deep and up to 2.5 km (1.6 mi) under the seafloor.

    Using that data, the researchers modeled these deep-Earth ecosystems, and estimated the amount of life down there. According to their calculations, up to 6 x10^29 cells (that's a 6 followed by 29 zeroes) live deep beneath the continental landmasses. When you include the life beneath the seafloors, there's approximately 15 to 23 billion tonnes of carbon biomass. The deep biosphere itself likely occupies up to 2.3 billion cubic km, which is almost twice the total volume of the planet's oceans.

    Archaea species known as Altiarchaeales, which were discovered in sulfidic springs in Germany

    "A decade ago, we had no idea that the rocks beneath our feet could be so vastly inhabited," says Isabelle Daniel, of the University of Lyon 1 in France. "Experimental investigations told us that microbes could potentially survive to great depth; at that time, we had no evidence, and this has become real 10 years later. This is simply fascinating and will surely foster enthusiasm to look for the biotic-abiotic fringe on Earth and elsewhere."

    So, what kind of creatures live down there? The team says that all three domains of life – the broadest groups on the tree of life – are represented, with a genetic diversity at least as extensive as there is here on the surface. Two of those domains, bacteria and archaea, dominate the deep biosphere, which might contain as much as 70 percent of Earth's total amount of those groups. The vast majority of them are still completely unknown to science.

    Two types of microorganisms, archaea in red and bacteria in green, work together to harvest methane...

    The creatures found in this deep biosphere consistently break records for the known extremes that life can survive under. The deepest-dwelling lifeforms have been discovered down to 5 km (3.1 mi) below land and 10.5 km (6.5 mi) below the ocean's surface.

    But perhaps the strangest of all are bacteria that the researchers describe as "zombies." These organisms have life cycles on almost geologic timescales, millions or even tens of millions of years. But it's not much of a life – they don't really grow or undergo cellular division, instead focusing the little energy on hand into just barely maintaining their existence.

    A strange new species known as Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, the rods highlighted in blue, as they...

    The scientists say we've barely begun to scratch the (sub)surface of the deep biosphere. Not only do most species remain unknown, but it's a mystery how they live, reproduce, move around, affect surface life and are affected by natural events like earthquakes and unnatural ones like fracking.

    Researchers on the Deep Carbon Observatory project are presenting their findings at the American Geophysical Union meeting this week, which was described in recent papers published in Geobiology and Nature Geoscience, among others.

    https://newatlas.com/ }

    13-12-2018 om 21:25 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Giant Hidden World of Intraterrestrials is Living Underneath Our Feet

    Giant Hidden World of Intraterrestrials is Living Underneath Our Feet

    I feel the earth move under my feet
    I feel the sky tumbling down
    I feel my heart start to trembling
    Whenever you’re around

    Carole King was obviously referring to a guy in her iconic song, but today those same lyrics might apply to a newly-discovered world of “intraterrestrials” living deep under the feet of virtually every human in a pristine environment that excited researchers are calling a “subterranean Galapagos.” In fact, it’s making them “get hot and cold, all over, all over, all over, all over.” Let’s find out why.

    Two types of microbes—bacteria and archaea—dominate Deep Earth. Among them are millions of distinct types, most yet to be discovered or characterized. This so-called microbial “dark matter” dramatically expands our perspective on the tree of life. Deep Life scientists say about 70% of Earth’s bacteria and archaea live in the subsurface.

    Deep microbes are often very different from their surface cousins, with life cycles on near-geologic timescales, dining in some cases on nothing more than energy from rocks.

    The genetic diversity of life below the surface is comparable to or exceeds that above the surface.

    While subsurface microbial communities differ greatly between environments, certain genera and higher taxonomic groups are ubiquitous – they appear planet-wide.”

    In a statement released prior to the American Geophysical Union’s annual meeting, over 1,000 scientists from 52 countries with the Deep Carbon Observatory unveiled the results of their 10-year project which involved drilling hundreds of deep (up to 3 miles/4.8 km) holes on the surface and under the oceans. They found that 70% of Earth’s bacteria and archaea exist in the subsurface, with many of them being alive for thousands of years, moving only when there are earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or plate shifts.

    Not only are these organisms old and diverse, they’re strange. One found 1.5 miles/2.5 km down appears to live on methane instead of sunlight and doesn’t reproduce but instead has just been repairing itself for eons. Another lives in hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor at 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 degrees Celsius), above the boiling point of water at 212 degrees F (100 degrees C).

    And there’s not just a few of them in holes … there’s TONS of them everywhere – an estimated 2 to 2.3 billion cubic km (almost twice the volume of all oceans) with a carbon mass of 15 to 23 billion tons, which is 245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface.

    Is your heart trembling at the thought of being outnumbered and outlived by so many subsurface intraterrestrials? Robert Hazen, a mineralogist at the Carnegie Institution for Science, thinks this study is just scratching the subsurface.

    “We must ask ourselves: if life on Earth can be this different from what experience has led us to expect, then what strangeness might await as we probe for life on other worlds?”

    How would that make Carole King feel?

    I feel the sky tumbling down, a’tumbling down,
    A’tumbling down, a’tumbling down, a’tumbling down, a’tumbling down, tumbling down!

    https://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    13-12-2018 om 18:59 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:Diversen (Eng, NL en Fr)
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Life in Deep Earth Totals 15 to 23 Billion Tonnes of Carbon—Hundreds of Times More than Humans

    Life in Deep Earth Totals 15 to 23 Billion Tonnes of Carbon—Hundreds of Times More than Humans

    Barely living "zombie" bacteria and other forms of life constitute an immense amount of carbon deep within Earth's subsurface—245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface, according to scientists nearing the end of a 10-year international collaboration to reveal Earth's innermost secrets.

    Contacts

    Deep Carbon Observatory collaborators, exploring the ‘Galapagos of the deep,’ add to what’s known, unknown, and unknowable about Earth’s most pristine ecosystem

    Bacteria, archaea, and other microbes—some of them zombies—exist even in deepest known subsurface, and they’re weirder than their surface counterparts

    ~70% of Earth's bacteria and archaea live underground

    Earth’s deep life suggests microbes might inhabit the subsurface of other planets

    Barely living “zombie” bacteria and other forms of life constitute an immense amount of carbon deep within Earth’s subsurface—245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface, according to scientists nearing the end of a 10-year international collaboration to reveal Earth’s innermost secrets.

    On the eve of the American Geophysical Union’s annual meeting, scientists with the Deep Carbon Observatory today reported several transformational discoveries, including how much and what kinds of life exist in the deep subsurface under the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature, and low energy and nutrient availability.

    Drilling 2.5 kilometers into the seafloor, and sampling microbes from continental mines and boreholes more than 5 km deep, the team has used the results to construct models of the ecosystem deep within the planet.

    With insights from now hundreds of sites under the continents and seas, they have approximated the size of the deep biosphere—2 to 2.3 billion cubic km (almost twice the volume of all oceans)—as well as the carbon mass of deep life: 15 to 23[1] billion tonnes (an average of at least 7.5 tonnes of carbon per cu km subsurface).

    The work also helps determine types of extraterrestrial environments that could support life.

    Among many key discoveries and insights:

    • The deep biosphere constitutes a world that can be viewed as a sort of “subterranean Galapagos” and includes members of all three domains of life: bacteria and archaea (microbes with no membrane-bound nucleus), and eukarya (microbes or multicellular organisms with cells that contain a nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles)
    • Two types of microbes—bacteria and archaea—dominate Deep Earth. Among them are millions of distinct types, most yet to be discovered or characterized. This so-called microbial “dark matter” dramatically expands our perspective on the tree of life. Deep Life scientists say about 70% of Earth's bacteria and archaea live in the subsurface
    • Deep microbes are often very different from their surface cousins, with life cycles on near-geologic timescales, dining in some cases on nothing more than energy from rocks
    • The genetic diversity of life below the surface is comparable to or exceeds that above the surface
    • While subsurface microbial communities differ greatly between environments, certain genera and higher taxonomic groups are ubiquitous - they appear planet-wide
    • Microbial community richness relates to the age of marine sediments where cells are found—suggesting that in older sediments, food energy has declined over time, reducing the microbial community
    • The absolute limits of life on Earth in terms of temperature, pressure, and energy availability have yet to be found. The records continually get broken. A frontrunner for Earth’s hottest organism in the natural world is Geogemma barossii, a single-celled organism thriving in hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. Its cells, tiny microscopic spheres, grow and replicate at 121 degrees Celsius (21 degrees hotter than the boiling point of water)
    • Microbial life can survive up to 122°C, the record achieved in a lab culture (by comparison, the record-holding hottest place on Earth’s surface, in an uninhabited Iranian desert, is about 71°C—the temperature of well-done steak)
    • The record depth at which life has been found in the continental subsurface is approximately 5 km; the record in marine waters is 10.5 km from the ocean surface, a depth of extreme pressure; at 4000 meters depth, for example, the pressure is approximately 400 times greater than at sea level
    • Scientists have a better understanding of the impact on life in subsurface locations manipulated by humans (e.g., fracked shales, carbon capture and storage)

    Ever-increasing accuracy and the declining cost of DNA sequencing, coupled with breakthroughs in deep ocean drilling technologies (pioneered on the Japanese scientific vessel Chikyu, designed to ultimately drill far beneath the seabed in some of the planet’s most seismically-active regions) made it possible for researchers to take their first detailed look at the composition of the deep biosphere.

    There are comparable efforts to drill ever deeper beneath continental environments, using sampling devices that maintain pressure to preserve microbial life (none thought to pose any threat or benefit to human health).

    To estimate the total mass of Earth’s subcontinental deep life, for example, the team compiled data on cell concentration and microbial diversity from locations around the globe.

    Led by Cara Magnabosco of the Flatiron Institute Center for Computational Biology, New York, the scientists factored in a suite of considerations, including global heat flow, surface temperature, depth and lithology—the physical characteristics of rocks in each location—to estimate that the continental subsurface hosts 2 to 6 × 1029 cells.

    Combined with estimates of subsurface life under the oceans, total global Deep Earth biomass is approximately 15 to 23 petagrams (15 to 23 billion tonnes) of carbon.

    Says Mitch Sogin of the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, USA, co-chair of DCO’s Deep Life community of more than 300 researchers in 34 countries: “Exploring the deep subsurface is akin to exploring the Amazon rainforest. There is life everywhere, and everywhere there’s an awe-inspiring abundance of unexpected and unusual organisms.

    “Molecular studies raise the likelihood that microbial dark matter is much more diverse than what we currently know it to be, and the deepest branching lineages challenge the three-domain concept introduced by Carl Woese in 1977. Perhaps we are approaching a nexus where the earliest possible branching patterns might be accessible through deep life investigation.”

    “Ten years ago, we knew far less about the physiologies of the bacteria and microbes that dominate the subsurface biosphere,” says Karen Lloyd, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. “Today, we know that, in many places, they invest most of their energy to simply maintaining their existence and little into growth, which is a fascinating way to live.

    “Today too, we know that subsurface life is common. Ten years ago, we had sampled only a few sites—the kinds of places we'd expect to find life. Now, thanks to ultra-deep sampling, we know we can find them pretty much everywhere, albeit the sampling has obviously reached only an infinitesimally tiny part of the deep biosphere.”

    “Our studies of deep biosphere microbes have produced much new knowledge, but also a realization and far greater appreciation of how much we have yet to learn about subsurface life,” says Rick Colwell, Oregon State University, USA. “For example, scientists do not yet know all the ways in which deep subsurface life affects surface life and vice versa. And, for now, we can only marvel at the nature of the metabolisms that allow life to survive under the extremely impoverished and forbidding conditions for life in deep Earth.”

    Among the many remaining enigmas of deep life on Earth:

    1. Movement: How does deep life spread—laterally through cracks in rocks? Up, down? How can deep life be so similar in South Africa and Seattle, Washington? Did they have similar origins and were separated by plate tectonics, for example? Or do the communities themselves move? What roles do big geological events (such as plate tectonics, earthquakes; creation of large igneous provinces; meteoritic bombardments) play in deep life movements?
    2. Origins: Did life start deep in Earth (either within the crust, near hydrothermal vents, or in subduction zones) then migrate up, toward the sun? Or did life start in a warm little surface pond and migrate down? How do subsurface microbial zombies reproduce, or live without dividing for millions to tens of millions of years?
    3. Energy: Is methane, hydrogen, or natural radiation (from uranium and other elements) the most important energy source for deep life? Which sources of deep energy are most important in different settings? How do the absence of nutrients, and extreme temperatures and pressure, impact microbial distribution and diversity in the subsurface?

    Comments

    “Discoveries regarding the nature and extent of the deep microbial biosphere are among the crowning achievements of the Deep Carbon Observatory. Deep life researchers have opened our eyes to remarkable vistas – emerging views of life that we never knew existed.”
    Robert Hazen, Senior Staff Scientist, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, and DCO Executive Director

    “They are not Christmas ornaments, but the tiny balls and tinsel of deep life look they could decorate a tree as well as Swarovski glass. Why would nature make deep life beautiful when there is no light, no mirrors?”
    Jesse Ausubel, The Rockefeller University, a founder of the DCO

    “Deep life probably has an important impact on global biogeochemical cycles, and thus on the surface world. However, we are still far from quantifying this impact.”
    Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, MARUM University of Bremen, Germany

    “Even in dark and energetically challenging conditions, intraterrestrial ecosystems have uniquely evolved and persisted over millions of years. Expanding our knowledge of deep life will inspire new insights into planetary habitability, leading us to understand why life emerged on our planet and whether life persists in the Martian subsurface and other celestial bodies.”
    Fumio Inagaki, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    "While we are far from being able to quantify it, we believe Deep Life has an important impact on global biogeochemical cycles and chemical equilibria in habitable rocks. Deep Life plays a role in aquifer quality, for example, or carbon capture and storage (CCS). Unfortunately, the deep biosphere is very poorly considered in engineering operations carried out in the subsurface. We recently demonstrated the high reactivity of deep biota to CO2 injections (CCS), which ultimately led to the bioclogging of the injection well, and surrounding reservoir."
    Bénédicte Ménez, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France

    “A decade ago, we had no idea that the rocks beneath our feet could be so vastly inhabited. Experimental investigations told us that microbes could potentially survive to great depth; at that time, we had no evidence, and this has become real ten years later. This is simply fascinating and will surely foster enthusiasm to look for the biotic-abiotic fringe on Earth and elsewhere.”
    Isabelle Daniel, University of Lyon 1, France

    Appendix

    Links to selected Deep Life papers:

    1. The biomass and biodiversity of the continental subsurface. (2018) Nature Geoscience Magnabosco C, Lin L-H, Dong H, Bomberg M, Ghiorse W, Stan-Lotter H, Pedersen K, Kieft TL, van Heerden E, Onstott TC
    2. Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment. (2012) PNAS Kallmeyer J, Pockalny R, Adhikari RR, Smith DC, D'Hondt S
    3. Exploring deep microbial life in coal-bearing sediment down to ~2.5 km below the ocean floor. (2015) Science Inagaki F, Hinrichs K-U, Kubo Y, Bowles MW, Heuer VB, Hong W-L, Hoshino T, Ijiri A, Imachi H, Ito M, Kaneko M, Lever MA, Lin Y-S, Methé BA, Morita S, Morono Y, Tanikawa W, Bihan M, Bowden SA, Elvert M, Glombitza C, Gross D, Harrington GJ, Hori T, Li K, Limmer D, Liu C-H, Murayama M, Ohkouchi N, Ono S, Park Y-S, Phillips SC, Prieto-Mollar X, Purkey M, Riedinger N, Sanada Y, Sauvage J, Snyder G, Susilawati R, Takano Y, Tasumi E, Terada T, Tomaru H, Trembath-Reichert E, Wang DT, Yamada Y
    4. Dissolved organic matter compositions in 0.6–3.4 km deep fracture waters, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. (2018) Organic Geochemistry Kieft TL, Walters CC, Higgins MB, Mennito AS, Clewett CFM, Heuer V, Pullin MJ, Hendrickson S, van Heerden E, Sherwood Lollar B, Lau MCY, Onstott TC
    5. Phylogenetically novel uncultured microbial cells dominate Earth microbiomes (2018) mSystems Lloyd KG, Steen AD, Ladau J, Yin J, Crosby L
    6. A new view of the tree of life (2016) Nature Microbiology Hug LA, Baker BJ, Anantharaman K, Brown CT, Probst AJ, Castelle CJ, Butterfield CN, Hernsdorf AW, Amano Y, Ise K, Suzuki Y, Dudek N, Relman DA, Finstad KM, Amundson R, Thomas BC, Banfield JF
    7. Survival of the fewest: Microbial dormancy and maintenance in marine sediments through deep time (2018) Geobiology Bradley JA, Amend JP, LaRowe DE
    8. Methyl-compound use and slow growth characterize microbial life in 2-km-deep subseafloor coal and shale beds. (2017) PNAS Trembath-Reichert E, Morono Y, Ijiri A, Hoshino T, Dawson KS, Inagaki F, Orphan VJ
    9. Nature and extent of the deep biosphere. (2013) Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Volume 75, Carbon in Earth Colwell, F, D'Hondt S
    10. High reactivity of deep biota under anthropogenic CO2 injection into basalt.(2017) Nature Communications Trias R, Ménez B, le Campion P, Zivanovic Y, Lecourt L, Lecoeuvre A, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Uhl J, Gíslason SR, Alfreðsson HA, Mesfin KG, Snæbjörnsdóttir SA, Aradóttir ES, Gunnarsson I, Matter JM, Stute M, Oelkers EH, Gérard E

    Illustrations

    Note: High resolution version of most of the images below can be accessed by simply clicking on the images. 

    A nematode in a biofilm of microorganisms

    A nematode (eukaryote) in a biofilm of microorganisms. This unidentified nematode (Poikilolaimus sp.) from Kopanang gold mine in South Africa, lives 1.4 km below the surface. 

    Image courtesy of Gaetan Borgonie (Extreme Life Isyensya, Belgium).

    See also: https://deepcarbon.net/feature/several-eukaryotic-species-found-living-deep-earths-crust

    cluster of archaea

    Cells in this cluster of archaea (the ANME-2 cells, red) and bacteria (Desulfosarcina / Desulfococcus species, green) work together to harvest energy from methane at seafloor seeps. These organisms have very slow growth rates with a minimum doubling time of a few months, making them very difficult to cultivate and study in the lab. 

    Image courtesy Katrin Knittel (MPI Bremen)

    Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator

    Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator (the purplish, blue rod-shaped cells straddling orange carbon spheres) is a species of bacteria that survives on hydrogen (H2) from radiolysis of water and sulfate derived from oxidation of pyrite by radolytically produced oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and fixes carbon dioxide  (CO2) and nitrogen (N2). Scientists originally found Ca. Desulforudis living within a fluid and gas-filled fracture 2.8 km beneath Earth’s surface at Mponeng Gold Mine near Johannesburg, South Africa. Surprisingly, scientists found no other organisms in their samples, making this deep ecosystem the first found on Earth with only one species. The genus name Desulforudis comes from the Latin for "from sulfur" and "rod," noting its shape and its ability to get energy from sulfates. And audaxviator? From Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth, and a message in Latin deciphered by Verne's protagonist, Professor Lidenbrock, which read in part: "descend, bold traveler, and attain the center of the Earth." 

    Image courtesy of Greg Wanger (California Institute of Technology, USA) and Gordon Southam (The University of Queensland, Australia)

    Methanobacterium

    This is a species of Methanobacterium, which produces methane. Found in samples from a buried coal bed 2 km below the Pacific Ocean floor off the coast of Japan, this specimen was retrieved during an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (now the International Ocean Discovery Program) expedition in 2012 aboard the Drilling Vessel Chikyu. Bar represents 10 µm. 

    Image courtesy of Hiroyuki Imachi (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Japan). Please note that a high-resolution version of this image is available by contacting images@jamstec.go.jp

    Altiarchaeales

    These archaea, Altiarchaeales, were originally found living in sulfidic springs in Germany. Scientists collected water samples from a 30m-deep borehole, however the cells they analyzed could be living at much greater depths. Each cell is surrounded by a fuzzy coat of “hami,” hair-like appendages with “grappling hooks” at the end and barb-wire-like prickles along their length. These surface structures help the cells stick to surfaces.

    Image courtesy of Christine Moissl-Eichinger (Medical University of Graz, Austria)

    Cara Magnabosco and colleagues 1.3 km deep within the Beatrix Gold Mine

    Cara Magnabosco and colleagues collect ancient water samples 1.3 km deep within the Beatrix Gold Mine, South Africa to investigate the diversity and abundance of deep microbes. 

    Image courtesy of Gaetan Borgonie (Extreme Life Isyensya, Belgium) and Barbara Sherwood Lollar (University of Toronto, Canada)

    Chikyu

    The Japanese scientific drilling vessel Chikyu has made it possible for scientists to access microbial life in the deep subsurface. The ship is designed to ultimately drill 7 km beneath the seabed in some of the planet’s most seismically-active regions. DCO researchers were onboard the vessel for an expedition to the Nankai Trough in 2016 to determine the temperature and pressure limits of microbial life at temps above 120°C. 

    Photo copyright JAMSTEC. Please note that a high-resolution version of this image is available by contacting images@jamstec.go.jp

    Coring operations on Chikyu

    The D/V Chikyu is one of the most advanced scientific drilling ships available today. Coring operations take place 24 hours a day.

    Image courtesy of Luc Riolon/JAMSTEC

    Core from IODP’s Expedition 370

    Scientists look for signs of life in cores like this one. The cores on International Ocean Discovery Program's (IODP) Expedition 337 were taken to depths down to 2.5 km below the seafloor, where temperature increases from 30°C to 60°C, spanning the predicted temperature limit for life on Earth. 

    Image courtesy of Luc Riolon/JAMSTEC

    MeBo rockdrill
    RockDrill2

    IODP Expedition 357 to the Atlantis Massif pioneered the use of seabed rockdrills, MeBo (left) and RockDrill2 (right), equipped with sensors capable of monitoring in-situ fluid conditions during drilling, and with the potential to "plug" a borehole. Such technology is enhancing scientists’ ability to understand conditions of the deep subsurface encountered by microbial life. Images courtesy of ECORD/IODP


    [1] 15,000,000,000 to 23,000,000,000

    13-12-2018 om 00:21 geschreven door peter

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    11-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Muldashev: four civilizations on Earth before man

    Muldashev ancient civilizations

    Muldashev: four civilizations on Earth before man

    A well-known Russian expert, Ernst Rifgatovich Muldashev, ophthalmic surgeon by profession and researcher by passion, has long been looking for traces of ancient civilizations disappeared before the rise of mankind on Earth.

    Muldshev, who in 2002 published three volumes of “In Search of Cities of the Gods”, followed by numerous other volumes (among which “Where do we come from” e “Between the arms of Dracula”), believes that the existence of more ancient civilizations of man is confirmed by archaeological finds, rock carvings, references to airplanes and Ufos in stories and legends. According to the expert, the civilizations that inhabited the planet would have been four.

    Muldashev antiche civiltà

    1. ASURAS, THE NATIVES

    The Asuras, or the natives, according to Muldashev were the first race appeared on Earth 10 million years ago. They were incredibly tall beings, up to 50 meters, they had an etheric body, they lived for up to ten thousand years and used telepathy to communicate with each other. In reality they were not natives of the Earth: they moved there after the death of the Phaethon planet.

    2. ATLANTEANS, THOSE BORN AFTER

    As the millennia passed, the Asuras changed, their bodies became denser. Thus a new race would develop, the Atlanteans, i.e. “those born after”. They were slightly smaller than the Asuras, they still did not have bones, but they had a third eye, located between the eyebrows.

    3. LEMURIANS, THE BUILDERS OF THE SPHINX

    After the Atlanteans, appeared on Earth the Lemurians. Much more similar to modern humans, they possessed a bone skeleton and were differentiated according to sex. The third eye was still present, but not as well developed as the Atlanteans.

    Lemurians were about 7-8 meters tall and lived about a thousand years. According to Muldashev, they were the ones who built the Sphinx, Stonehenge and many other wonderful monuments of antiquity.

    Muldashev sfinge

    4. BOREI, THE MOST SIMILAR TO MAN

    Lastly the Borei would have appeared: this race was formed long after the other, its members were much lower, did not exceed 3-4 meters in height, their third eye was more hidden while the other organs were very similar to those of man. What happened to all these beings?

    According to Muldashev, about 25-30 thousand years ago on our planet occurred a nuclear catastrophe following a conflict between Lemurians and Borei. Some of the Lemurians took refuge in the caves, where they fell into a hibernating state, the other side flew away on space ships.

    5. ARYANS, AFTER THE FALL OF ATLANTIS

    After the Lemurians left the scene, the Boers and the Atlanteans reached unprecedented development peaks, but they could not avoid the disappearance of their civilizations that would have happened about 12 thousand years ago.

    According to Muldashev a fifth race would have developed just before the disappearance of Atlantis, whose myth survived so far: the "aryan" race. The ancestors of modern man did not have a third eye and that's why our society would be developing more slowly.

    Will it be true, or as official science says it's just about fantastic theories without any concrete proof? The experts have spoken, but this does not interest the readers of Muldashev.

    http://www.fanwave.it/ }

    11-12-2018 om 23:38 geschreven door peter

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    10-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Truth about CIA’s illegal MKUltra mind-control experiments – using drugs, hypnosis and electronic devices- revealed in sensational new documents officials hid for decades

    Truth about CIA’s illegal MKUltra mind-control experiments – using drugs, hypnosis and electronic devices- revealed in sensational new documents officials hid for decades

    The records “rewrite the history” of the CIA’s covert and illegal MKUltra project, according to researcher John Greenewald Jr who spent almost 20 years trying to obtain the documents 

    10-12-2018 om 23:03 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.NASA: Earth’s Poles Are About To Flip – Worldwide Blackouts Coming! The Consequences Could Be Deadly

    NASA: Earth’s Poles Are About To Flip – Worldwide Blackouts Coming! The Consequences Could Be Deadly

    Scientists understand that Earth’s magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to ‘south.’ This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth’s poles. The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today’s magnetic field were reversed. Many doomsday theorists have tried to take this natural geological occurrence and suggest it could lead to Earth’s destruction. But would there be any dramatic effects? The answer, from the geologic and fossil records we have from hundreds of past magnetic polarity reversals, seems to be ‘no.’

    Reversals are the rule, not the exception. Earth has settled in the last 20 million years into a pattern of a pole reversal about every 200,000 to 300,000 years, although it has been more than twice that long since the last reversal. A reversal happens over hundreds or thousands of years, and it is not exactly a clean back flip. Magnetic fields morph and push and pull at one another, with multiple poles emerging at odd latitudes throughout the process. Scientists estimate reversals have happened at least hundreds of times over the past three billion years. And while reversals have happened more frequently in “recent” years, when dinosaurs walked Earth a reversal was more likely to happen only about every one million years.

    Sediment cores taken from deep ocean floors can tell scientists about magnetic polarity shifts, providing a direct link between magnetic field activity and the fossil record. The Earth’s magnetic field determines the magnetization of lava as it is laid down on the ocean floor on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Rift where the North American and European continental plates are spreading apart. As the lava solidifies, it creates a record of the orientation of past magnetic fields much like a tape recorder records sound. The last time that Earth’s poles flipped in a major reversal was about 780,000 years ago, in what scientists call the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal. The fossil record shows no drastic changes in plant or animal life. Deep ocean sediment cores from this period also indicate no changes in glacial activity, based on the amount of oxygen isotopes in the cores. This is also proof that a polarity reversal would not affect the rotation axis of Earth, as the planet’s rotation axis tilt has a significant effect on climate and glaciation and any change would be evident in the glacial record.

    Earth’s polarity is not a constant. Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth’s magnetic field moves around. Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. This process can also be modeled with supercomputers. Ours is, without hyperbole, a dynamic planet. The flow of liquid iron in Earth’s core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field. So while parts of Earth’s outer core are too deep for scientists to measure directly, we can infer movement in the core by observing changes in the magnetic field. The magnetic north pole has been creeping northward – by more than 600 miles (1,100 km) – since the early 19th century, when explorers first located it precisely. It is moving faster now, actually, as scientists estimate the pole is migrating northward about 40 miles per year, as opposed to about 10 miles per year in the early 20th century.

    Another doomsday hypothesis about a geomagnetic flip plays up fears about incoming solar activity. This suggestion mistakenly assumes that a pole reversal would momentarily leave Earth without the magnetic field that protects us from solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the sun. But, while Earth’s magnetic field can indeed weaken and strengthen over time, there is no indication that it has ever disappeared completely. A weaker field would certainly lead to a small increase in solar radiation on Earth – as well as a beautiful display of aurora at lower latitudes – but nothing deadly. Moreover, even with a weakened magnetic field, Earth’s thick atmosphere also offers protection against the sun’s incoming particles.

    The science shows that magnetic pole reversal is – in terms of geologic time scales – a common occurrence that happens gradually over millennia. While the conditions that cause polarity reversals are not entirely predictable – the north pole’s movement could subtly change direction, for instance – there is nothing in the millions of years of geologic record to suggest that any of the 2012 doomsday scenarios connected to a pole reversal should be taken seriously.

    There’s a renewed interest right now in Earth’s magnetic poles – specifically, whether or not they’re about to flip, and what may happen. The consequences of this seemingly rapid geomagnetic backflip may sound a little ominous, but don’t worry: we’re not sure when the next reversal will happen, and even when it does, the risks aren’t likely to be as scary as you may think.

    Let’s start with the basics.

    As Earth’s liquid, iron-rich outer core gradually cools, it sloshes around through colossal convection currents, which are also somewhat warped by Earth’s own rotation. Thanks to a quirk of physics known as the dynamo theory, this generates a powerful magnetic field, with a north and south end.

    Although 99 percent of the magnetic energy remains within the core, the slithers that escape extend into space, and spends most of its time deflecting potentially deadly, atmosphere-stripping solar wind.

    Right now, the magnetic north pole is exactly where you suspect it is; the same goes for the magnetic south pole. Both represent locales in which the planet’s magnetic field is vertical, and at which point your compass needle tries to point upwards.

    Throughout geological time, these magnetic poles have switched sides – a phenomenon known as a “geomagnetic reversal”. Although there are several hypotheses that attempt to explain this, geophysicists are still a little unsure as to why it happens. It’s clearly something to do with turbulence and chaos within the metallic outer core, but the specifics haven’t been nailed down yet.

    This is bad news for anyone who enjoys life without radiation sickness.

    The Earth’s magnetic field is a barrier which shields us from a lot of harmful solar radiation, attracting cosmic rays towards our planet’s poles so that they shoot harmlessly past us without doing too much damage. If the field were to become weak enough during this transitional period, more radiation would bake the planet than we’re typically used to, which could ultimately render large parts of the Earth uninhabitable for a long time to come.

    What’s more, our technology won’t fare too well once the magnetic field begins to weaken—orbital satellites in particular will suffer from solar buffeting without the convenient protection that’s currently provided by the Earth’s magnetic field. Down on the planet itself, things could get hectic too—solar flares would do more damage than normal, overloading power grids, causing computers to fail, and generally running amok.

    This wouldn’t be a small global problem that would pass harmlessly afterwards. Because it takes hundreds of years for the planet’s poles to stabilize, entire generations of humans would be constantly affected, unable to use the technology that has become, and will continue to become, such a large part of our lives.

    The greatest threat that this poses to humans is via the sun. With a weak magnetic field, we would be far more exposed to CMEs (Coronal Mass ejections), in which flaming hot materials from the Sun are thrown into space at high speeds (around 5,000,000mph), often in the direction of Earth. These would easily create temporary punctures in our ozone layer, causing massive exposure to UV rays. Some scientists predict that skin cancer rates would skyrocket.

    Or, nothing happens…

    There are some who are quite sure that people would feel absolutely nothing if the poles were to flip. Whilst sleeping, eating our lunch or working out at the gym, the magnetic poles of our planet could reverse, and we’d be none the wiser.

    Those who go by this theory often believe that it will be technology that suffers in such a huge magnetic event. We’ve seen before that solar storms can cause huge malfunctions on satellites, interfere with communications, and cause blackouts. The best, and most recent example of this was the 2003 ‘Halloween Storm’ which caused blackouts across Sweden, it was a logistical nightmare for aviation and caused two NASA satellites to temporarily fail.

    If humanity wants to continue to survive indefinitely, we’re going to need to come up with some inventive solutions to this problem while we don’t have plenty of time to organize ourselves.

    The Coming Blackout Epidemic
    The lights may go out sooner than you think.

    Every year, millions of people around the world experience major electricity blackouts, but the country that has endured more blackouts than any other industrialized nation is the United States. Over the last decade, the number of power failures affecting over 50,000 Americans has more than doubled, according to federal data.

    • The looming power failure epidemic

    The paper published this September in Routledge’s Journal of Urban Technology points out that 50 major power outages have afflicted 26 countries in the last decade alone, driven by rapid population growth in concentrated urban areas and a rampant “addiction” to high-consumption lifestyles dependent on electric appliances.

    • Extreme weather and climate change

    According to a little-known rep​ort last year to the Executive Office of the President by the Council of Economic Advisers and Department of Energy, between 2012 and 2018 the US saw 679 blackouts due to extreme weather events, costing on average $18-33 billion a year. In 2018 alone, the US suffered e​leven “billion-dollar” weather disasters.

    “The number of outages caused by severe weather is expected to rise as climate change increases the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, blizzards, floods and other extreme weather events,” the report found.

    The growing prevalence of extreme weather including droughts due to climate change could also significantly undermine coal, gas and nuclear production, all of which require large inputs of water, to spin and cool turbines in thermal power plants.

    The amount of fresh water consumed for world energy production could do​uble in the next 25 years according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). In that fossil fuel-centric scenario, over 50 percent of demand would come from coal-fired power plants, 30 percent from biofuel production, and 10 percent from oil and natural gas production.

    Surveying the impacts of past blackouts in the US, China, Canada, Italy, Africa, and many other regions, they show that blackouts can lead to state-rationing of electricity, massive economic losses, the breakdown of manufacturing, food supply shortages, degradation of water purification and waste facilities, and increases in crime rates and civil unrest. Yet they are not fatalistic about the inevitability of such an increasingly dark future.

    “There is a possibility of mitigating, but not eliminating, the risk with improved technology,” said Hugh Byrd. Major investments in self-healing ‘smart grids’ and ‘smart metering’ “can assist in reducing demand by providing feedback to users,” but some technologies can also create new risks like “cyber-espionage of the control systems of generators and distributors.”

    Growth of global electricity production, is undergoing “a marked slowdown in many industrialized countries of the west,” due to “increasingly high prices of energy that are squeezing demand. Now, the question is: would that lead to blackouts? In short, I think not—not in the short run, at least… Right now, the industrial sector of several western countries is rapidly contracting and the result is reduced consumption. So, right now, as long as things evolve slowly, I would say that I don’t see a blackout danger anywhere in Europe. We should see a gradual reduction of consumption as people become poorer and poorer, and less and less able to afford to pay the electricity bill.”

    So whether we face a future of increasing blackouts or declining consumption, the climbing costs of keeping the lights on means more of us might be switching off. But clearly that doesn’t need to be the final verdict: increasing investments in installing smart grids now could prepare us for increased electricity demand in the future.

    Hopefully before another major solar event happens, we might at least have the ability to anticipate it. To, at least, mitigate damages, people could be informed of the exact time and nature of the event, lessening panic and chaos. They could also be instructed to stay off the roads, airlines could be entirely shut down, and protective structures could be created/used (or there might be ways for people to maximize safety at home). While these actions wouldn’t ensure safety, being informed would be the key to recovering from the event. NASA is also aware of the potential problems, and is actively researching solutions. The agency says:

    [Space weather] is a problem the same way hurricanes are a problem. One can protect oneself with advance information and proper precautions. During a hurricane watch, a homeowner can stay put … or he can seal up the house, turn off the electronics and get out of the way. Similarly, scientists at NASA and NOAA give warnings to electric companies, spacecraft operators and airline pilots before a CME comes to Earth so that these groups can take proper precautions.

    There are a number of different options for emergency cooking. In this post we’ll cover everything from simple heating to large scale cooking for emergency situations. A grand encyclopedia of country Carnivore’s Bible  ,  weather wisdom,country remedies and herbal cures, cleaning solutions, pest purges, firewoodessentials, adobe making and bricklaying, leather working, plant dyes, farmfoods, natural teas and tonics, granola, bread making, beer brewing andwinemaking, jams and jellies, canning and preserving, sausage making and meatsmoking, drying foods, down-home toys, papermaking, candle crafting, homemadesoaps and shampoos,  butter and cheese making, fishing and huntingsecrets, and much more. Carnivore’s Bible : Traditional Skillsfor Simple Living

    Books can be your best pre-collapse investment.

    SOURCE:

    https://beforeitsnews.com/v3/ }

    10-12-2018 om 22:18 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.No One Knows How Hawaiian Seals Are Getting Eels in Their Noses

    No One Knows How Hawaiian Seals Are Getting Eels in Their Noses

    The American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting research on Hawaiian monk seals for more than 40 years, as they are an endangered species. On November 2, 2018, the NOAA website posted good news that seal pups are on the rise. On Dec. 5, 2018, however, they posted a bit of strange news on their website, detailing a new issue among Hawaiian monk seals – getting eels stuck up their nose.

    An adorable photo of such an issue was shared on the administration’s Facebook page just after the update on their website. Apparently, the issue is a relatively new one, only having been observed a few times in the last couple of years. Scientists are currently investigating the cause of this new phenomenon, and are not sure if it is indicative of a new trend.

    According to the report, Hawaiian monk seals feed through foraging. They forage for food by shoving their mouths and noses into underwater crevices. This is to find food sources who hide, including eels. So while monk seals are shoving their noses around the nooks and crannies of the ocean’s depths, eels may try to defend themselves, which could lead to them charging into the creatures’ nostrils, or the seals themselves may have regurgitated the eels through their nose.

    Scientists from the NOAA admit they may never know why the seals are getting the eels stuck in their nose, adding they gently remove the eels from the seals’ noses when they are discovered, with a 100 percent success rate. The seals do not seem to have any negative effects from that removal, nor having them there in the first place. The eels, though, are dead when they are removed from the noses of the seals.

    Those working firsthand to pull the eels from the nostrils of the seals said the phenomenon started becoming an issue around two years ago. While the eels are in their noses, the seals are described as both calm and serene. At least one scientist working with the animals told a reporter from the Washington Post he wished the seals would “make better choices.”

    One thing is for certain with for the scientists regarding this phenomenon – it is not directly human-related. Much of this monk seal/eel nonsense is occurring on remote islands only visited by scientists. It probably has more to do with monk seal feeding patterns, as eels are a steady part of their diets, alongside octopus and other species of fish.

    A juvenile Hawaiian monk seal was found with a spotted eel in its nose at French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands this past summer.

    BRITTANY DOLAN/NOAA FISHERIES
    A juvenile Hawaiian monk seal was found with a spotted eel in its nose at French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands this past summer.

    https://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    10-12-2018 om 21:24 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Bizarre Accounts of Mysterious Living Dinosaurs of Africa

    Bizarre Accounts of Mysterious Living Dinosaurs of Africa

    One of the most mysterious types of cryptid creatures is that of what are called living dinosaurs, said to be relic populations of those enormous lumbering lizards that once thunderously crashed over the face of our planet with ponderous might. While most may assume that these creatures went extinct eons ago, it is surprising how many reports there are of actual dinosaurs still alive and roaming about in the most isolated parts of our planet as they did millions of years ago. One place that has proven to be a veritable Lost World of supposed living dinosaurs  is the dark continent of Africa, and here in the remote unexplored jungles dinosaurs still allegedly reign supreme as if they were never gone at all.

    By far the most famous of the supposed lost African dinosaurs is none other than the one called Mokele-mbembe, which literally translates to “one who stops the flow of rivers.” The habitat of this creature is deep within the furthest recesses of the steamy swampland and dark jungles of the Congo river basin, in particular an expanse of sprawling isolated wilderness called the Likouala swamp region. The beast in question lives up to its name, larger than an elephant and with a lang neck topped by a smallish reptilian head and with stocky short legs, resembling a brontosaurus and which has been a part of the landscape here for the native tribes since time unremembered. Semi-aquatic in nature it is rarely seen even by the natives, and although a vegetarian makes for a frightening sight, with a mighty roar that is said to create great fear and dread in all who hear it. A good description of the Mokele-mbembe can be found in a 1980 issue of Science, within an article called Living Dinosaurs, which reads:

    In the swampy jungles of western Africa, reports persist of an elephant-sized creature with smooth, brownish-gray skin, a long, flexible neck, a very long tail as powerful as a crocodile’s, and three-clawed feet the size of frying pans. Over the past three centuries, native Pygmies and Western explorers have told how the animals feed on the nutlike fruit of a riverbank plant and keep to the deep pools and subsurface caves of waters in this largely unexplored region.

    Although the tribes and missionaries of this land of impenetrable swamp had long known of the creature, it was not until the early 1900s that its existence would finally trickle out to the Western world. In 1909, the renowned big game hunter Carl Hagenbeck wrote of the creature in his autobiographical work Beasts and Men, in which he told of hearing tales from the natives of a hulking, frightening beast that was described as being half elephant and half dragon. Hagenbeck looked into this phenomenon further, speaking with the naturalist Joseph Menges, who told him that indeed the natives had a rich lore of this beast, and that he personally believed it to be some kind of dinosaur similar to a brontosaurus. Yet another of Hagenbeck’s sources was the German adventurer, filmmaker, and big game hunter Hans Schomburgk, who told him that the natives of the area blamed the Mokele-mbembe for killing all of the hippos at a place called Lake Bangweulu.

    Another well-publicized account was made in another area in 1913, by German adventurer and Captain Ludwig Freiherr von Stein zu Lausnitz, who at the time was surveying a region of present day Cameroon for potential spots for colonies. Natives told him many tales of the Mokele-mbembe, which were surprisingly consistent across the board from many independent sources, although Lausnitz remained rather skeptical himself at first. This version of Mokele-mbembe painted it as a vicious force to be reckoned with, an aggressive behemoth that the natives steered well clear of, and he would later write of the mysterious beast:

    The animal is said to be of a brownish-gray color with a smooth skin, its size is approximately that of an elephant; at least that of a hippopotamus. It is said to have a long and very flexible neck and only one tooth but a very long one; some say it is a horn. A few spoke about a long, muscular tail like that of an alligator. Canoes coming near it are said to be doomed; the animal is said to attack the vessels at once and to kill the crews but without eating the bodies. The creature is said to live in the caves that have been washed out by the river in the clay of its shores at sharp bends. It is said to climb the shores even at daytime in search of food; its diet is said to be entirely vegetable. This feature disagrees with a possible explanation as a myth. The preferred plant was shown to me, it is a kind of liana with large white blossoms, with a milky sap and applelike fruits. At the Ssombo River I was shown a path said to have been made by this animal in order to get at its food. The path was fresh and there were plants of the described type nearby. But since there were too many tracks of elephants, hippos, and other large mammals it was impossible to make out a particular spoor with any amount of certainty.

    These accounts, along with other scattered reports from explorers and missionaries in the region of these brontosaurus-like animals roaming the swamps really captured the public imagination, with the thought of lumbering dinosaurs from ages past wallowing through the mists of this lost world proving to be absolutely irresistible. Many expeditions were launched into the forbidding terrain of this mysterious domain in search of the enigmatic Mokele-mbembe over the decades, with some of them funded by such respected institutions as the Smithsonian, and even the famed cryptozoologist Ivan T. Sanderson made an excursion there in 1932. Sanderson would come across large tracks that the natives explained as being from the creature, and he also spotted something very large disappear into the water which he could not explain. In the 1930s the lore was further fueled by a report from the region’s Lake Tele of a tribe of pygmies that had actually managed to kill one of the creatures. According to the tale, two of the Mokele-mbembe tried to smash through a wall of stakes designed to keep the beasts out, and were set upon by fierce, spear wielding tribesmen. After an epic thrashing battle, they were allegedly able to kill one of them, after which they brought it back to the village and had it cooked and eaten as part of a celebratory feast. The story goes that everyone who ate the meat of this mysterious animal became violently ill and later died.

    Perhaps the most famous of these expeditions was that of a University of Chicago biologist named Roy Mackal, who ventured to the Likouala swamp region multiple times in 1980s in order to investigate the stories. Although he would not find any physical evidence or see one of the creatures himself, the team did find things like large swaths of broken branches caused by something very large barreling through, footprints, and claimed to have heard the creatures as well. Mackal would bring back numerous native reports of the Mokele-mbembe, which he compiled into a book entitled Living Dinosaur?. Another rather interesting expedition was carried out in 1981 by a Herman Regusters, who brought his team to the remote Lake Tele. This particular expedition would come back with quite a bit of supposed evidence of the creatures, such as droppings, a footprint cast, and even an alleged recording of the Mokele-mbembe’s roar, which you can listen to here, although it is pretty inconclusive at best and could be anything.

    Indeed, the 1980s saw several promising expeditions into the region. In 1980 there was one launched by German adventurer and engineer Herman Regusters and his wife. The couple would claim to have seen the beast on several occasions, both in the water and on land, as well as hearing its roars, and they even produced an alleged photograph of it. In 1983 a zoologist by the name of Marcellin Agnagna led an expedition to Lake Tele and claimed to have seen the creature when it raised its head and long neck out of the water, which he described as having a thin, reddish head and reptilian oval eyes that stared at him for a time before vanishing beneath the murky depths. Interestingly, the only known video footage of the Mokele-mbembe was taken at Lake Tele in 1987, when a Japanese film crew was flying over the lake to survey the area. The footage is grainy at best, but shows what appears to be a very large animal of some sort moving across the water, with what looks like it could be a head and neck but which has been criticized as being merely two natives on a canoe.

    Expeditions and reports of the Mokele-mbembe have continued on into later years, with some of them proving quite spectacular indeed. One British expedition led by explorer and cryptozoologist William Gibbons in 1992 trekked through a large portion of the region and came back with a photograph of what might be the head of a Mokele-mbembe taken at Lake Tele. In 1999 there was also a rather incredible report printed in the Sunday Times of London, which claimed that members of the Kabonga tribe had killed one of the creatures, but it is unknown how much veracity this report holds as no body was ever presented for scrutiny. Despite all of the expeditions and reports, which continue to this day, there has not been any solid evidence provided for the existence of Mokele-mbembe, but it remains the most talked about and sought after “living dinosaur” of Africa. Is it out there or not? Considering the lack of many modern day sightings, is there even the chance that if it did exist, has it finally gone extinct after all?

    If Mokele Mbembe is in fact a real living dinosaur and really exists, then it also has some company, and there are various others said to lurk within the muck and trees here, inhabiting the exact same area, within the remotest, most impenetrable areas of the Congo’s Likouala swamp region. One is a large, saurian creature said to prowl Lake Bangweulu, and which the natives call the nsanga. This ferocious beast is described as looking very similar to a crocodile, only much larger and without scales and with formidable, over-sized claws on its feet. The German adventurer Lt. Paul Gratz claimed in 1911 to have been presented with strips of skin from the creature.

    A rather more well-known member of this menagerie is called the Emela-ntouka, which literally translates from the local tribal language to “Elephant Killer.” It is said to be a massive dinosaur-like reptilian beast that is said to be about the size of a full grown elephant and takes a stout, tank-like form with an armored body, a ponderous thick club-like tail, and a prominent and formidable horn protruding from its head similar to that of a rhinoceros. The creature is supposedly semi-aquatic, spending much of its time lurking hidden within the muddy waters of the swamp and, although a vegetarian, stays true to its name, storied by local tribes for its explosive aggressiveness, attacking anything that approaches and indeed killing elephants, as well as buffaloes or hippos on occasion with apparent ease, usually while unleashing a reverberating, distinctive growl.

    Although this mysterious creature has long been known to the native tribes of the region, the wilderness itself is so forbidding and closed off from the rest of the world that it wasn’t until the 1930s that stories of the existence of this single-horned killing machine prowling the dim swamps began to come in from outsiders. One of the first mentions of the creature by Western explorers was by the adventurer J.E. Hughes, who wrote of a local tribe along the shores of the Luapula River who had killed one of the beasts, an account buried within an otherwise non-sensationalist 1933 travel book called Eighteen Years on Lake Bangweulu. Interestingly, there was another of the creatures supposedly killed by tribesmen in the early 1930s near a place called Dongou. In 1954 the creature was really propelled to the public consciousness when a former Likouala game inspector named Lucien Blancou wrote of it in an article for the scientific journal Mammalia, saying of it:

    The presence of a beast which sometimes disembowels elephants is also known, but it does not seem to be prevalent there now as in the preceding districts. A specimen was supposed to have been killed twenty years ago at Dongou, but on the left of the Ubangi and in the Belgian Congo.

    In the 1980s, when Dr. Roy P. Mackal made his way into the hostile wilderness of the Congo looking for the legendary Mokele Mbembe, he too heard the stories of the Emela-ntouka, which he also included in his famous 1987 book A Living Dinosaur. Mackal himself believed the creature to be perhaps a surviving relic population of the Centrosaurus, an extinct dinosaur that possessed a large single horn, a theory supported by the legendary cryptozoologist Bernard Heuvelmans, although this cryptid is not said to have the same prominent head ridge that these dinosaurs displayed. Another idea is that the creature is not a dinosaur or even a reptile at all, but rather something more like a new species of semi-aquatic rhinoceros, but considering the incredibly isolated area and the relative small number of sightings by outsiders it is likely we will never know for sure, and indeed that like the Mokele Mbembe might even be already extinct once and for all.

    The Emela-ntouka seems to somewhat resemble in some respects other supposed living dinosaurs within the uncharted wildernesses of Africa, particularly an immense squat, armored beast covered in bony plates and with a thick tail said to inhabit the jungles of Kenya and called the Muhuru. Also, roaming the savanna region of Cameroon is also a cryptid called the Ngoubou, which is said to be a buffalo-sized hoofed creature with a thick, muscular body and with an imposing array of 6 horns upon its head, which it used to chase off, and on occasion kill, elephants. It is uncertain what connection either of these have to the Emela-ntouka but the passing similarities are interesting.

    Getting back to the Likouala Region of the Republic of Congo we have yet another apparent living dinosaur to join Mokele Mbembe and the Emela-ntouka, in this instance one called the Mbielu-Mbielu-Mbielu, or literally “the animal with planks growing out of its back.” As its name suggests its main feature is an array of protruding armored ridges running along its back, and is said to be almost completely aquatic in nature, rarely seen out of the water, and villagers of the region in which it is seen say that its back is typically covered with a sheen of green algae.

    This is rather similar to yet another Congo dwelling dino called the Nguma-monene, which allegedly takes the form of a massive lizard, or in some accounts a snake, with intimidating ridges down its back. The Nguma-monene is reported from along a tributary of the Ubangi River called Dongu-Mataba, and one of the most famous sightings by an outsider was made by a pastor Joseph Ellis in 1971, who saw it swimming alongside him as he rode a dugout canoe, and who described it as absolutely gigantic, with a portion of the tail alone measuring the same size as the vessel he was in, and with clearly visible diamond shaped protrusions all along the top. The truly massive creature apparently created a rush of ripples and waves that were enough to threaten to overturn the canoe as it glided past. This creature is also apparently very aggressive, and supposedly hates hippos, killing them on sight. Hippos seem to just do that to these dinosaurs.

    Also from the Democratic Republic of the Congo is an apparent dinosaur more in appearance like the terrible Tyrannosaurus Rex, reported from the remote rainforests of a place called the Kasai Valley. The creature in question is most spectacularly known from a report made in 1932, by a Swedish plantation owner named John Johanson, who at the time was travelling through the region with a local guide. At one point during their trek through the mosquito choked interior jungles they allegedly came across a rhinoceros going about its business. As they stood looking at the creature, they claimed that an enormous bipedal dinosaur-like monster, estimated as around 43 feet long, came erupting forth from the trees to pounce upon the rhino and kill it, after which it actually began to eat the carcass, apparently unaware that the two startled men were standing there watching it go about its hunt. Johanson would describe it by saying,“It was reddish in color, with blackish-colored stripes. It had a long snout and numerous teeth. The legs were thick; it reminded me of a lion, built for speed.”

    There was another rather intriguing report from that very same year from the same area of what may or may not have been the same creature, which was published in the Rhodesia Herald. In this account, a hunter made his way to the Kasai Valley along with his gunbearer. As they made their way through the jungle, they supposedly cam across two large elephants standing there in the mist. As the two witnessed surveyed the area their gaze fell upon what they described as “a monster, about 16 yards in length, with a lizard’s head and tail.” Of course the hunter did the human thing and fired upon it, hey if you don’t understand it kill it, and he would say of what happened next:

    I was shaken by the hunting-fever. My teeth rattled with fear. Three times I snapped; only one attempt came out well. Suddenly the monster vanished, with a remarkably rapid movement. It took me some time to recover. Alongside me the boy prayed and cried. I lifted him up, pushed him along and made him follow me home. On the way we had to transverse a big swamp. Progress was slow, for my limbs were still half-paralyzed with fear. There in the swamp, the huge lizard appeared once more, tearing lumps from a dead rhino. It was covered in ooze. I was only about 25 yards away. It was simply terrifying. The boy had taken French leave, carrying the rifle with him. 

    At first I was careful not to stir, then I thought of my camera. I could hear the crunching of rhino bones in the lizard’s mouth. Just as I clicked, it jumped into deep water. The experience was too much for my nervous system. Completely exhausted, I sank down behind the bush that had given me shelter. Blackness reigned before my eyes. The animal’s phenomenally rapid motion was the most awe-inspiring thing I have ever seen.

    Stories of similar creatures have been told in the region, but the credibility of the so-called Kasai Rex has been the subject of some skepticism. One of the main things that has detracted greatly from its veracity are two photographs of the alleged creature, both of which were found to be doctored hoaxes. There is also the inconvenient fact that the natives of the region don’t seem to have any knowledge of this particular creature, and it has mostly only been sighted by outsiders, making the reports all the more questionable. Whether it is real or not, they are interesting accounts nonetheless.

    Other areas of Africa are not without their own stories of roving dinosaurian monsters. Cameroon, which is also thought to be a haunt of the Mokele-mbembe and others, also has a monster of supposedly truly epic proportions known locally as the M’kuoo M’bemboo. This creature is said to be truly gargantuan, with its head alone described as being the size of a full grown hippo. The M’kuoo M’bemboo is described as being a jet black in color, and has a flattened head reminiscent of that of a seal. The creature is known for its rumbling, gurgling roar, and it is said to kill hippos but not eat them. Hippos just can’t catch a break here. Cameroon is also purportedly home to what are called the Jago-Nini, and the Amali, which are said to be immense aquatic dinosaurs that glide through the rivers here, oddly not killing hippos. The adventurer and ivory trader Alfred Aloysius Smith wrote of these mysterious creatures thus:

    Aye, and behind the Cameroon there’s things living we know nothing about. I could ‘a’ made books about many things. The Jago-Nini they say is still in the swamps and rivers. Giant diver it means. Comes out of the water and devours people. Old men’ll tell you what their grandfathers saw but they still believe its there. Same as the Amali I’ve always taken it to be. I’ve seen the Amali’s footprint. About the size of a good frying pan in circumference and three claws instead of five.

    Perhaps one of the strangest “living dinosaur” of all is one supposedly native to the wilds of Sudan, in the wetlands of Bhar el Zeraf, and well as in Sudan’s Lake No, and in Lake Victoria. The creature is called the Lau, which is said to look like “a donkey with flippers,” possesses bizarre tentacles on its face, and measures up to 100 feet in length. It is said to emit a truly terrifying roar that sounds like “the thundering of elephants.” There have been many reports of the creature since the 1800s, and in 1914 there was a Lau allegedly killed in the swamps of Addar, but the body was never recovered. In 1924, a supposed vertebrae from one of the beasts was received by a British officer from a native tribesman, but where it went is anyone’s guess and we are left with no physical evidence at all.

    It is rather frustrating because that is the situation we are left with all of these cases, a lack of any clear evidence and only these mystifying stories and native accounts to go by. It is certainly not an indication that these creatures cannt exist, and the terrain itself makes it a given that these places should be unexplored. After all, we are dealing with some of the most unexplored places on the planet, walls of nearly impassable jungle filled with diseases, dangerous wildlife, and often in wartorn areas patrolled by nefarious bands of cutthroats, all conspiring with the extremely vast areas involved, meaning that it is very difficult to mount thorough expeditions and investigations into the matter. The reliance on reports from natives is also not a damning thing, as many known animals such as the gorilla and the okapi got their start in tribal reports that at the time seemed every bit as outlandish. In the end we are left with the question of whether any of these creatures are real, and if so, are they indeed living dinosaurs? It is impossible to say, but if there are dinosaurs still roaming the earth, then these dark uncharted jungles are pretty much exactly where one would expect them to be.

    https://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    10-12-2018 om 20:35 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Unexplained Luminous Phenomena of the Flashing Kind

    Unexplained Luminous Phenomena of the Flashing Kind

    A variety of different kinds of unexplained illuminations have been reported over the centuries. These mysterious luminous phenomena are reported both by day and by night (although perhaps a majority seem to occur nocturnally), and many are observed passing through the air; in modern times, such unexplained aerial phenomena are often linked to UFO sightings, and occasionally appear to display features that may indicate the objects are intelligently controlled.

    In an incident that occurred on May 4, 1997, the S.T.S. Astridhad set sail from the Azores, and was passing through the North Atlantic Ocean while en route to Dartmouth when something very peculiar happened.

    According to a report on the incident published in the Marine Observer in 1997, “At 0443 UTC a light was sighted high in the sky above the ship. The light was of the style of a satellite in appearance. However, it was seen for about 10-15 seconds moving west to northwest, with a pulsating white light.”

    “At one point,” the report continues, “the light stopped and turned in the direction of the ship. The light no longer pulsated, and for about one second it was in the form of a spotlight lighting the surrounding area. The light then turned back again and moved very, very fast across the sky before it was lost below the horizon in a matter of seconds.”

    Such a report leaves much to the imagination, of course, although the description of both the spotlight, as well as the flashing and intermittent stop-and-go behavior described here is consistent with a number of UFO reports from over the years, where larger objects which appear to possess flashing or strobing lights, or simply blinking lights all by themselves, have been observed by pilots and ground-based observers.

    Could any of these flashing objects have a natural origin? There are at least some anecdotal reports that involve descriptions of intermittent pulsating or blinking by unusual aerial lights, such as with the luminous phenomenon that has been observed for decades at Hessdalen, Norway. According to Hessdalen.org, a website devoted to the study of these unusual nocturnal illuminations, there are several varieties of lights, among which white or blue-white flashing lights are included.

    “They are usually high up in the air, close to the top of the mountains or even higher,” the description at the website says. Usually lasting only a few seconds, these nocturnal displays have on some occasions lasted up to a minute, and according to the website, during their visible periods, “the light flashed several times while it is moving.” Other varieties of lights observed at Hessdalen are composed of yellow lights “with a red light on the top,” with the red upper portion also described as flashing intermittently.

    The Hessdalen lights, it is widely believed, could represent some kind of natural phenomenon; possibly an earthlight formation akin to ball lightning, although some recent estimates have suggested everything from piezoelectricity, to cosmic radiation as possible sources. Whatever the case, their presence could provide a unique instance where a variety of luminous phenomenon in nature has been observed pulsating or flashing in this way.

    Another oceanic incident similar to the one described earlier was reported by M.E. Guy in the Marine Observer a few years earlier, this one taking place on May 6, 1984. It occurred over the Equatorial Eastern Atlantic ocean, and involved a series of flashing white lights that were observed as the sailing vessel in question neared the equator. The crew later reported that visibility was good at the time, with little disturbance on the ocean, and the moon in its first quarter. “At first it was thought that there were three lights, one being bright and the other two relatively dim,” the report reads, “but as the vessel approached it it was decided that there were only two, one bright and one dim.”

    This unusual pair of flashing lights was also tracked on radar at the time. “The target, once detected,” the report indicates, “gave a very strong echo and gave the impression of being a large target. It was plotted and found to be stationary.”

    According to the observers at the time, neither of the two lights seen by the crew appeared to be flashing or operating under any kind of pattern. “Instead they just flashed at random, but never together.” Notably, the intensity of the brighter of the two lights, according to one observer, “would have put many a lighthouse to shame,” seemingly indicating a manufactured source for the illumination.

    The crew was unable to identify the source of this light, although the incident described here was not the only time it was observed. According to the Marine Observer report, “two previous voyages had been to Brazil and France and the lights were observed on every occasion near the equator; they were identical in every way, but in the previous encounters the lights, both dim and bright, were more numerous.”

    Reports of unusual luminous phenomena, especially those which occur at sea, are fairly common in scientific literature, and many can be easily attributed to bioluminescence and other identifiable causes. However, the descriptions of “flashing” lights, as provided here, are far from typical in almost any case, land or sea. The source of such illuminations could certainly still be mundane, although a few of the more unusual reports like these may also represent some unique variety of natural phenomenon… and one which, at present, remains undetermined.

    https://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    10-12-2018 om 20:19 geschreven door peter

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    09-12-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Planet Has Seen Sudden Warming Before. It Wiped Out Almost Everything.

    The Planet Has Seen Sudden Warming Before. It Wiped Out Almost Everything.

    In some ways, the planet's worst mass extinction — 250 million years ago, at the end of the Permian Period — may parallel climate change today.

    Fossilized crinoids, marine invertebrates that lived during the Permian Period, found in western Australia. Scientists say the Great Dying, which wiped out 96 percent of all life in the oceans, was caused by global warming, which deprived the oceans of oxygen.
    CreditCreditJohn Cancalosi, via Getty Images

    Some 252 million years ago, Earth almost died.

    In the oceans, 96 percent of all species became extinct. It’s harder to determine how many terrestrial species vanished, but the loss was comparable.

    This mass extinction, at the end of the Permian Period, was the worst in the planet’s history, and it happened over a few thousand years at most — the blink of a geological eye.

    On Thursday, a team of scientists offered a detailed accounting of how marine life was wiped out during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Global warming robbed the oceans of oxygen, they say, putting many species under so much stress that they died off.

    And we may be repeating the process, the scientists warn. If so, then climate change is “solidly in the category of a catastrophic extinction event,” said Curtis Deutsch, an earth scientist at the University of Washington and co-author of the new study, published in the journal Science.

    Researchers have long known the general outlines of Permian-Triassic cataclysm. Just before the extinctions, volcanoes in what is now Siberia erupted on a tremendous scale. The magma and lava that they belched forth produced huge amounts of carbon dioxide.

    Once in the atmosphere, the gas trapped heat. Researchers estimate that the surface of the ocean warmed by about 18 degrees Fahrenheit. Some researchers argue that the heat alone killed off many species.

    Others believe that the warmth reduced oxygen in the ocean, asphyxiating the species living there. Rocks from the mass extinction appear to have formed when at least some of the ocean was lacking oxygen.

    In previous research, Dr. Deutsch has explored how living animals adapt to temperature and oxygen levels in the seas. Animals with a fast metabolism need a lot of oxygen, for example, and so they can’t live in parts of the ocean where oxygen falls below a certain threshold.

    Warm water makes the challenge even more difficult. Warmer water can’t hold as much dissolved oxygen as cold water. Even worse, warm water can also increase an animal’s metabolism, meaning it requires more oxygen just to stay alive.

    Cod, for example, are not found below a latitude running roughly from New England to Spain. South of that line, warmth and low oxygen are just too great for the species.

    Dr. Deutsch and Justin Penn, a graduate student, recreated the world at the end of the Permian Period with a large-scale computer simulation, complete with a heat-trapping atmosphere and a circulating ocean.

    As the Siberian volcanoes flooded the virtual atmosphere with carbon dioxide, the atmosphere warmed. The ocean warmed, too — and according to the model, it began losing oxygen.

    Some parts lost more than others. On the surface, for example, fresh oxygen was produced by photosynthetic algae. But as the ocean warmed, its circulatory currents also slowed, the model demonstrated.

    Oxygen-poor water settled to the bottom of the oceans, and before long, the deep was gasping.

    Rising temperatures and plunging oxygen must have made huge swaths of the oceans uninhabitable. Some species survived here and there. But most disappeared completely.

    “Everything was losing a lot of habitat, creating the risk of extinction,” said Dr. Deutsch. “But the risk was actually higher in places that were cold. That was a bit surprising.”

    You might expect that animals near the Equator would be at a greater risk, because the water was warm to begin with. But Dr. Deutsch’s model suggested a very different kind of apocalypse.

    To test their simulation, the researchers teamed up with Jonathan Payne and Erik Sperling, paleontologists at Stanford University. They dug into a huge online database of fossils to chart the risks of extinction at different latitudes during the catastrophe.

    When they were done with their analysis, they sent their graph to Seattle. Dr. Deutsch and Mr. Penn compared it to the prediction from their computer model.

    They matched. “This was the most exciting moment of my scientific life,” said Dr. Deutsch.

    Michael Benton, a paleontologist at the University of Bristol in England, who was not involved in the study, said that it resolved the roles of heat and oxygen as causes of the mass extinction. “This makes a clear case that, of course, the two are linked,” he said.

    The new study offers an important warning to humans over the next few centuries.

    The Siberian volcanoes ultimately delivered much more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than we will ever emit by burning fossil fuels. But our annual rate of carbon emissions is actually higher.

    The carbon we released over the past two centuries already has made the atmosphere warmer, and the ocean has absorbed much of that heat. And now, just as during the Permian-Triassic extinction, the ocean is losing oxygen. Over the past fifty years, oxygen levels have declined by 2 percent.

    “The way the Earth system is responding now to the buildup of CO2 is in the exact same way that we’ve seen it respond in the past,” said Dr. Kump.

    Just how much warmer the planet will get is up to us. It will take a tremendous international effort to keep the increase below about 4 degrees Fahrenheit.

    If we proceed to use up all the fossil fuels on Earth, it could warm by as much as 17 degrees Fahrenheit by 2300.

    As the ocean warms, its oxygen levels will continue to drop. If ancient history is any guide, the consequences for life — especially marine life in the cooler parts of the ocean — will be disastrous.

    “Left unchecked, climate warming is putting our future on the same scale as some of the worst events in geological history,” Dr. Deutsch said.

    https://www.nytimes.com/ }

    09-12-2018 om 23:55 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Sea levels may rise more rapidly due to Greenland ice melt

    Sea levels may rise more rapidly due to Greenland ice melt

    Run-off from vast ice sheet is increasing due to manmade global warming, says study

     A meltwater canyon on the Greenland ice sheet.
    Photograph: Sarah Das/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution/PA

    Rising sea levels could become overwhelming sooner than previously believed, according to the authors of the most comprehensive study yet of the accelerating ice melt in Greenland.

    Run-off from this vast northern ice sheet – currently the biggest single source of meltwater adding to the volume of the world’s oceans – is 50% higher than pre-industrial levels and increasing exponentially as a result of manmade global warming, says the paper, published in Nature on Wednesday.

    Almost all of the increase has occurred in the past two decades – a jolt upwards after several centuries of relative stability. This suggests the ice sheet becomes more sensitive as temperatures go up.

    “Greenland ice is melting more in recent decades than at any point in at least the last four centuries, and probably more than at any time in the last seven to eight millennia,” said the lead author Luke Trusel, of Rowan University.

    We demonstrate that Greenland ice is more sensitive to warming today than in the past – it responds non-linearly due to positive feedbacks inherent to the system. Warming means more today than it did even just a few decades ago.”

    The researchers used ice core data from three locations to build the first multi-century record of temperature, surface melt and run-off in Greenland. Going back 339 years, they found the first sign of meltwater increase began along with the industrial revolution in the mid-1800s. The trend remained within the natural variation until the 1990s, since when it has spiked far outside of the usual nine- to 13-year cycles.

    Greenland currently contributes about 20% of global sea-level rise, which is running at 4mm per year. This pace will probably double by the end of the century, according to the most recent models used by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. How the new study affects those projections will be the subjects of future study by the authors. If all the ice in Greenland melted, it would raise sea levels by seven metres. At the current pace that would take thousands of years, but the ongoing acceleration could bring this forward rapidly.

    “At some point, sea-level rise will be too fast for us to adapt to, so we really have to avoid this situation by reducing emissions,” said the study’s co-author Michiel van den Broeke of Utrecht University. “I think this is one of the many wake-up calls that we have had in the last few decades. It clearly links manmade global warming to sea-level rise.”

    The research comes out as policymakers from around the world are attending UN climate talks in Katowice, Poland, where governments are trying to set new rules to keep global warming to between 1.5C and 2C. The authors said the paper underlined the dangers of exceeding even the lower figure.

    “On a personal level it is worrying to see this – along with the vast array of other scientific evidence showing that we’ve entered unprecedented or exceptional times,” said Trusel.

    “The ice has no political agenda – it either grows or melts. Today it is melting as humans have warmed the planet. The ice sheets have tipping points, and how quickly they impact our livelihoods through sea level rise depends on what we do now and in the very near future.”

    Other academics, uninvolved in the paper, said the new study was an important confirmation of what scientists have long suspected: that the recent increase in ice melt is ominously unusual.

    “The Greenland ice sheet is like a sleeping giant who is slowly but surely awakening to ongoing global warming, and there are surprises in its response. However, the response may be more rapid than previously believed,” said Edward Hanna, professor of climate science and meteorology at the University of Lincoln.

    https://www.theguardian.com/international }

    09-12-2018 om 20:08 geschreven door peter

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