Wil je een videoclip bekijken en stoort het X-files-deuntje jou daarbij. Schakel het deuntje gewoon uit door in deze kolon, helemaal beneden op de 2 witte balkjes in het blauwe cirkeltje te klikken, tot een pijltje verschijnt. Veel kijk- en luisterplezier en bedankt voor jouw bezoek.
The purpose of this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category. Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.
In 2012 verloor ze haar moedige strijd tegen kanker!
In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.
UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be.
Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch...
Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels.
MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen.
MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity...
Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com.
Ze geven een maandelijks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal.
Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
Inferno planets & the Goldilocks zone: Here are Kepler’s most awesome discoveries (PHOTOS, VIDEO)
Inferno planets & the Goldilocks zone: Here are Kepler’s most awesome discoveries (PHOTOS, VIDEO)
As NASA’s first ever designated planet hunter flies towards retirement and deep space, it’s been revealed that Kepler helped find more than 2,600 planets. So what are the multi-million dollar spacecraft’s greatest achievements?
Undoubtedly, the sheer number of exoplanets and alien worlds uncovered by the space telescope is the statistic that immediately deserves plaudits. But delve deeper and the detail of Kepler’s work is jaw dropping. NASA astrophysics director Paul Hertz says the craft has brought humans one step closer to finding life outside Earth. High praise indeed.
NASA Kepler and K2✔@NASAKepler
With today’s announcement of the retirement of the @NASAKepler space telescope, we’re officially passing the planet-hunting torch to @NASA_TESS, which will search 200,000 of the brightest near the for new worlds! Learn more about the mission: http://nasa.gov/tess
Launched in 2009, Kepler’s mission was actually born in the early 80s as scientists began to turn their attention to finding planets with similar characteristics to home. Here are just some of the cool discoveries made possible due to the intergalactic telescope.
Kepler hot jupiters
Months after launch, Kepler found five extrasolar planets known as hot jupiters. The giant gas infernos became known as Kepler-4b, -5b, -6b, -7b and -8. Temperatures on these celestial objects were found to reach above 2,000 degrees fahrenheit.
The Kepler space observatory gave scientists testing the concept of the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ) an eye in the sky and more ways to analyse their theory. Sometimes known as the ‘Goldilocks zone’, the habitable zone is the distance between a planet and its nearest star. It’s basically the threshold of temperature that would give water the best possible chance to pool.
NASA Kepler and K2✔@NASAKepler
Memorial Day weekend is almost here ... and the chance to take a virtual trip 492 light years away to Kepler-186f, and Earth-size planet orbiting a small, red star. https://go.nasa.gov/2J3jrqn
Among the planets thought to provide the best possible chances of life are Kepler-62f – which NASA’s telescope found in 2014. The exoplanet orbits a cool red dwarf star about 580 light years away.
Alien megastructure debunk
As well as hunting down places for humans to possibly move to, Kepler also kept an eye on the intricacies of light travelling through space. One of its most intriguing observations was the dimming of a mysterious entity known as Tabby’s Star. Curiously speculated to be an ‘alien megastructure’, Kepler helped uncover the truth: the dimming was caused by clouds of dust.
Kepler’s vast catalogue of findings make it almost impossible to list every one. However, a major milestone for the NASA mission came in 2013 when Kepler found its first earth-sized rocky planet. The exoplanet, named Kepler-78b, is close to 20 percent larger than Earth, with a molten rock surface. With an orbit pattern of just 8.5 hours, the fiery planet speeds around its nearest star.
‘Twin’ solar system
In one of its final acts, the Kepler telescope was able to confirm the location of a planetary system similar to our own. Dubbed the Kepler 90 solar system, NASA’s craft successfully tracked down eight planets in the zone situated approximately 2,544 light years from Earth.
On Sept. 11, NASA began a 45-day "active listening" campaign in an attempt to rouse the solar-powered Opportunity, which went silent on June 10 after a raging dust storm plunged its environs into darkness.
The 45-day deadline passed late last week. But NASA will continue active listening — a strategy that involves both sending commands to Opportunity and listening for any peeps the six-wheeled robot may make — for several more months at least, agency officials announced yesterday (Oct. 29). [Mars Dust Storm 2018: What It Means for Opportunity Rover]
"After a review of the progress of the listening campaign, NASA will continue its current strategy for attempting to make contact with the Opportunity rover for the foreseeable future," NASA officials wrote in a mission update yesterday (Oct. 29).
"Winds could increase in the next few months at Opportunity's location on Mars, resulting in dust being blown off the rover's solar panels," they added. "The agency will reassess the situation in the January 2019 time frame."
The change in strategy comes in the commitment to keep pinging Opportunity. Mission team members and NASA officials had previously said they would continue to listen for any signal from the rover at least through January.
Opportunity landed on Mars in January 2004, a few weeks after its twin, Spirit. Both robots roamed around different parts of the Red Planet, looking for signs of past water activity — and finding lots of such evidence.
Spirit and Opportunity's prime missions were pegged to last just three months, but the duo continued exploring Mars for years. Spirit last communicated with its handlers in 2010 and was declared dead a year later. Opportunity had been going strong, roving along the rim of the 14-mile-wide (22 kilometers) Endeavour Crater, until the dust storm hit this summer.
That storm grew to encircle the entire planet by June 20. But it began dying down about a month later, and the dust had cleared so much by Sept. 11 that mission managers thought Opportunity might be getting enough sunlight to recharge its batteries. So the active listening campaign began.
Opportunity has been through quite an ordeal, enduring bitterly cold Martian nights without a working heater to keep its electronic innards warm. So it's possible that the venerable rover, which has covered more ground on the surface of another world than any other vehicle, has frozen to death or fallen victim to some "fault mode" from which it cannot recover.
But perhaps Opportunity lives still, and is just waiting for a strong, dust-dislodging November wind followed by a wakeup call from home. We shall see.
Mike Wall's book about the search for alien life, "Out There," will be published on Nov. 13 by Grand Central Publishing.
NASA is preparing technology for use on its Mars 2020 rover mission, due to land on the Red Planet in February 2021 — and it's breaking world records along the way.
Landing on Mars is notoriously challenging because of the planet's thin atmosphere, which makes it difficult to slow down a spacecraft enough to land gently on its surface. In order to land their heaviest yet rover on Mars, NASA had to redesign an existing landing-parachute design — the same one that protected the Curiosity rover — with even stronger materials, including the Kevlar traditionally found in bulletproof vests. [NASA's Mars Rover 2020 Mission in Pictures]
The agency conducted its final test of its new parachute in September as part of its Advanced Supersonic Parachute Inflation Research Experiment (ASPIRE) project. The results are in and the parachute has been approved for the 2020 launch.
"Like all our prior Mars missions, we only have one parachute and it has to work," John McNamee, project manager of Mars 2020 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, said in a statement. "The ASPIRE tests have shown in remarkable detail how our parachute will react when it is first deployed into a supersonic flow high above Mars. And let me tell you, it looks beautiful."
Last month, the 180-pound parachute, plus a camera designed to watch it deploy, was launched on a sounding rocket from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. The rocket carried it to about 23 miles (37 kilometers) above Earth's surface, where the atmosphere's density is about as dense as 6 miles (10 km) above Mars' surface, the height at which the Mars 2020 parachute is due to deploy.
During the test, the parachute deployed completely in just four-tenths of a second, the fastest inflation of such a large parachute, according to NASA. That will mark the end of the parachute tests, but not the end of Mars 2020 preparations.
"We are all about helping 2020 stick its landing 28 months from now," Ian Clark, the test's technical lead from JPL, said in the statement. "I may not get to shoot rockets to the edge of space for a while, but when it comes to Mars — and when it comes to getting there and getting down there safely — there are always exciting challenges to work on around here."
The biggest airplane ever built, which will tote a variety of satellite-launching rockets into the sky, just got a step closer to flight.
Stratolaunch Systems, which was established in 2011 by the late Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, got the giant plane up to 90 mph (145 km/h) during "medium-speed taxi testing" at California's Mojave Air and Space Port earlier this month.
Stratolaunch's dual-fuselage plane features a wingspan of 385 feet (117 meters) — greater than the length of a football field, including the two end zones. The vehicle is designed to haul satellite-carrying rockets up to an altitude of about 35,000 feet (10,700 m), at which point the launchers will drop away and power their payloads up to orbit.
This air-launch strategy will enable satellites to be lofted relatively cheaply and frequently, and with a great deal of flexibility, company representatives have said.
A variety of different rockets will eventually fly between the two fuselages, if all goes according to plan. For example, Stratolaunch plans to begin using the Pegasus rocket, which debuted in 1990 and has more than 40 flights under its belt, for the company's first operational missions in 2020.
Pegasus can haul about 815 lbs. (370 kilograms) to low-Earth orbit. Stratolaunch is also developing two more powerful rockets, known as the Medium Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the MLV-Heavy, which will be able to loft about 7,500 lbs. (3,400 kg) and 13,200 lbs. (6,000 kg), respectively. The MLV's first flight is targeted for 2022, whereas the MLV-Heavy is still in early development, company representatives said.
Stratolaunch is also working on a fully reusable space plane that could carry satellites or people. This vehicle is in the design-study phase.
Stratolaunch isn't the only company working to launch space missions from the air. Virgin Orbit recently mated its LauncherOne rocket and Cosmic Girl mothership for the first time (on the ground), and Virgin Galactic is performing rocket-fired test flights of its six-passenger SpaceShipTwo suborbital space liner.
SpaceShipTwo launches from the belly of a plane called WhiteKnightTwo.
Mike Wall's book about the search for alien life, "Out There," will be published on Nov. 13 by Grand Central Publishing.
For nearly 20 years, NASA has been planning and constructing a telescope unlike any ever built before: the James Webb Space Telescope. It will change the way scientists see the most distant galaxies and intensify the hunt for extraterrestrial life; it will answer outstanding questions about the birth and death of stars and planets. It is the future of astronomy—but it’s causing trouble. JWST’s high price and decade of delays could stymie the development of future telescopes, impacting the course of astronomy for the next 30 years.
Billed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, the JWST is a tennis court-sized, general-purpose space telescope with a 6.5-meter (21-foot) mirror that will be sent to a gravitationally stable point nearly a million miles from Earth. It will create incredibly detailed images from the infrared light of objects in space, including nebulae, exoplanets, galaxies, and stars. Looking even further ahead, NASA’s planned successor to JWST, called the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), will observe the sky with resolution similar to Hubble’s but with a far wider field of view. That would allow astronomers to answer some of the fundamental questions about dark energy, a mysterious force that seems to be driving the universe’s accelerating expansion. It would also provide a platform to test state-of-the-art components for its own successor. Four teams of scientists are already working on different concepts for the flagship mission to follow WFIRST, which would launch in the 2030s or 2040s. Three of those concepts would follow up on potentially life-harboring exoplanets spotted by JWST, while the fourth would aim to understand the origins of galaxies and the universe itself. These missions would all be expensive, similar in cost to JWST.
“[Today’s astronomers] are the first humans in history that have a chance to answer the compelling questions about whether there is life beyond Earth,” MIT astrophysicist Sara Seager recently told the Senate.
Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)
But as the JWST’s price tag has increased incrementally, from hundreds of millions of dollars to $9.6 billion, some scientists working on its successors are uneasy. Where does the extra money come from to pay for JWST’s budget overruns, and how have these delays affected public perception of these large missions? And if NASA scraps or removes certain parts from WFIRST, that might handicap future space-based efforts to detect signs of life outside the Solar System. While Congress views astronomy research more favorably, President Trump’s 2019 budget request has already suggested scrapping WFIRST.
As of now, the future of these missions and how JWST will impact them is uncertain, Scott Gaudi, Ohio State University professor and member of the WFIRST team, told Gizmodo.
As early as 1989, astronomers had an early concept of JWST as a “Next Generation Space Telescope,” the successor to Hubble. While originally envisioned as having a mirror eight or more meters (26+ feet) in diameter, budget constraints caused scientists to de-scope various goals, resulting in the 6.5-meter (21-foot) telescope concept that would become the James Webb Space Telescope. As plans developed, NASA in 2002 selected an aerospace company called TRW to build the spaceship and mirror with an $825 million budget and a scheduled launch in 2010. Northrop Grumman acquired TRW, and soon took over the telescope’s construction.
Delays have marred JWST’s entire developmental history. Most recently, an independent review revealed that increase in project scope, the complexity of the telescope, overoptimism, and human errors have plagued its construction. Those human errors include the time when someone at Northrop Grumman used the wrong solvent to clean valves, and the time when loose nuts fell into the telescope during a test, according to the review. But as early as 2005, the launch had been pushed to 2013 and the cost to $4.5 billion due to “funding shortfalls,” “requirement changes,” and other issues. Fabrication began in 2011, but by then the launch was pushed to 2018 and the budget to an estimated $8 billion. Today, the JWST’s estimated cost is up to $9.66 billion, and its projected launch date is some time in 2021.
Then there’s the mere fact that huge advances in astronomy have occurred during the telescope’s development. NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine explained in a Congressional hearing this past July that the study of today’s most ubiquitous astronomy topics, like dark energy and exoplanets, was only beginning when the JWST project began. “This isn’t simply mismanagement or cost overruns or delay,” Congressman Don Beyer (D-Virginia) said during the hearing. “The world of science itself is changing in ways that have impacted the project.”Essentially, the price and scope of the project have expanded as scientists have learned more about the universe and encountered more cosmic mysteries.
By 2010, it was already time to plan a successor for JWST. Every decade, committees of scientists survey the state of astrophysics and decide what kind of experiments the entire community would like to see next, including small- and medium-sized missions as well as the flagship missions. For the largest missions, teams of scientists work on multiple concepts, and the Decadal Survey committee uses these concepts to set the field’s priority for NASA.
Even back then, astronomers worried about how JWST’s cost would affect the future of observation. But then NASA received a 2.4-meter (7.8-foot) mirror from National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). The mirror was initially designed for use in espionage, but would work nicely in a space telescope. The Decadal Survey moved forward with a telescope called WFIRST—a telescope with Hubble’s resolution but 100 times the viewing area. A telescope like this would help scientists determine the true nature of dark energy, a mysterious force that seems to be speeding up the universe’s expansion and that could determine the universe’s ultimate fate. NASA scrapped other concepts, like the exoplanet-hunting Space Interferometry Mission, in response.
WFIRST “was a Frankenstein creation,” Jessie Christiansen, astrophysicist at the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute at Caltech, told Gizmodo. “It was something no one really asked for until they got the mirror donated by the NRO.” But, according to the Decadal Survey, such a telescope would “settle essential questions in both exoplanet and dark energy research, which will advance topics ranging from galaxy evolution to the study of objects within our own galaxy.” WFIRST has expanded in both scope and cost since the 2010 decadal survey.
Primary Mirror Assembly WFIRST
Photo: Harris Corporation / TJT Photography
The telescope’s wide-field surveying instrument would be relatively simple compared to some instruments flown on previous NASA missions, Gaudi told Gizmodo. But WFIRST would also be the first to fly a technology in space that is important for two proposals for the next flagship space telescope: a “coronagraph.” A coronagraph is a device that blocks stars’ bright light, making the dimmer planets orbiting the star visible. If scientists hope to find life around other stars, they’ll need to image the light produced by and reflected by the planet directly. The issue is that the planet may be billions of times dimmer than the star it orbits. Scientists hope to one day spot Earth-like planets using this technology.
And here’s the most important part: Observing the light directly from planets, rather than just observing the periodic dimming produced when the planet passes in front of its star, could tell scientists whether the presence of life has altered the planet’s atmosphere the way it has on Earth. Climate change aside, life fills Earth’s atmosphere with carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane, and other biological building blocks. Therefore, determining whether life exists on other planets requires observing these planet’s atmospheres to see what molecules they contain.
Image: Origins Space Telescope
Preparations for the 2020 Decadal Survey are already underway. Four teams of astronomers are preparing concept studies for WFIRST’s successor, a flagship telescope mission that would launch some time in the late 2030s or early 2040s. As happened in 2010, the survey will determine what astronomy’s most important scientific questions are, and how best to answer them using ambitious, potentially yet-to-be-developed technology. The decadal committee will move forward with a recommendation based on the goals and design of one or multiple concepts. It’s clear that hunting for signs of extraterrestrial life will play an enormous role in the discussion. Two of the concepts incorporate a coronagraphlike WFIRSTs, and three list analyzing exoplanets among their primary goals. All of them would cost billions of dollars.
The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) is the most ambitious of these four missions—and it would be truly enormous, with either an 8- or 15-meter (26- or 49-foot) mirror. It would be a sequel to JWST. Another, the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx), is built from the bottom up with observing exoplanets in mind. Both would rely on a coronagraph and a starshade, an external component that blocks the light of other stars.
HabEx coronagraphImage: NASA
Two other proposed telescopes wouldn’t rely on a coronagraph or a starshade. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) would look for exoplanets around cooler stars in the infrared wavelengths, where the difference in brightness between the star and planet isn’t as great. Its goals also include observing the formation of planets and the growing complexity of stars and galaxies. Finally, there’s Lynx, which is instead focused on high-energy astrophysical mysteries, such as the dawn of black holes and the birth and death of stars. It would be an x-ray telescope using sensitive instruments, and serve as the sequel to the wildly successful Chandra X-ray Telescope.
The National Academy of Sciences has already hinted that it favors a telescope equipped with a coronagraph or some sort of starlight-shading device, like LUVOIR or HabEx, when it comes to hunting for extraterrestrial life. From the recent Exoplanet Science Strategy report:
A coronagraphic or starshade-based direct imaging mission is the only path currently identified to characterize Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of a large sample of nearby Sun-like stars in reflected light... NASA should lead a large strategic direct imaging mission capable of measuring the reflected-light spectra of temperate terrestrial planets orbiting Sun-like stars.
Another more recent report from the National Academies outlining a strategy for the future of astrobiology calls starshades and coronagraphs “essential.”
It’s important to note that there a host of other Earth-based telescopes under development, like the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. These ground-based telescopes are better for observing planets around cooler, small M-dwarf stars, Aki Roberge, scientist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center working on LUVOIR, recently told Gizmodo. Space telescopes equipped with starlight-blocking coronagraphs could better observe planets around Sun-like stars. Extraterrestrial life might exist on either, and both are part of a healthy astrobiology strategy.
Image: HabEx starshade (NASA)
The decadal space telescope proposals are already beginning to feel the heat from JWST. On June 1, NASA astrophysics director Paul Hertz emailed the concept teams, imposing a $3 billion to $5 billion cost goal for the studies. According to a press release, “With recent delays and budget constraints surrounding the two major flagship missions, the new direction will better ensure that the next flagship mission be executed on time and within budget.” However, he revised that memo two weeks later, and instead reminded teams that the second phase of their design process was beginning in which they should design a less costly architecture than their first designs. The National Academies has also recommended that these concepts think about cost and schedules. These concept studies are due to NASA by June 2019.
Some, like LUVOIR physicist John O’Meara, worry that the difficulties with JWST will cause members of the astronomy community to give up on large missions such as these in general. It’s a sentiment that some, like former NASA administrator Charles Bolden, have expressed before. “I hope they don’t do that,” said O’Meara.
“I’m really concerned about the state of funding,” Laura Lopez, assistant professor at Ohio State University working on the Lynx team, told Gizmodo. “It feels like a precarious situation where we don’t know what will happen next year, let alone in the next 15 years.” Any large missions like these would require sustained funding for more than a decade.
And there are plenty of smaller missions whose futures might be in jeopardy due to the cost and scope of these larger projects, missions of a similar scope as Kepler and TESS.
JWST could impact these future missions directly or based on how it affects WFIRST. This past summer, Congress has held hearings grilling NASA and Northrup Grumman about the JWST’s cost overruns and delays. Northrup Grumman CEO Wes Bush told Congressman Lamar Smith (R-Texas) that the company would not pick up the most recent $800 million cost increase. It’s unclear what will happen next.
WFIRST faces clear threats. This past year, President Trump’s proposed budget included scrapping the telescope entirely. Scientists are confident that the more space-friendly Congress won’t let that happen, but Gaudi has heard talk threatening the existence of the coronagraph as well. Should WFIRST lose its coronagraph, scientists will miss an important opportunity to try the light-blocking technology out in space before flying it on the ultimate exoplanet-hunting telescope.
Gizmodo heard several times that flying a coronagraph without testing it on some previous mission could be a very bad idea with far-reaching implications on cost and schedule. “We may save roughly $300 million by de-scoping a coronagraph,” David Spergel, Princeton astrophysicist working on WFIRST’s development, told Gizmodo, “but I suspect in the long run, it could cost a billion in development cost of LUVOIR or HabEx when the time comes to upgrade to a coronagraph capable of detecting Earth-like planets.” Gaudi said that flying a coronagraph on WFIRST would make LUVOIR or HabEx “much more palatable to pretty much everyone.”
Scientists have reminded Congress as to the coronagraph’s importance. “WFIRST’s coronagraph instrument is a technology demonstration,” Seager said recently at a Senate hearing. “It’s critical to do this to buy down more ambitious missions in the future already under study.”
For what it’s worth, the astronomers Gizmodo spoke with generally agree that JWST will be well worth the wait. But flagship telescopes are meant to advance significantly upon existing instruments—and improvement requires money. Scrapping or de-scoping WFIRST could further delay humanity’s dream to spot life on other planets, should the Decadal Survey ultimately decide to recommend a coronagraph-based mission. So, too, could fear or budgetary consequences stemming from the JWST delay.
Of course, what happens next with WFIRST is up in the air. Scientists are waiting to see what happens with the reconciliation of upcoming budgets, “and how Congress will respond to the additional delays of JWST,” said Gaudi. Given the country’s chaotic political climate, no one knows what will and won’t get funding in the future. But long-term investments require money—and representatives who are willing to allocate that money to support them.
“I’m just doing my best to provide Congress with as much information as I can so they make the best possible decision,” said Gaudi. “I hope they are ambitious and optimistic about the science.”
Open Minds UFO Radio: Chris is one of the hosts of the Mad Scientist Podcast. He received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering focusing on the study of nanomaterials for use as catalysts and adsorbents from Northeastern University. He has a bachelors degree in chemical engineering and philosophy from the University of New Hampshire. The Mad Scientist podcast covers the history and philosophy of science and fringe science claims and examines how societies accept technologies and sciences.
In this episode, we discuss the science necessary to prove whether an extraterrestrial civilization made a particular object. We also discuss scenarios related to the discoverers might handle such a discovery, and how mainstream science may react.
A decade ago, we thought our solar system was special; today, we know it's no such thing. That revolution is thanks to the work of NASA's Kepler space telescope, which has officially reached the end of its mission.
Since Kepler's launch in 2009, scientists have spotted a total of 2,681 confirmed planets orbiting other suns within the data gathered by the instrument. Another 2,899 potential Kepler planets are still being vetted by scientists.
Bill Borucki, who first dreamed up the Kepler mission and was its principal investigator until his retirement from NASA in 2015, knows many of those thousands of planets as individuals. Take, for example, Kepler-22b, which he calls one of the most interesting planets in the batch. [Gallery: A World of Kepler Planets]
"It's a planet in between the size of the Earth and Neptune, unlike any planet in our solar system; it's a planet that may very well be a water world, a world covered in an ocean, and it's in the habitable zone," Borucki said during a news conference held yesterday (Oct. 30) to mark the end of Kepler's in-space work. "It might very well have an atmosphere on a water planet that could lead to life, so it's an extremely interesting planet. It's one of my favorites."
But he's not just excited about individual worlds — the Kepler mission has identified plenty of solar systems as well, where it has spotted multiple planets orbiting one star. He's excited for what we may one day learn about the Kepler-444 system in particular, he said.
"These are small, rocky planets, and they were formed around a star that's some six and a half billion years older than our star, than our own planetary system," Borucki said. "If life has been developing over six and a half billion years before Earth was formed, there may be some very interesting lifeforms for us to find as we search these early planets."
But while Borucki is fascinated by planets that could potentially host life, he's also struck by the sheer diversity of the more than 600 solar systems Kepler has studied. Take, for example, the existence of hot Jupiters — gas giants tucked so close to their stars that they orbit in a matter of days, completely unlike our own Jupiter strolling around the sun over the course of nearly 12 Earth years.
Discoveries like these have forced scientists to stop assuming that our solar system is like those all around us, added Padi Boyd, the project scientist for Kepler's successor mission, NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.
"Kepler kind of just cracked that out of being the typical expectation," Boyd said during the news conference. "Putting our own solar system into that greater context, I think is a really interesting portrait of the galaxy — our solar system is not typical. Maybe no solar system is typical; maybe they're all very different."
That wealth of solar systems has warmed the hearts of the sci-fi fans on the mission as well. For Kepler's project system engineer at NASA Ames, Charlie Sobeck, the mission has turned the type of universe he grew up with while watching "Star Trek" into reality. "I had no trouble believing that there were planets out there of all different kinds, so I had to wonder, why did it affect me so much when Kepler showed that there were lots of planets out there everywhere?" he said during the news conference.
"There's just a big difference between believing and knowing," Sobeck said. "It hit me like a sledgehammer in the chest when Kepler showed us that there really, really are planets out there of all different kinds."
NASA Retires Kepler Space Telescope, Passes Planet-Hunting Torch
NASA Retires Kepler Space Telescope, Passes Planet-Hunting Torch
This illustration depicts NASA's exoplanet hunter, the Kepler space telescope. The agency announced on Oct. 30, 2018, that Kepler has run out of fuel and is being retired within its current and safe orbit, away from Earth. Kepler leaves a legacy of more than 2,600 exoplanet discoveries.
Credits: NASA/Wendy Stenzel
After nine years in deep space collecting data that indicate our sky to be filled with billions of hidden planets – more planets even than stars – NASA’s Kepler space telescope has run out of fuel needed for further science operations. NASA has decided to retire the spacecraft within its current, safe orbit, away from Earth. Kepler leaves a legacy of more than 2,600 planet discoveries from outside our solar system, many of which could be promising places for life.
"As NASA's first planet-hunting mission, Kepler has wildly exceeded all our expectations and paved the way for our exploration and search for life in the solar system and beyond," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "Not only did it show us how many planets could be out there, it sparked an entirely new and robust field of research that has taken the science community by storm. Its discoveries have shed a new light on our place in the universe, and illuminated the tantalizing mysteries and possibilities among the stars.”
Kepler has opened our eyes to the diversity of planets that exist in our galaxy. The most recent analysis of Kepler’s discoveries concludes that 20 to 50 percent of the stars visible in the night sky are likely to have small, possibly rocky, planets similar in size to Earth, and located within the habitable zone of their parent stars. That means they’re located at distances from their parent stars where liquid water – a vital ingredient to life as we know it – might pool on the planet surface.
The most common size of planet Kepler found doesn’t exist in our solar system – a world between the size of Earth and Neptune – and we have much to learn about these planets. Kepler also found nature often produces jam-packed planetary systems, in some cases with so many planets orbiting close to their parent stars that our own inner solar system looks sparse by comparison.
"When we started conceiving this mission 35 years ago we didn't know of a single planet outside our solar system," said the Kepler mission's founding principal investigator, William Borucki, now retired from NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. "Now that we know planets are everywhere, Kepler has set us on a new course that's full of promise for future generations to explore our galaxy."
Launched on March 6, 2009, the Kepler space telescope combined cutting-edge techniques in measuring stellar brightness with the largest digital camera outfitted for outer space observations at that time. Originally positioned to stare continuously at 150,000 stars in one star-studded patch of the sky in the constellation Cygnus, Kepler took the first survey of planets in our galaxy and became the agency's first mission to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of their stars.
"The Kepler mission was based on a very innovative design. It was an extremely clever approach to doing this kind of science," said Leslie Livesay, director for astronomy and physics at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who served as Kepler project manager during mission development. "There were definitely challenges, but Kepler had an extremely talented team of scientists and engineers who overcame them.”
Four years into the mission, after the primary mission objectives had been met, mechanical failures temporarily halted observations. The mission team was able to devise a fix, switching the spacecraft’s field of view roughly every three months. This enabled an extended mission for the spacecraft, dubbed K2, which lasted as long as the first mission and bumped Kepler's count of surveyed stars up to more than 500,000.
The observation of so many stars has allowed scientists to better understand stellar behaviors and properties, which is critical information in studying the planets that orbit them. New research into stars with Kepler data also is furthering other areas of astronomy, such as the history of our Milky Way galaxy and the beginning stages of exploding stars called supernovae that are used to study how fast the universe is expanding. The data from the extended mission were also made available to the public and science community immediately, allowing discoveries to be made at an incredible pace and setting a high bar for other missions. Scientists are expected to spend a decade or more in search of new discoveries in the treasure trove of data Kepler provided.
"We know the spacecraft's retirement isn't the end of Kepler's discoveries," said Jessie Dotson, Kepler's project scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. "I'm excited about the diverse discoveries that are yet to come from our data and how future missions will build upon Kepler's results."
Before retiring the spacecraft, scientists pushed Kepler to its full potential, successfully completing multiple observation campaigns and downloading valuable science data even after initial warnings of low fuel. The latest data, from Campaign 19, will complement the data from NASA’s newest planet hunter, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, launched in April. TESS builds on Kepler's foundation with fresh batches of data in its search of planets orbiting some 200,000 of the brightest and nearest stars to the Earth, worlds that can later be explored for signs of life by missions, such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope.
NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley manages the Kepler and K2 missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, managed Kepler mission development. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, operates the flight system with support from the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder.
For the Kepler press kit, which includes multimedia, timelines and top science results, visit:
Illustration of hot clumps of gas that orbit the black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
Credit: ESO/Gravity Consortium/L. Calçada.
Scientists have known for a long time that at the very heart of the Milky Way lies a supermassive black hole, about four million times more massive than the Sun. As its name suggests, we can’t image a black hole directly, but cutting-edge telescopes can tease out the infrared light emitted by interstellar gas as it swirls into the black hole. Now, an international team of researchers led by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics reported evidence of knots of gas that appear to orbit the galactic center. This remarkable observation is the closest look yet at our galactic supermassive black hole and, at the same time, offers new opportunities to test the laws of physics.
The point of no return
To image things in the vicinity of Sagittarius A*, the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, researchers looked to the GRAVITY project. Using a special technique called interferometry, four eight-meter-wide telescopes at the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile were combined to produce images that only a hypothetical telescope as large as entire countries could produce. By the same technique, in the future, a ‘planet-sized’ instrument called the Event Horizon Telescope hopes to produce an actual image of a black hole.
The new observations measured the brightness and position of infrared flares in the vicinity of Sagittarius A*. These flares actually trace a tiny circle in the night’s sky, the researchers found, moving clockwise.
Yepun telescope, part of the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) Very Large Telescope.
These kinds of outbursts had been detected before. However, this was the first time that astronomers precisely measured the flares’ positions and motions before they dissipated. Each flare moved at about 30% light speed in a 45-minute orbit around what we can only suppose is a black hole.
Earlier this year, the same team measured the relativistic distortion of light from a star, S2, during its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.
These hot spots might be produced by shock waves in magnetic fields, much as solar flares erupt from the sun. Due to the immense gravitational forces present in the vicinity of the black hole, space-time itself is twisted into something resembling a lens, which causes these hot spots, circling at 30% the speed of light, to flash beacons of light across the cosmos. And by further studying these flares, researchers hope to tease out the black hole’s spin or rotation.
All of this, of course, assuming Einstein’s general theory of relativity is correct, which implies that the orbits of objects around a black hole are determined solely by the black hole’s mass and spin. If not, then the theory might need some refinement to accommodate for any observed inconsistencies.
Terry Powell commented: “Perhaps Mars is being terraformed to enable rich and so-called elite to move to Mars when disaster strikes the Earth.”
It makes you wonder if NASA is already getting ahead of this and editing this plume out
Tyler Glockner, Secureteam10
Ryan O’Malley said: “Maybe the secret government is terraforming the planet by sending nukes to melt the ice so it can support the breakaway civilisation.”
And Rob Bowen said: “Governments should stop hiding things from the people that pay for their things.
“We are the investors and they should not be hiding things.”
Aliens on Mars: The white streak was photographed near a dead Martian volcano
Aliens on Mars: The European Space Agency said the plume is a cloud of evaporated ice
However, according to the ESA, the “smoke plume” does not in any way prove to alien or volcanic activity but is instead a giant cloud of evaporated ice water.
The “elongated cloud formation” was snapped hovering near the 12-mile-high (20km) Arsia Mons volcano near the planet’s equator.
The space agency said: “In spite of its location, this atmospheric feature is not linked to volcanic activity but is rather a water ice cloud driven by the influence of the volcano’s leeward slope on the air flow – something that scientists call an orographic or lee cloud – and a regular phenomenon in this region.”
The Martian cloud was snapped on October 10 by the Mars Express mission with the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC).
In June 1984, American Psychology magazine posed a question to its readers: “Do you believe in UFOs?” 50% of respondents said yes. A decade earlier, only 40% of respondents to the same question in a Roper Poll had replied in the affirmative. While it is impossible to accurately account for this apparent 10% increase in belief, it seems reasonable to speculate that Hollywood played a significant role. Spielberg’s iconic UFO movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind had been released to huge acclaim and box-office success in 1977. Inspired by the research of UFOlogists like J. Allen Hynek and fuelled by Spielberg’s own life-long obsession with flying saucers, Close Encounters was the most ufological movie ever made, and it treated its subject matter with respect and gravity. More importantly, and in stark contrast to the majority of Hollywood’s alien-themed output in the past, Spielberg’s film dared to present aliens as creatures of benevolence and wonder—not as invaders, but as saviours. Spielberg struck gold again with the alien saviour concept in 1982 with his blockbusting E.T.: The Extraterrestrial, which rapidly became the most successful film of all time and spawned numerous movies in the same vein throughout the 1980s.
Spielberg’s ‘Close Encounters of the Third Kind’ (1977).
Two months after the June 1984 American Psychologymagazine reader poll revealed that fully half the country believed in UFOs, the closing ceremony of the Olympic games in Los Angeles demonstrated just how deeply UFOs and aliens had become ingrained into the American psyche—and the extent to which they had become inseparable from cinema.
The highlight of the Olympic closing ceremony that year was the staged landing of a giant flying saucer and the subsequent emergence from within of a space alien (friendly, of course) who then officially declared the games closed. In an awesome spectacle clearly inspired by the final scenes of Spielberg’s Close Encounters, the Olympic saucer communicated with the awestruck crowd below through a series of elaborate light shows, the orchestral music swelled to a crescendo, and the UFO descended to rapturous applause. It was a sight both bizarre and magnificent to behold.
Bizarrely, the event has since become the subject of conspiratorial musings in the UFO community. For years, UFO buffs have speculated that the Olympic UFO of 1984 was not a prop suspended by a helicopter, but a real flying saucer—either manmade or alien—owned by the US government and flaunted on the world stage for all to see. This idea can be traced back to Bill Cooper, author of Behold a Pale Horse, which, since its publication in 1991, has become a sort-of bible for conspiracy theorists.
In an undated interview from the early-1990s, Cooper remarks of the Olympic UFO:
“Well, it wasn’t held by a helicopter. There’s no helicopter up there holding this thing. They tell you that, but it’s not true. Can you imagine the liability that they would have if they were carrying this thing suspended on a cable underneath a helicopter over the heads of hundreds-of-thousands of people?”
Cooper then states his belief that “there was no helicopter, there was no cable,” and that the UFO was “operating under its own power.”
In his 1991 book, Cooper contended that the US government had, for decades, been working covertly with alien intelligences and that it had in its possession highly advanced technologies, including flying saucers, both manmade and extraterrestrial. He also believed that the powers that be were planning on exploiting the alien presence by staging a false flag alien invasion in order to usher in martial law and establish a one-world government. Cooper died in a shootout with sheriff’s deputies at his home in Eagar, Arizona in 2001 following charges of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon and endangerment stemming from disputes with local residents. Many in the conspiracy community today are convinced that Cooper’s death was orchestrated by the New World Order because his work was too close to the truth.
In light of his well-established position that the global elite were planning a false flag ET invasion, Cooper’s statements about the Olympic UFO being real led many of his followers to believe that the 1984 Olympic closing ceremony was a test of public reaction to an alien landing, and a rudimentary dry-run for a spectacular and devastating false-flag event that was thought to be in the pipeline.
If you’re one of the people who believe Cooper about the Olympic UFO, prepare to be disappointed (or, perhaps, relieved).
It’s been known for years by anyone who has ever taken a few moments to do some digging (which apparently excludes most UFO conspiracy theorists) that the 1984 Olympic UFO was actually the work of the celebrated Disney ‘Imagineer’ Bob Gurr, who is credited with designing most of the original attractions at Disneyland.
In 2004, Gurr wrote an article for Designer Times, in which he describes in detail the time and effort that went into creating the Olympic UFO spectacle. Gurr remembers vividly the reaction to his finished product on the night of the ceremony as his UFO descended from the sky:
“An audible gasp swept the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum… Was it real? Some of the 92,000 onlookers certainly thought so. Millions of worldwide TV viewers stared in amazement….was this really happening? Or just more of what the entertainment capital of the world does for everyday life.”
Gurr then goes on to answer his own question as he recounts the origins of the project and how it all came together. Originally, the ceremony was to be produced by Disney, but, when the entertainment giant was unable to furnish a budget on time, the reins were handed over to David L. Wolper (producer of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory). Tommy Walker, who had been Director of Entertainment at Disneyland, was enlisted as Director of Ceremonies. It was Walker who suggested that a flying saucer be featured as the highlight of the 1984 ceremony, and it was Walker and Wolper who enlisted the services of Bob Gurr has head designer on the contract, which was won and carried out by Plainview of Hollywood.
Snapshots of the “UFO landing” at the 1984 Olympics closing ceremony.
The task was to create a flying saucer 50 foot in diameter fitted with hundreds of special lights. With only two months to go before the August 12, 1984 show night, the work began. “The wild contraption I envisioned got drawn up and built at a furious pace,” writes Gurr in his article, noting that the saucer had to carry a lot of equipment and also needed to be light enough to be carried by a Bell 314 big-lift Helicopter:
“So I made an outer ring of welded aluminium truss sections all pulled together by cables to a center triangular frame. This was inspired by the extremely light construction of the 1930s Hindenburg Zeppelin. The saucer looked like a slice out of the Hindenburg turned sideways.”
According to Gurr, the center frame of the saucer carried a 90 KVA 208 3 phase gas turbine generator, and, for its spectacular light display, the saucer used three-hundred-and-sixty 600 watt Ray Lites, a Pichel Industries 7K Xenon searchlight, plus “a whole bunch more lighting gizmos totalling 432 items using 238,200 watts… but not all at once!” The wiring alone stretched 1.5 miles. The total ready-to-fly weight was 3,689 pounds.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum during the 1984 Olympics.
Finally, after just five weeks of work, and only nine days before the show, the Olympic flying saucer was assembled and ready to fly. And fly it did—into the imaginations of the millions who watched it live, including Bill Cooper, and, in turn, numerous online conspiracy theorists who became convinced that the global elite had, that sticky August night in 1984, given us a tangible glimpse of their hidden world. The reality—that a handful of talented and determined individuals had grafted hard and fast to create a Hollywood illusion—is far less exciting than the conspiracy, but impressive nonetheless.
“But wait, what about the alien?” you may ask. The one who made his entrance in the stadium that night and greeted humanity. Shockingly, he too was of this Earth. Inside that alien costume was George Bell, a former basketball player with the Harlem Wizards and Harlem Globetrotters and, at 7 feet 8 inches, the former tallest man in the United States.
So, move on people, nothing to see here. Except, maybe, just maybe, the whole Olympic acclimation theory shouldn’t be thrown out with the rubber alien. The original contract was, of course, intended for Disney, and, ultimately, it was Disney’s chief Imagineer who realised the vision. This provides at least some food for thought in the context of Disney’s long and intriguing history with the UFO subject, which involves at least one instance of the entertainment giant working with officialdom allegedly for purpose of testing public reaction to alien reality. If you don’t already know the full story behind this, get comfy, put on your tinfoil hat, and discover The Inside Story of Disney’s Mythic UFO Documentary and Conference…
What if UFOs are trying to be seen? What if they’re desperate to be noticed? What if they’re alien long-haul truckers stuck here with a broken mothership and the only barrier between them and the their space-homes and space-children is an inability to work a can of WD40? Maybe all they’re after are some reading lessons. They’re flying around up there, going “hey look, look at me! help!” and we’re so thick-headed we shrug and say “I dunno bro, looks like a balloon.” What other reason could there be for some of the stunts these guys pull?
Take the case of this video. It purports to show a group of small UFOs “escorting” a large UFO through the skies over the Hague. If you don’t know, the Hague is the governmental seat of the Netherlands, one of the cities used for UN meetings, and home to the International Criminal Court and the International Court of Justice (among many other fancy and important institutes of geopolitics). Imagine being so desperate for attention that you and your friends drive to the International Court of Justice—which sounds like an allegory for committing war crimes but, I assure you, it’s just a cheap joke.
Maybe the aliens would get more attention if their ships had a little more style?
If this footage is real then they clearly want our attention, but that’s a dubious claim at best. It’s a stronger case than some UFO videos (like when it’s obviously window glare or the videographer clearly hasn’t accepted that drones exist), but that’s not saying much.
The video shows a group of seemingly black objects flying at matched speed and in what looks like a sort of formation. One of the objects stands out as much larger than the rest, and does appear escorted by the smaller ones. Appeared is the operative word here. Perspective is a heck of a thing, and what we’re likely seeing is an object that’s closer to the camera than the others.
One person in the comments section suggested that it was a group of bats. Bats are normally known for twitchy aerial acrobatics, but some bats can soar. The Hague does have a thriving population of bats, as does the rest of the Netherlands. But whatever the video shows soar smooth, stable and effortless at a high altitude. They don’t really look like bats. Why not birds? The shapes are very dark and the larger one does seem more like a singular shape than it does a bird with wings and a tail but, once again, perspective is a heck of a thing.
This might be falling into that same old thick-headed trap, justifying the alien field trip to the International Court of Justice. After all, it is an unusual looking group of flying objects and, without the credentials or evidence to really make a judgement call here, it could be named a group of unidentified flying objects. It’s a safe bet that the unidentified part would be solved by better video quality.The next time aliens leave a crop circle for us it’ll probably be lined with HD cameras and zoom lenses.
Sprawled out over approximately 350,000 square miles of the African countries of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa is a vast expanse of arid, sandy savanna wilderness known as the Kalahari Desert. The word “Kalahari” comes from the local Tswana word Kgala, meaning “the great thirst”, or Kgalagadi, meaning “a waterless place,” and the Kalahari Desert certainly looks the part, with immense swaths of land that look like something from some inhospitable alien planet, all twisted scrub, gnarled dead trees and contorted rocks, and shifting red sands devoid of any source of water. This is for the most part a forbidding moonscape of a place, and it was long a domain that may as well have been on another world for outsiders, yet in 1885 one of the first Westerners to ever set foot within these badlands ventured out into an uncharted area of the Kalahari Desert and would lay eyes upon a great mystery that still remains unexplained.
The expedition was carried out by a American explorer and entertainer from New York by the name of William Leonard Hunt, who in his native land made a living performing death defying stunts such as tightrope walks over the Niagara Falls, as well as exhibiting African bushmen like a human zoo, and usually went by his alias Guillermo Farini or “The Great Farini.” In February of 1885, he set out from Cape Town South Africa, along with a contingent of fellow adventurers, some native guides, and his son, Lulu. The goal of the trip was not particularly noble, they were not there to map out a new realm of the planet or catalogue its new plants, animals, and people, but rather they were there to get rich by seeking out diamonds, which Farini had heard the region was brimming with. The adventurers penetrated out into an area of the desert never before seen by the outside world, and when they returned they did so with quite the tale to tell.
The Kalahari Desert
Upon his return to civilization, Farini immediately went about compiling a report of his findings, which he presented to the Berlin Geographical Society in 1885 and the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain in 1886, shortly after followed by a book on what he had seen and experienced out in those sun scorched wilds, titled Through the Kalahari Desert. One of the main events of these reports and the book was an account of coming across the ruins of some what looked to have been a once great city out there half-buried in the blood reds sands, and which he estimated to have been thousands of years old. Farini would write of this enigmatic lost city:
We camped at the foot of the mountain – near a rocky ridge, which looked like a Chinese wall after an earthquake – it was the ruins of a huge structure, sometimes sanded in. We carefully inspected the ruins almost a mile long, they were a pile of huge hewn stones, and Here and there, the traces of cement were clearly visible between them … In general, the wall had the shape of a semicircle, inside of which, approximately forty feet apart, were piles of masonry in the shape of an oval or a blunt ellly The height of a foot and a half … As all of them were to some extent sanded, we ordered all our people to dig out the largest of them (and this work clearly did not suit them) and found that the sand had protected the junction from destruction.
Excavations took almost the whole day, which caused a lot of indignation in Jan. He could not understand why it was necessary to dig out the old stones, for him this activity seemed a waste of time … We began to dig up sand in the middle of the semicircle and discovered the footwall of the twentieth wide, lined with large stones. The top layer was composed of oblong stones placed at right angles to the bottom layer. This bridge was crossed by another one, forming as it were a Maltese cross. Apparently, in the center of it was once some altar, a column or a monument, as evidenced by the preserved foundation – dilapidated masonry. My son tried to find some hieroglyphics or inscriptions, but did not find anything. Then he took a few photographs and sketches. Let the people who know better than me judge them by when and by whom this city was built.
In general, the ancient city was described as being quite extensive and immense, and Farini would speculate that some great catastrophe had wiped it and its people out, whoever they may have been. Considering that there was not known to have ever been any great civilization to have ever inhabited that region, and that it seemed to match stories the bushman of the area had long told of lost cities hiding out in the sands, the account grew a great amount of interest at the time, and the allure of some ancient lost people hidden away within the remote Kalahari proved to be romantic and irresistible.
A sketch of the Lost City
Fueled by the reports, the sketches, and the photographic evidence provided by Farini, there have been numerous follow-up expeditions to try and find the Lost City of the Kalahari, and to date there have been about 30 such expeditions launched over the years, none which have managed to find anything quite so spectacular as what Farini described, and some have come back doubtful of the truth of the story. One such prominent expedition was launched in 1964 by a professor named A. J. Clement, who followed what he believed to have been Farini’s original route and came across a very odd rock formation out in the desert that he believed was the very same one Farini had encountered and which could have been mistaken for something manmade, but which he concluded was merely an anomalous natural formation, most likely caused by the erosion of a particular type of igneous rock called dolerite. Indeed, Clement expressed doubt that the region could have ever supported such a legendary city at all, and would say of the Lost City of the Kalahari:
The climatological history of the Kalahari does not appear to have undergone any marked change for several thousand years, and it is obvious that no settlement of the size indicated by Farini could exist without perennial rivers or lakes in the vicinity. And, suitable conditions for the establishment of a city cannot have existed along any of the river courses for tens of thousands of years. Furthermore, if the age of the Lost City is assessed in relation to Zimbabwe and the ancient ruins of Persia, it is impossible to conceive of any in the Kalahari having been built more than 15,000 years ago.
Like all legends, that of the Lost City will be a long time a-dying, and doubtless there will still be some who are disinclined to let the matter rest in spite of all the contrary evidence. And possibly this is just as well, for there is something rather sad about the destruction of a legend.
Clement was right in the sense that there are many who have not let the legend die, and are still convinced the legendary city really does exist, with expeditions continuing all the way up the present and using new technology to help them. One recent search was carried out in 2013 by a crowd-sourced research project using Google Maps, called the Marcahuasi Project, which found anomalies in the desert that could be indicative of walls of the lost city, but it is still unknown if the images are of an ancient city, more recent abandoned irrigation circles for crops formed by the native tribes, or merely a natural formation.
Farini’s expedition in the Kalahari
Even more recently still was an expedition in 2016 by the Travel Channel series Destination Unknown, headed by explorer and host Josh Gates and equipped with state of the art technology such as aerial scans and radar. They managed to find some unusual rock formations that resemble walls and ruins, but again it is unknown if they are artificial or if they were really what Farini wrote of. One of the problems with locating the Lost City is that the area is just so remote and inhospitable, and this coupled with its sheer size makes it a formidable task to try and locate these alleged ancient ruins among the endless sands and desert scrub. Not helping matters is that Farini did not give very detailed descriptions of the actual location, and this is further exacerbated by the fact that the ruins are supposedly half buried. One member of one of the many expeditions that have tried and failed to find the city once lamented:
It’s all very vague. When you see this desert, you will understand that you can wander among the sand dunes for months and not even come close to the places where the lost city is located.
The Lost City of the Kalahari described by Farini has gone on to become a legendary, almost mythical place in the same realm as places like Atlantis, and there have been many theories as to its existence. Some think it is a real place, perhaps a city once built and abandoned by its creators due to a great drought or even that of a thriving lost civilization. Others, like Clement, think it is likely just misidentified natural rock formations. Still others point to Farini’s showman background, and claim that the whole report, the sketches, and even the photographs were likely faked, that it was all a big hoax. Considering that Farini is the only one to have documented the city in any appreciable way, and the vast stretches of harsh terrain involved, if there really is a city out there then it is very possible that it will remain buried and hidden, as it has for thousands of years and just might for thousands more yet to come.
A pair of Australian radio telescopes pointed at the same spot in the sky have revealed new clues on the nature of mysterious signals known as fast radio bursts.
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are extremely bright flashes of energy from unknown sources in deep space, and last only about a millisecond.
While the Australian SKA Pathfinder detected several such signals during its search, the Murchison Widefield Array observing the same region did not.
Scientists say the discovery is significant, suggesting fast radio bursts may only come across at higher frequencies.
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A pair of Australian radio telescopes pointed at the same spot in the sky have revealed new clues on the nature of mysterious signals known as fast radio bursts. The ASKAP managed to detect several fast radio bursts during its observation (artist's impression)
The researchers published the findings in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
The Curtin University-led Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) searches at lower frequencies than CSIRO’s Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP), the team notes.
‘When ASKAP sees these extremely bright events and the MWA doesn’t, that tells us something really unexpected is going on; either fast radio burst sources don’t emit at low frequencies, or the signals are blocked on their way to Earth,’ said lead author Dr Marcin Sokolowski.
The two telescopes in the Western Australian desert were pointed at the same area of the sky at the same time.
The ASKAP managed to detect several fast radio bursts during its observation. None of the FRBs, however, were detected at lower frequencies by MWA.
‘Fast radio bursts are unpredictable, so to catch them when both telescopes are looking in the same direction isn’t easy,’ said co-author Dr Ramesh Bhat.
‘It took many months of ASKAP and the MWA co-tracking the same area of sky, ensuring the best overlap of their views possible, to give us the chance at catching some of these enigmatic bursts.
‘The challenge was in making it all happen automatically, but it really paid off.’
While the Australian SKA Pathfinder detected several such signals during its search, the Murchison Widefield Array observing the same region did not
WHAT ARE FAST RADIO BURSTS AND WHY DO WE STUDY THEM?
Fast radio bursts, or FRBs, are radio emissions that appear temporarily and randomly, making them not only hard to find, but also hard to study.
The mystery stems from the fact it is not known what could produce such a short and sharp burst.
This has led some to speculate they could be anything from stars colliding to artificially created messages.
Scientists searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs) that some believe may be signals sent from aliens may be happening every second. The blue points in this artist's impression of the filamentary structure of galaxies are signals from FRBs
The first FRB was spotted, or rather 'heard' by radio telescopes, back in 2001 but wasn't discovered until 2007 when scientists were analysing archival data.
But it was so temporary and seemingly random that it took years for astronomers to agree it wasn't a glitch in one of the telescope's instruments.
Researchers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics point out that FRBs can be used to study the structure and evolution of the universe whether or not their origin is fully understood.
A large population of faraway FRBs could act as probes of material across gigantic distances.
This intervening material blurs the signal from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the left over radiation from the Big Bang.
A careful study of this intervening material should give an improved understanding of basic cosmic constituents, such as the relative amounts of ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy, which affect how rapidly the universe is expanding.
FRBs can also be used to trace what broke down the 'fog' of hydrogen atoms that pervaded the early universe into free electrons and protons, when temperatures cooled down after the Big Bang.
The latest findings put us another step closer to understanding the nature of fast radio bursts, which have perplexed astronomers since their discovery more than a decade ago.
‘It’s really thrilling to have a clue about the origins of these incredible bursts of energy from outside our galaxy,’ Dr Macquart said.
‘The MWA adds an important piece of the puzzle and it was only made possible with this “technological tango” between the two telescopes.
‘It’s an exciting development because it unites the two teams and it brings home the advantage of having the two telescopes at the same time.
‘Future coordination between the teams will also benefit other areas of astronomy, as complementary views from the two telescopes can provide a more complete picture of a situation.’
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Mystery of fast radio bursts deepens as new study finds they're invisible to many telescopes
Het mysterie van de onzichtbare radioflitsen. Astronomen zien iets totaal onverwachts gebeuren
Het mysterie van de onzichtbare radioflitsen. Astronomen zien iets totaal onverwachts gebeuren
Snelle radioflitsen worden sinds 2007 waargenomen. Over deze mysterieuze flitsen is maar weinig bekend.
Uit onderzoek is nu gebleken dat ze geen straling uitzenden op lage radiofrequenties, waardoor het nog lastiger zal worden om het raadsel te ontrafelen.
Australische astronomen richtten twee sterrenwachten gedurende langere tijd op hetzelfde deel van de hemel in de hoop snelle radioflitsen op te pikken.
Iets totaal onverwachts
De ene sterrenwacht detecteerde een aantal krachtige flitsen, maar de andere nam niets waar.
Het bleek dat snelle radioflitsen geen laagfrequente radiostraling uitzenden of dat die straling op de één of andere manier wordt geabsorbeerd.
“Dit zegt ons dat er iets totaal onverwachts gebeurt; snelle radioflitsen zenden geen straling uit bij lage frequenties of de signalen worden geblokkeerd op weg naar de aarde,” zei hoofdonderzoeker Marcin Sokolowski.
“Snelle radioflitsen zijn onvoorspelbaar, dus het is niet makkelijk om ze op te pikken als beide telescopen op hetzelfde gebied gericht staan,” zei coauteur Ramesh Bhat.
Het gaat hier om extreem heldere flitsen afkomstig van een onbekende bron in de diepe ruimte.
Ze duren slechts een fractie van een seconde en stellen astronomen al meer dan een decennium voor een raadsel.
Utah Artifacts Links Lady of Elche As An Anunnaki Queen, Video, UFO Sighting News.
Utah Artifacts Links Lady of Elche As An Anunnaki Queen, Video, UFO Sighting News.
One of the most enigmatic feminine faces of the history of humanity, is without a doubt the one of the Lady of Elche, that dates of the Iberian culture. And although his clothing reflects his high lineage, his identity is unknown. But the enigmas are gradually being cleared and the new hypotheses of the origin of this figure are at least surprising. Does the Lady of Ancient Sumeria come? Or, maybe it was an Anunnaki queen? A medal found in Utah (in 1966 USA), which has a lady engraved identical to that of Elche, (since the Lady of Elche has the same ritual ear-rings and necklaces), would reveal the connection of both relics, despite the vast distances between Elche and Utah.
Also the earmuffs were representative of Atlantis. In Bolivia (Peru) and in the Andes they have always been a trail of Atlantis, which had a capital on Lake Titicaca, a lake that is in the mountains and with Anunnaki remains. There are legends in the area of Venus men who visited the earth and had that type of earmuffs. Very interesting link from the medal to the statue...sounds like the mystery only deepens.
Mr Waring also noticed the black triangle appears to cast a shadow onto the clouds below, seemingly confirming his extraterrestrial theory.
He said: “The UFO is also throwing a shadow onto the cloud below, which is 100 percent amazing, because this means the UFO was freaking huge.
“I’m talking several times bigger than a 747.
“This UFO must have been cloaked because something this big would normally stand out like a sore thumb.
UFO news: Scott Waring claimed the UFO is larger than a Boeing 747
(Image: UFO SIGHTINGS DAILY)
“So I say the digital eye caught this because it is more precise of an instrument than our flawed eye which misses out on a lot of the spectrum.”
The person who originally took the UFO photo, noted the black triangle made no jet engine sound or other noise when it passed overhead.
However, this is not the first 'black triangle UFO' to be spotted over the US and is one of many annual sightings.
A declassified UK Ministry of Defence report on so-called Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) concluded most sightings can be explained by natural causes or misrepresentation.
UFO news: There is no evidence to suggest triangle spacecrafts are real alien technology
(Image: UFO SIGHTINGS DAILY)
The secret document revealed to the public in 2006 reads: “Considerable evidence exists to support the thesis that the events are almost certainly attributable to physical, electrical and magnetic phenomena in the atmosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere.
“They appear to originate due to more than one set of weather and electrically-charged conditions and are observed so infrequently as to make to unique to the majority observers.
“There seems to be a strong possibility that at least some of the events may be triggered by meteor-reentry, the meteors neither burning up completely nor impacting as meteorites but forming buoyant plasmas.”
Another popular conspiracy theory stipulates black triangle UFOs could be top-secret US Military aircraft, dubbed TR-3B.
Pieces Of A “UFO” Fell From The Sky And Landed In Remote Cambodian Village
Pieces Of A “UFO” Fell From The Sky And Landed In Remote Cambodian Village
Residents of a small, remote Cambodian village were woken up to quite an unusual – and somewhat dangerous – surprise last week when pieces of metal were seen raining from the sky. At the time of publication, officials are still stumped as to what could be the cause, leading some to believe extraterrestrial forces could be behind the incident.
In a statement sent to IFLScience, residents of Preah Vihear Province said they heard a loud sound around 6am local time. They ran outside to find dozens of pieces of aluminum weighing more than 40 kilograms (88 pounds) striking homes and causing damage across a 10-kilometer (6.2-mile) radius. Fortunately, nobody was injured.
''I heard a big noise in the morning. I was shocked and thought something bad had happened," said villager Sok Nol. “When I went to look there was one big piece in a field and other smaller pieces around. We thought an airplane had crashed but there was no big engine.”
Residents collected the wreckage and reported it to police, who were unable to identify where it came from. Yin Chamnan, police chief of Preah Vihear, confirmed that rubble had been recovered in the village, continuing that regional police have not been able to pinpoint where the pieces came from. The case will now be handed over to a team of specialists.
''We have found more than 17 fallen fragments of aluminum and rubber. But, we are continuing the search and are collecting further information from the people at the scene,” he said.
It has some thinking something out-of-this-world could be responsible.
''Now I think that it has come from space and landed in our village. It's confusing because nobody knows what it is,” said Nol.
Chamnan, however, has a different explanation: ''Maybe these fragments are parts of a drone that someone flew. The parts were not relatively big,” he said.
Villages say they awoke to the sounds of metal dropping around 6 a.m. local time on October 25. Viral Press
It's estimated the fragments weighed around 40 kilograms (88 pounds).
The fallen fragments damaged buildings over a 10-kilometer (6.2-mile) radius. Fortunately, nobody was injured.
Filer’s Files #43 – 2018 How to Communicate with ET - PART I
Olathe, Kansas Boomerang on Saturday night, October 20th, 2018
Filer’s Files #43 – 2018 How to Communicate with ET - PART I
In special reports, this week’s files cover: Astronaut Gordon Cooper saw UFOs, Wilbert Smith Tells How to Communicate With Aliens, UFO Spaceship Material Studied by Top Scientists, Weather Engineering, and Hyper Alarming’ Study Shows Massive Insect Loss
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena sightings were reported over Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Illinois <Kansas,, Louisiana, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington.
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena sightings were reported over Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Hungry, Italy, Mexico, England in the United Kingdom and Venezuela..
The Filer Research Institute feels the scientific study of UFOs is for the benefit of humankind and is an important endeavor. The US Air Force investigated UFOs publicly for more than twenty years under Project Blue Book; and I continue this advanced research. I believe the God of the universe has spread life throughout the cosmos and UFO’s are visiting us in ever-increasing numbers.
Forward these files to your friends and neighbors.
Astronaut Major Gordon Cooper Saw UFOs
One of the original Mercury Astronauts and the last American to fly in space alone. On May 15, 1963 he shot into space in a Mercury capsule for a 22 orbit journey around the world. During the final orbit, Major Gordon Cooper told the tracking station at Muchea (near Perth Australia) that he could see a glowing, greenish object ahead of him quickly approaching his capsule. The UFO was real and solid, because it was picked up by Muchea’s tracking radar. Cooper’s sighting was reported by the National Broadcast Company, which was covering the flight step by step; but when Cooper landed, reporters were told that they would not be allowed to question him about the UFO sighting.
Major Cooper was a firm believer in UFOs. Ten years earlier, in 1951 he had sighted a UFO while piloting an F-86 Sabrejet over Western Germany. They were metallic, saucer-shaped discs at considerable altitude and could out-maneuver all American fighter planes. Major Cooper also testified before the United Nations: “I believe that these extra-terrestrial vehicles and their crews are visiting this planet from other planets… Most astronauts were reluctant to discuss UFOs.” “I did have occasion in 1951 to have two days of observation of many flights of them, of different sizes, flying in fighter formation, generally from east to west over Europe.”
And according to a taped interview by J. L. Ferrando, Major Cooper said: “For many years I have lived with a secret, in a secrecy imposed on all specialists in astronautics. I can now reveal that every day, in the USA, our radar instruments capture objects of form and composition unknown to us. And there are thousands of witness reports and a quantity of documents to prove this, but nobody wants to make them public. Why? Because authority is afraid that people may think of God knows what kind of horrible invaders. So the password still is: We have to avoid panic by all means.”
“I was furthermore a witness to an extraordinary phenomenon, here on this planet Earth. It happened a few months ago in Florida. There I saw with my own eyes a defined area of ground being consumed by flames, with four indentions left by a flying object which had descended in the middle of a field. Beings had left the craft (there were other traces to prove this). They seemed to have studied topography, they had collected soil samples and, eventually, they returned to where they had come from, disappearing at enormous speed… I happen to know that authority did just about everything to keep this incident from the press and TV, in fear of a panicky reaction from the public.”read also: “Pioneering astronauts sees UFO“, Area 51 and Gordon Cooper’s confiscated Camera“, and “No Mercury UFO”
Filer’s Files ‘38
Wilbert Smith Tells How to Communicate With Aliens
In 1961 interview with television station CJOH, the former head of the official Canadian Government UFO investigations Wilbur Smith stated, “In 1950 I was attending a rather slow-moving broadcasting conference in Washington D.C. and found that the U.S. government had a highly classified project set up to study flying saucers. He was the Official Director of the Canadian Government’s UFO Investigation in 1950 for many years. He was one of the foremost communications experts of the day and worked as the chief radio engineer for the Canadian government. He was in charge of monitoring 50,000 radio frequencies in Canada, and ran the Top Secret “Radio Ottawa” where spies would radio in to intelligence services.
Have you communicated with aliens?
Smiths answer (A) “Some of the communications have been on a face-to-face basis but I have not been so honored myself. Some of the communications have been by ordinary radio, and I have received a few messages by this means. But by far the majority of the communications are by what we call Tensor Beam transmission, which uses a type of radio with which we are only vaguely familiar. However, the mental images of the person wishing to transmit are picked up electrically amplified and modulated into a tensor beam, which is directed to the person to whom the transmission is addressed, and within whose brain the mental images are recreated. The transmissions are therefore very precise, and independent of language. I have had some experience with these transmissions myself and can say that they are like nothing within the conventional experiences of earth people.”
They appear to be from another planet using flying saucers and the investigation of one saucer that fell in the US indicated it operated on some hitherto unknown magnetic principles. . I am convinced that they are just as real and tangible as most things we deal with in our everyday lives. I made enquires through the Canadian Embassy concerning the saucers: This is the most highly classified subject in the United State, rating higher than the H bomb. Flying saucers exist but their operandi is unknown but consecrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush..
Thousands of people have seen them, many under circumstances, which virtually preclude misinterpretation, many of these sightings have been coordinated with radar fixes. Photographs have been taken and physical evidence has been accumulated.
Q: Have you, you actually handled any material believed to be from a flying saucer? A: If by that you mean material substance showing evidence of fabrication through intelligent effort and not originating on this planet, I have.
I extracted this Question posed to Wilbert Smith from your Filer’s Files 38 post. The Tensor Beam article I found on the Internet. Being a “Novice” ham operator, it piqued my interest. This all ties into the stated “fact” that back in 1950, communications took place face-to-face as well as via radio using this Tensor Beam technology, even back then. I thought you might be interested in seeing this blurb. Thanks to Joe Foster
Tensor Beam to Communicate With Aliens
Wilbur Smith’s archive reports, The information leading up to the coil’s construction came from “topside” (aliens), and therefore I feel I have absolutely no property rights to it, and I would be most pleased if data could be published to an extent which would preclude future patentability..
We were told about a system which uses a radio transmitter as an energy source but has a special antenna converter, which radiates doughnut shaped waves, which are not time functions. Following are the construction instructions. One ferrite core, material with the highest permeability and dielectric constant, about 8 inches to a foot long, and about 1 inch in diameter. About 20 feet of plastic insulated #14 electric house wire. Starting at the center of the wire and at one end of the core, wind on the wire as closely as possible, with the first turn under and then over, so that the winding will be exactly symmetrical. It will start at one end of the core and finish at the other end and will resemble a solenoid with a bifilar winding. It is important that the winding be exactly symmetrical.
The size of the coil is not critical, nor is the winding beyond the fact that it must be symmetrical. Of course the combination determines the critical frequencies at which conversion takes place. Even if you use rods as small as 1/8 inch and wind with #36 wire it should work at reasonable medium high frequencies.
When measured on a radio frequency bridge, it shows very peculiar properties. There are certain frequencies at which it is impossible to balance the RF bridge, and that is a direct contradiction to what any electrical engineer will tell you should happen with a coil wound on a ferrite core.
This coil converts ordinary radio frequency energy into a tensor beam. It depends on the particular sample of ferrite and the selection of operating frequency and power. There is definitely an optimum frequency and a minimum power to generate the beam. Your best indication is when you feed a fair amount of power into the unit without it getting the least bit warm. If it does get warm, you are doing something wrong. Incidentally, I am talking in terms of at least 100 watts RF input.
Apparently the hole down the center of the core is necessary for its proper functioning, as is an adequate power input. It will take a kilowatt comfortably, without heating at all, and we know that it will work on 100 watts, but it won’t work for us on 30 watts. It just gets hot on the lower power! I don’t know what the lower cutoff power is.
The main point is to find the frequencies at which it will “convert” ordinary radio energy into tensor energy. At these frequencies it is possible to send a kilowatt or more into the coil without it showing any tendency to get warm. Under these conditions a small but real tensor beam is being generated, and with which an expert operator can accomplish a great deal. I can’t tell you how to find the critical frequencies because each coil and ferrite core have different values, but trial and error will disclose them eventually There are several for each unit.
With regard to the antenna, this gadget isn’t actually an antenna but we call it that. It generates a special type of wave, which is not a hertzian wave. It more closely resembles the waves which follow nerves.
When connected to a transmitter, treat it as any normal antenna for loading and tuning. There will be a few points of magnetic domain resonance which will be loss, but anywhere else the device will generate the required waves. It will not matter whether or not the antenna converter is shielded as the doughnut waves go through anything. The most remarkable property of this system is that the waves can be directed mentally.
I think you might be a bit hasty in dismissing “telepathic” communication with these people from elsewhere, since I know that the system they use does resemble telepathy to some extent, but it actually is electrical, even though they have cut out most of the intervening equipment such as microphones, earphones, vocal cords etc. I have generated this energy in the lab, but I am not smart enough to do anything with it; I only know that it exists, and the boys from topside admit that it is what they use.
The tensor beam I have found to be quite unmanageable. I can generate it OK but can’t make it do much for me. You see, it is identical with the energies associated with the life functions in the human body and accordingly can be incorporated and directed with them, by mental control, by experts! I hope someday to be able to do it, but I am informed that it takes at least 10 years of concentrated training for the experts to learn how to do it.
The principle of this antenna is quite simple. It emanates doughnut shaped waves. Since the energy content is microscopic, the mass equivalent is very low and consequently they can be “budged” easily. In fact, they can be mentally directed quite easily, when once one has mastered the trick.
In construction, the antenna is merely a rod or tube of Ferrite, or Ferro cube, which has a high permeability, high dielectric constant and reasonably low loss at radio frequencies. On it is wound a winding of such type that turn by turn it is completely symmetrical, and progresses from one end to the other.
I have played a bit and found some extraordinary properties, one of which confirms the mathematics that the waves which this converter generates are not like Hertzian waves and do not depend on propagation for their continued existence. Consequently, I would have the idea that they would travel at whatever speed the sender could decree.
Some time ago we tried radio contact with the saucer people on 19,940 kc, but without much luck. Apparently, they could hear us sweeping by their receiver settings, and we could hear a powerful station sweeping erratically across 19,940 but we couldn’t tune it in. They said that it was due to the unstable nature of the earth’s tempic field. If this is the case, then the doughnut waves should be the clear thing for communicating with them. They say that is what they use.
With respect to this time business, I hope that you appreciate the fact that time is actually a field, the operation of which on matter gives us an entropy scale which we call “time”. This field is very much like electric and magnetic fields except that it is at right angles to both. This appreciation is just beginning to seep through to the consciousness of a few bold souls in the field of natural philosophy. http://www.treurniet.ca/Smith/SmithCoil.htm
UFO Spaceship Material Studied by Top Scientists
Paul Harper in the Daily Star writes, The Stars Academy, a group of former Secret Service, US government workers and scientists, claims to have seven samples from a downed flying saucer. “Each sample represents different elements of potential Unidentified Aerial Phenomena and how they operate,” the academy said. Initial studies of the objects under the Adam Research Project have thrown up some incredible results, according to reports. It is said the material was released when the unidentified aerial phenomenon (UAP) was transferred to the Bigelow Aerospace Company. It is a space technology company that is known for its work on expandable space station modules. They are now working on space habitats for space agencies and corporate clients. They have a long history of working for NASA. Earlier this month the Founder of Bigelow Aerospace, Robert Bigelow, announced that he is planning a real estate empire in outer space. The FAA regularly sends UFO reports to Bigelow Aerospace.
Bigelow Aerospace, founded by entrepreneur and Ufologist Robert Bigelow, 73, worked alongside government workers including Luis Elizondo and it has been reported that materials and alloys from crashed UFOs was being stored at the company’s 50-acre headquarters on the northern edge of Las Vegas.
The New York Times reported last year that “Under Mr. Bigelow’s direction, the company modified buildings in Las Vegas for the storage of metal alloys and other materials that Mr. Elizondo and program contractors said had been recovered from unidentified aerial phenomena. “Researchers also studied people who said they experienced physical effects from encounters with the objects and examined them for physiological changes.”
Alien Tech Revealed: US Government Insider Explains How UFOs Fly
Paul Harber states,-Pentagon UFO Investigator Luis Elizondo claims, “We may not be alone. He used to run the top-secret Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program (AATIP), which investigated flying saucers. This groundbreaking program, which had a budget of $ 20 million allocated to it annually by the Department of Defence, was run in the Pentagon’s C RING in Washington DC. Former Nevada Senator Harry Reid pushed for its creation in 2007. Stunned US navy pilots observed a “whole fleet” of UFOs that were “going against” a 120 knots wind – in one AATIP case from 2015.
Former Pentagon intelligence official Luis Elizondo has investigated UFO reports and recently spoke at the Cherry Hill, New Jersey MUFON Conference, Advanced sensors revealed the unknown object had no propulsion system and slowed to a near stop before rotating, it is claimed.
Now Elizondo has lifted the lid on what he claims has been learned through the Pentagon program about the seemingly out-of-this-world capabilities of UFOs. He said: “I think we’ve come very close to understanding the physics of how it works, and that’s very exciting.”.
“For the first time, we have a compelling picture that what we are seeing is explained in our current understanding of physics, advanced physics, and quantum mechanics.” US defense department acknowledge UFO rotating against the wind. Incredible footage emerged last year of a sighting involving the battleship USS Nimitz in 2004 in the Pacific off the San Diego coast. Two US navy pilots, Commander David Fravor and Lieutenant Commander Jim Slaight, watched in amazement as a cylinder shaped object appeared suddenly at 80,000 feet before hurtling towards the sea and stopping at 20,000 feet.
When they approached for a closer look, the 40 foot long object “accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen”, said Cdr Fravor. And now Elizondo believes that they may have an explanation for how UFOs achieve such extreme speeds.
“We do believe all these observables we’ve been seeing, sudden and extreme acceleration, hypersonic velocities, low observability, trans medium travel, and last but not least, positive lift, anti-gravity – is really the manifestation of a single technology,” Elizondo said. “So it’s not five exotic technologies we’re trying to figure out, it’s one. and we think we know that one too.”
Scientists employed by Bigelow Aerospace including a physicist named Dr Hal Puthoff came to the conclusion that the craft can effectively create their own time-space bubble, which allows them to fly at such incredible speeds. “We believe it has to do with a high amount of energy and the ability to warp space-time, not by a lot, but by a little,” said Elizondo.
Elizondo claims he worked on the highly-sensitive project until October last year until he resigned over excessive secrecy and internal opposition”. He believes the existence of extraterrestrials would be “beyond reasonable doubt” if it was ever discussed in court. Dr Michio Kaku –
Mark McCandlish writes, I’ve been following these developments for quite some time in connection with weather engineering programs that have been denied to exist.
The use of Aluminum Oxide nanoparticles are being used in some jet fuels as a combustion enhancement. The evidence for this use is the so-called persistent contrail or in the vernacular, “chemtrail” that has been on the upswing since about year 2000.
Aluminum Oxide nanoparticles, (Al2O3np) were originally proposed in a NASA presentation first published about the same time can be used in cloud seeding operations and can also be used as “weather forcing aerosols” through bombardment or “painting” with microwave emissions that are absorbed by these nanoparticles causing them to heat up and result in massive convective cell action, leading to the production of storm systems and afford the control of conveyance and distribution of precipitation.
In studying this material in the OSHA Material Data Safety Sheet, I extended this investigation to the Journal of Aquatic Toxicology, where I found a paper documenting the harm these nanoparticles render in fresh water aquatic systems. In particular, these materials have a devastating effect on fresh water algae, and have a cascading effect throughout the food chain of organisms that depend on this organism and/or organisms that feed upon this organism.
Here in northern California, a local biologist I know has documented a 90% decline in fresh water aquatic invertebrates. Just a few years ago, the Summer evenings here were populated with clouds of
Note: The Aluminum Oxide nanoparticles may also be causing the heavy rain patterns and flooding occurring in many states.
Hyper Alarming’ Study Shows Massive Insect Loss
Bruce Cornet reports — Insects around the world are in a crisis, according to a growing number of long-term studies showing dramatic declines in invertebrate populations. The problem is more widespread than scientists realized. Huge numbers of bugs have been lost in a pristine national forest in Puerto Rico, the study found, and the forest’s insect-eating animals have gone missing, too.
In 2014, an international team of biologists estimated that, in the past 35 years, the abundance of invertebrates such as beetles and bees had decreased by 45 percent. In Europe, insect numbers are plummeting with a 76 percent decrease in flying insects in the past few decades in Germany..
“Everything is dropping,” Lister said. The most common invertebrates in the rain forest – the moths, the butterflies, the grasshoppers, the spiders and others – are all far less abundant.
“Holy crap,” Wagner said of the 60-fold loss.
Lister and Garcia attribute this crash to climate. In the same 40-year period as the arthropod crash, the average high temperature in the rain forest increased by 4 degrees Fahrenheit. The invertebrates that live there are adapted to a narrow band of temperatures and fare poorly outside them.
The loss of honeybees is crucial as they pollinate, fruits, vegetables, coffee beans, the herbs we use to season our foods, nuts, berries, cotton for clothing, clover and alfalfa which is the main feed for the cattle industry from which we get yogurt, milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, dairy and beef..
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Filer’s Files #43 – 2018 How to Communicate with ET - PART II
Filer’s Files #43 – 2018 How to Communicate with ET - PART II
UFO Sightings in the United States
Albuquerque— I had gone outside on my patio to smoke when I saw this object. The sky was clear when I sat down on my patio chair on December 6, 2016, I looked up saw this object and thought it was not the moon. It seemed to be vibrating so I quickly snapped these photos. The first came out bright so I took another touching my photo screen camera to make it clearer. I then analyzed the photo seeing it is not the moon. I then looked up and it had disappeared at 9:05 PM. I concluded it was strange and didn’t think much of it. Recently, it had came back up in conversation which has my analyzing the situation again.. I’ve done research online and on that date the moon was about 50% full illuminating my full circle photos. , Thanks to MUFON CMS
Arkansas Soil circle
Soldotna— On May 8th we discovered a circle in the back of our yard on the lawn, there were strange puncture holes and it just looked different from the rest of the lawn. Well throughout the summer the circle has remained and the vegetation grows differently within and on the perimeter. I’ve taken pictures throughout the summers. We have also had 2 sightings in the area within the 2 years prior to this. First sighting my spouse was the only one to witness but he did capture a photo. Second sighting we both witnessed it and it actually appeared about where he saw the first sighting but it came straight toward us and actually flew over our heads past our home northwards. It was silent the whole time I believe 3 lights on it, but we couldn’t make out a shape, which is weird, It was 500-1000 feet from the ground. That’s our experience, the circle in the lawn is still there and has been all summer. It’s just strange. That I have pictures of and the first sighting. Photos are May 8, 2018- August 14, 20, October 7, and 13, 2018. October 13 photo some kind of mushrooms are growing around perimeter. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Claremont — On September 9, 2018, I reported a UFO descending down into a field of view. I was filming MUFON case 95310v and noticed in footage a UFO was moving down faintly before that at 1:00 AM. Then I noticed it was moving up before moving down. In MUFON case 95719, and it nearly crossed paths with the airplane.
I now provide the full footage showing decent (faint) then direction reversal and ascent then direction reversal again and descent (bright) then nearly touches plane.
I was driving on my way to my house my brother and my nephew were with me in the car on October 14, 2018. Suddenly we notice these lights in the sky that resemble the ufos we have seen on the TV. We knew it was not manmade that’s why I drove to the side of the road and stared to record.
There were 6 orange orbs in 2 triangle formation but by the time I pull over they start to disappear. I was really surprised by this event since this is the second time I get to witness something like this but is the first time I have video proof.bThanks to MUFON CMS
‘Olathe — On Saturday night, October 20th, 2018, Granddaughter and I were in the back yard about 10:30 pm. For some reason, I looked into the sky and saw what I thought was a boomerang moving in a straight line faster than low hanging clouds. We stood and watched it move West and made a 75 degree turn to the south in 17 to 20 seconds.
. A couple of minutes later the same shape and color/composition, much higher up flew south in a 12 seconds or less. I looked online and found a picture someone else took that looks just like what I saw. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Lake Charles — On October 21, 2018. myself and 2 adult relatives(and 3 kids) were driving eastbound on Route 210 when we noticed a dark object in sky.
A family member took 4 photos and was unable to film as he said it doesn’t show up. It remained visible through the entire drive on Route 210. I am glad someone else saw it and filmed it. I am glad the other person made a report…I was considering not to. Case #95795 apparently has also filmed it as well. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Las Vegas— Came home from work saw the moon was out took out my Orion 6/6i and saw that on the back of the moon was a bright light.
In all the years I have been looking at the moon I never saw this. so I took my phone and mounted it to my telescope and starting video live on Facebook. after I review my video I saw it. Thanks to MUFON CMS
New Jersey Diamond
Wayne — We were in the house and heard loud noise October 21, 2018.
. We went outside and observed a red light in the southern sky. We jumped in the car and went to the area. We saw multiple police cars. Some from Wayne and other townships. We stayed there for 10 minutes and it did not move 1 inch. I We left and got back home. We heard shooting noises . They we heard fore works. This was no helicopter. Judge for yourself watch the video. Thanks to MUFON CMS
North Carolina Triangle
Winston-Salem=– I stepped out on the balcony just after 6 am on October 23, 2018,to see 50 feet above me a triangle moving at 15 mph going West with 4 huge tail lights flashing yellow-orange and red, randomly. There was a flashing red light on top as it flew out of sight. Another one was going North but 125 feet higher and directly above me came and moving about 25 mph. I saw still another one heading towards the first going 25 mph heading NorthWest. A forth one was seen one heading South at 350 feet. I called the Winston-Salem Police and gave my account at 6:15 am. At 6:30 am officer called but wouldn’t tell me if the military was in the area. Dogs were freaking out when this happened. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Oklahoma City — A friend of mine sent me a 30 second video from his security camera that was apparently triggered by a cat. About 10 seconds into the video, a blob of bright light appears in the lower right hand corner and no noise with a beam of light shining from above. It appears to move around on the ground a bit then appears to raise up into the light beam from above until it disappears from view at the end of the video. Things considered: 1) Helicopter search light but not as wide and dispersed as would be..
2) Drone flying overhead but nature of the light not consistent with a known source. 3) ” The equipment is reported to be in good working order. It’s uncertain whether this is an actual UFO in itself or a projection from something above. Possibly some other reports similar around same time/area will coincide. .Thanks to MUFON CMS
Salem — I was attempting to photograph the moon on this night of September 26, 2018.. It wasn’t till a week later on my computer I saw a blue object on the edge of the frame.
After enhancement saw there was actually two objects. Both are for sure not any known aircraft. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Manheim — My co-worker and I observed a silvery-white object high in the sky (over two miles) while we were looking North on October 24, 2018. It appeared to hover then slowly traveled west until it was out of sight after about 15-20 minutes. We were able to get a picture of it with a cell phone camera and upon reviewing the pic discovered a second similar object following behind it. There were no sounds or contrails to indicate it was a plane or other earth-based object. Initial reaction was that it was a drone or helicopter but determined it was too high in sky. We both believe we witnessed something extraterrestrial. The shape of the objects do not look like any known earth-based aircraft. We used a tool on the camera phone to circle the objects. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Dallas — We were driving across the In-wood bridge at 35 and In-wood and took many pictures back to back while driving at 50 mph across like we always do. We did not see anything until we looked at these pictures taken on September 3, 2018.
. The first time it looked as if it was flying across sky towards the east with a trail behind it and then it stopped and looks as if there was a beam coming out of it. Then a few weeks later, we took pictures again while coming across it again and caught another object just hovering there. It looks like a beam coming out of the bottom of the craft. We are not sure what this is, but when we saw it twice on a completely separate night then we knew something wasn’t right. I have not edited these pictures in anyway, but when I zoomed in, you can clearly see a dome like on this object.
Thanks to MUFON CMS
Oso— It was October 24th, at 5 PM, I was outside when I heard a humming noise. I looked up and saw an object above me, a dark colored object in the shape of a crescent, with an elongated tip on the front, the object headed east. So I ran in the house, grabbed my camera, and took a video of it. By the time I took a video of it, it was almost gone, but I did get a little bit of the object about one minute later, it came back in the opposite direction, heading west right over my head again, and it was gone. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Worldwide UFO Sightings
Argentina Ventricular UFO
On October 16,-2018, at 15:22 the flare aperture of an intense luminary was observed just below the crescent moon to the east” of the city and began a slow shift to the south “for about 30 seconds. The first few seconds of the event were very difficult, since when shooting in Canon Sx photography, it implies first setting the “fastest possible”, the linear focus of the objective in Infinity, for five seconds. The flare appeared that took a Orbital attitude, just below the moon, I managed to take the first picture at 12 Mp, then two more and finally a small fraction of video, where at least I enter the scene (the lenticula luminosa) in another four frames that could be extracted. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Porto Alegre— Photo taken at the airport of Porto Alegre on October 15, 2018 . Photographic appearance was only once. The object was on the horizon to the right and was observed in the form of a large white lentil. It was my wife who took the photo and I had not realized when I saw her, she had detected the anomaly. ‘Thanks to MUFON CMS
I received a Sony Cyber-shot 35mm camera for Xmas 2013. On New Year’s Eve 2013. I was spending time with my dog over looking Halifax Harbor, Canadian Naval Base when I saw 3 lights. One was bigger and closer than the other two. I began to take pictures as they came closer. They were getting bigger, closer very quickly. Then they completely stopped for about a minute. There was no noise as they moved directly over my deck and disappeared. I analyzed the photos in my computer. Conclusion: I have ruled out faulty camera; weather; airplanes; light show; military experiment, or hoax and am at a loss to what it was. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Lake Balaton — We live in Siófok and on 13 of August 2018. at 23:50 my son and I were lying on the trampoline. My son asked me: What a ….. is that ? and pointed north. In two seconds I realized what he saw… flying very fast and had no sound. It was about 200-300 meters high, rhombus shaped and had orange light. It was like when iron is glowing from heat. It was so big like my nail on my thumb. We saw it only for a few seconds because of a tree in the garden. We did not even try to make a photo. I posted it on FB, my friend’s wife that her husband had seen it. In October 2017. my wife and I saw a small sphere above the neighbor’s house. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Rome— I was on vacation in Italy, traveling by high-speed train an hour outside Rome to Naples. I snapped some photos of the passing landscape out the window during the course of the trip on June 4, 2018 When I returned home I downloaded the photos to my computer and was showing them to my husband. At one point he said, “What’s that up at the top of the screen? It looks like a UFO.” I
hadn’t even seen the object when I was snapping the photo. It appeared in a sequence of four photos as a stereotypical “flying saucer taken over a period of 12 minutes traveling speed of about 90 mph. That would mean we covered a distance of about 13 miles. “Thanks to MUFON CMS
San Pedro Garza Garcia — I was coming back home in the uber. When I get out from the uber I saw this object and it immediately attained my attention.
Photo was taken on September 9, 2018. Thanks to MUFON CMS
UK/England Triangle and Orbs
Enfield London –I saw a few UFOs in this area myself on October 22, 2018. I was hearing high pitched sounds that made me feel dizzy which is unusual for me, because I’m deaf. Considering the stress it has caused me and my cats with this incident I want to see if anyone else saw this craft and orbs that happened within hours of each other. It was around 7:20 pm, I was at home and I had a strong urge to look out of my window. I saw a low solid black triangle craft with three sets of dull white lights slightly cloaked as if to camouflage itself. I could clearly see the outline of this slate black triangle very faintly. It was huge about the size of a football pitch.
At 8 pm I saw this craft again but 40 minutes had been lost, as the ship glided away towards North London. At 2:35 am on my clock, I saw little sparkles of blue light floating around my living room,. My cats were alert and picked up on something being in my flat. I heard the high pitched noise again when the orbs appeared and was scared. In the morning my head and body felt pain and my wall clock had stopped at 8pm, When I was 6-7 years old and had encounters with beings negative and Positive. Thanks to MUFON CMS
Cabimas — I was at the west shore of Maracaibo Lake in in the Civic Center taking some pictures of a pier for loading oil to tanker ships. I noticed the object when I was reviewing the pictures the day after. When I saw the object in the picture, I assumed that it was a fliyng saucer due to the shape and the apparent size. The tower is on the right side of the picture and the object is near the left side of the tower top. I have captured this kind of objects in other occasions: 1.-Location and coordinates of the observer and the reference tower. 2. the picture with the object. CMS
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Since it launched in March 2009, the telescope identified over 2,600 planets outside of our solar system, and found that as much as half of the stars visible from Earth could be surrounded by small, rocky, Earth-like planets.
Running On Fumes
Back in July, it became clear that the Kepler Space Telescope was running low on fuel — NASA has since been planning a replacement to take over the iconic satellite’s ongoing search for exoplanets.
Though Kepler will no longer collect any more data, there’s still plenty of images for NASA and other scientists to examine.
Just like biologists continue to discover new species by examining the samples already found in museum collections, the data already gathered by Kepler could keep astronomers busy for years to come.
A broad team of Australian scientists just equipped the Anglo-Australian Telescope at Australia’s ANU Siding Spring Observatory with a new spectrograph called Veloce, which will help astronomers spot smaller planets orbiting dimmer stars than they could before.
In order to be warm enough to potentially support life as we know it, these particular rocky planets need to orbit pretty closely to their host stars. That’s because the stars that Veloce was designed to find, called M dwarfs, are dimmer than those that less-sophisticated telescopes can spot and analyze.
Because these planets are so close to their stars, the effects of their gravity on the stars’ path through the cosmos can be spotted as a distinct “velocity wobble.”
Veloce has already been used to confirm potential earth-like planets found by other research teams, such as NASA’s planet-hunting TESS satellite. As TESS spots possible planets, other astronomers race to analyze its data.
Veloce is particularly well-equipped to probe more dimly-lit reaches of space — and find out whether these planets resemble Earth and therefore mightbe able to support some sort of life.
THE AIR FORCE WANTS YOUR HELP GUARDING SATELLITES FROM SPACE JUNK
THE AIR FORCE WANTS YOUR HELP GUARDING SATELLITES FROM SPACE JUNK
There’s a whole lot of crap orbiting our planet: hundreds of satellites, an obscene amount of debrisand space garbage, a space station, one natural moon — you get the picture.
Now the U.S. Air Force says it needs to find a better way to keep track of it all, so it just launched a contest looking for new high-tech solutions — especially ones that help protect satellites from space junk.
Contestants don’t necessarily need to find a way to clear out the space crap — the Air Force just wants to know where all of it is so they can safely launch more rockets and satellites without fear of collision.
Archaeologists have discovered a mysterious tunnel and funeral chamber beneath the Pyramid of the Moon near Mexico City which was believed to represent a passageway to the ancient underworld.
The 15-meter-wide (50 ft) chamber, located around 8 meters (26 ft) under the surface is believed to have been used for sacred funerary rituals. An additional tunnel leading to the Plaza of the Moon was also discovered, opening at the southern end.
“These large offering (ritual) complexes are the sacred core of the city of Teotihuacán,” archaeologist Verónica Ortega from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) in Mexico said in a press release.
“All people considered it the mecca of civilisation, so what is found inside can help unravel the relationships this ancient metropolis had with other regions of Mesoamerica,” Ortega added.
Researchers from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) and the Institute of Geophysics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) discovered the passageways using an imaging technique called electrical resistivity tomography in the summer of 2017, but the findings have only just been announced.
At its peak, the city of Teotihuacan, 40 km northeast of modern-day Mexico City, was once home to 125,000 inhabitants. The population carried out human sacrifices to honor the gods, earn a bountiful harvest and good fortune in war. Further excavations at the site have yet to be announced, but researchers are optimistic they will turn up more exciting discoveries.
“In the excavations carried out in the tunnels under the main body of the pyramid, at the end of the 1980s, archaeologists Ruben Cabrera and Saburo Sugiyama found skeletons with deformed crania... along with various obsidian objects, so there’s a good possibility of making similar finds in this newly discovered tunnel,” Ortega said.
One of the biggest threats to Earth is nuclear war. Another of the biggest existential threats actually comes from our own sun.
A depiction of a coronal mass ejection, with Earth to scale.
Image credits: NASA / Goddard.
As a result of its magnetic poles reversing position, the sun goes through 11-year solar cycles in activity, appearance and other physical phenomena that have been observed for centuries. It is during these seasonal cycles that solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur. These CMEs spew massive amounts of X-rays, charged particles, and magnetized plasma across the solar system.
According to research scientist Dean Pesnell of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, we are entering a cyclical period when there are few if any sunspots and subsequent solar flares. However, the Sun’s activity should soon be on the rise again, as long as the Sun does not enter a “grand” minimum solar period.
During such periods, sunspot and solar flare activity diminish for days at a time. The date of the minimum solar period is calculated by taking the average of sunspot activity over 12 months. As a result, identifying the precise date of the minimum solar period usually happens six months after it takes place.
CMEs Can Interfere with Electronic Communication and Navigation Equipment
There are three classifications of CMEs based on the intensity of their emitted x-rays — C-class, M-class and X-class, the highest intensity category. To put this in perspective, one X2 CME on September 6, 2017, caused widespread blackouts and the loss of all electronic communications for up to an hour on the sunlit side of Earth. It also affected navigation equipment for as much as an hour afterward.
This event may not seem significant at first. However, earlier in the final days of October 2003, now known as the “Halloween Events,” there were extreme solar storms and flares so powerful that current detectors were oversaturated. The most powerful CME of that solar storm was classified as an X45. The effects were severe:
Sweden lost all electrical power for over an hour.
Several of NASA’s observation satellites failed temporarily or had to be disabled.
Japan’s ADEOS-II satellite was destroyed.
The U.S. global positioning satellite system was severely interrupted.
An X45 extreme coronal mass ejection has not struck Earth since 1859. During what is known as the Carrington Event, telegraph equipment in the affected area burned up as the result of this CME.
Currently, most of our solar flare warnings come from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), whose mission was recently extended to this December. However, SOHO was primarily designed to study the sun, not to report on solar flares and CMEs. It does only this as a secondary function.
The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), launched in October 2006, is another NASA solar observation mission. Two nearly identical observatories, STEREO A and STEREO B — one ahead of Earth in its orbit, the other trailing behind — trace the flow of energy and matter from the sun to Earth. This enables stereoscopic imaging of the sun and solar phenomena such as CMEs.
The STEREO mission has revealed the 3D structure of CMEs. Violent eruptions of matter from the sun can disrupt satellites and power grids, and studying these eruptions helps to understand why they happen.
However, in 2015, contact was lost for several months when the STEREO B spacecraft passed behind the sun. Later analysis of the telemetry concluded that the spacecraft was in an uncontrolled spin too rapid to be corrected. On October 11, 2016, recovery attempts ended.
STEREO A still is operational and collecting data from the sun. However, it is not collecting CME data.
CME Warning Equipment Could Be Stationed at Lagrange Points
There are five points between celestial bodies such as the Earth and the sun, called Lagrange (L) points, where the orbital angular momentum and gravitational forces all balance. That allows objects to be parked there indefinitely. Positioning warning spacecraft at some of these five Lagrange points would optimize the time between CME detection and when the CME would reach the Earth.
L1 lies about one million miles from Earth. L1 is currently occupied by the Deep Space Climate Observatory and has an uninterrupted view of the Sun.
L2 also lies a million miles from Earth, but in the opposite direction of the sun. At this point, a spacecraft can get a clear view of deep space. NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is currently at this spot, measuring the cosmic background radiation left over from the Big Bang. The James Webb Space Telescope will move into this region later in 2018.
The third Lagrange point, L3, lies behind the sun and opposite Earth’s orbit. For now, science has not found a use for this spot mostly due to cost concerns. The complete configuration is depicted below:
L1, L2, and L3 are all unstable points with precarious equilibrium. Spacecraft must make continual slight adjustments to maintain their positions at these points in space.
L4 and L5, however, are stable, “like a ball in a large bowl,” according to the European Space Agency (ESA). They provide a unique view of streams of charged material heading toward Earth, which allows scientists to better measure the speed of the coronal mass ejections headed toward Earth.
Currently, spacecraft parked at L1 offer only a four- to six-hour warning of a CME. A warning spacecraft parked at L4 or L5 could provide as much as 15 to 17 hours of warning. However, power-grid operators need at least one full day’s warning to prepare for a Carrington-type coronal mass ejection.
The ESA plans to launch a satellite to L5 in 2023 at the cost of almost half a billion dollars.
The bottom line is that within two years, we will have no operational systems in space watching for coronal mass ejections headed for Earth.
CMEs Are Capable of Widespread Damage
The destruction from a massive Carrington-type CME would be widespread, starting with all satellites in Earth orbit. Various GPS satellites would likely be destroyed or disabled for an unknown period of time.
Also, all navigation systems would be adversely affected. Such a CME could easily inject a trillion-watt current into electrical grids, effectively frying them.
We saw a sample of this damage in 1989 when eastern Canada’s power grid was knocked offline. All airborne aircraft would be at risk from radiation and electronic surges. Also, the International Space Station could be at risk depending on its position at the time of impact. Sewage treatment plants, air conditioning units in buildings and homes, gas station pumps, and media transmissions would all be knocked offline for an undetermined amount of time.
A Carrington-type event today would plunge the affected part of the world into a brief dark era, possibly causing public panic. No one has estimated how many people might come down with radiation poisoning or even die from such a CME impact.
As a result, it behooves the U.S. government, NASA and the ESA to reprioritize their near-term programs to ensure that a solar flare detection system is in place and operational at L5 as soon as possible. After all, $500 million dollars is pocket change compared to $2-plus trillion in estimated damage.
NASA’s Parker Solar Probe has beaten a decades-old record for making the closet approach to the sun by of any man-made spacecraft.
Illustration of NASA”s Parker Solar Probe.
The previous record for the closest solar approach was set by the German-American Helios 2 spacecraft in April 1976. On 29 October 2018, at exactly 1:04 pm EDT (17:04 GMT), Parker moved closer than 42.73 million kilometers (26.55 million miles) from the Sun’s surface.
Parker is set to break other records soon, such as the top heliocentric and geocentric speeds. In 1976, the same Helios 2 set the record for heliocentric speed (relative to the sun) at 246,960 kilometers per hour (153,454 miles per hour). Parker is expected to beat this record on 29 October at about 10:54 pm EDT.
What’s more, the probe — tasked with studying the inner workings of the sun — is expected to reach a staggering top speed of 692,017 km/h (430,000 mph) during its final pass around the sun, shattering any previous record for geocentric speed (relative to Earth). It won’t be until 2025 until this happens, however.
“Parker Solar Probe has been one of our most challenging missions to date,” said Omar Baez, Nasa’a launch director, when the probe first launched in August 2018. “I’m very proud of the team that worked to make this happen.We at Nasa and the Launch Services Program are thrilled to be part of this mission.”
The influence of solar activity on Earth and other worlds is known as space weather, but there are many mysterious aspects of it that are still unknown to scientists. This is what Parker is for.
For its mission, Parker carries a range of instruments that can study the sun both remotely and in situ (directly) — the kind of observations that might unravel some of the sun’s most well-kept secrets.
Of course, NASA has several specific questions it wants Parker to answer. One of them has to do with the mystery of the acceleration of solar wind — the constant ejection of magnetized material from the sun. Somewhere, somehow, this solar wind is accelerated to supersonic speeds.
Parker will fly straight through the corona — the sun’s atmosphere that extends millions of kilometers into outer space. The corona is scorching hot, reaching temperatures in the range of millions of degrees Celsius. However, the sun’s surface has a temperature of only about 6,000 degrees Celsius. This makes no sense at first glance: how is it possible that the surface of the sun is so cold compared to its atmosphere? Well, scientists hope that Parker might come up with an answer to this counter-intuitive conundrum.
During its closest flyby, slated for June 2025, Parker will be only 6.1 million kilometers (3.8 million miles) from the sun’s surface, where temperatures can reach millions of degrees Celsius. Meanwhile, Parker will complete 24 perihelions, looping between Venus and the Sun.
WETENSCHAPEnkele maanden voor zijn tiende verjaardag is het Kepler Space Observatory dood verklaard. De telescoop werd gelanceerd op 7 maart 2009 en ontdekte sindsdien meer dan 2.600 nieuwe exoplaneten. Kepler kan zichzelf niet langer richten op kosmische objecten of data naar de aarde versturen. Het werk van de legendarische telescoop zit erop.
Het Kepler Space Observatory cirkelde tien jaar lang net zoals de aarde in een baan rond de zon en speurde met zijn telescoop het heelal af op zoek naar andere exoplaneten (planeten die draaien rond andere sterren dan onze zon).
Sinds enkele maanden kampte de satelliet, die zijn verwachte levensduur al ruim overschreden had, met een nijpend brandstoftekort. De voorbije weken werd het steeds moeilijker om de telescoop op sterren te richten en mogelijke exoplaneten te identificeren. Nu komt er helemaal geen reactie meer. Kepler bevindt zich momenteel op zo’n 150 miljoen kilometer van de aarde en zal zich in een stabiele baan om de zon blijven bewegen.
‘Dankzij Kepler en zijn wetenschappelijke missie weten we nu dat planeten in onze Melkweg vaker voorkomen dan sterren’
Paul Hertz, directeur astrofysica bij NASA
Kepler speurde bijna tien jaar lang het heelal af op zoek naar dipjes in de helderheid van sterren: dat kan wijzen op het bestaan van een planeet die eromheen cirkelt. “Het was alsof je probeerde een vlo te detecteren die over de koplamp van een auto kroop terwijl de auto 160 kilometer verderop stond”, zegt NASA-wetenschapper William Boruki, die aan het hoofd stond van het eerste Kepler-wetenschapsteam.
De Keplertelescoop ontdekte meer dan 2.600 planeten buiten ons zonnestelsel en daarnaast nog zo’n 2.900 potentiële kandidaat-exoplaneten, waarvan de data nog verder moet onderzocht worden. Zo onthulde de satelliet het bestaan van rotsachtige planeten ongeveer zo groot als de aarde, waar leven mogelijk zou kunnen zijn. Kepler stootte ook op enkele superaardes: planeten die groter zijn dan de aarde, maar kleiner dan planeet Neptunus. Vorig jaar slaagde de satelliet er zelfs in om een zonnestelsel met acht planeten te identificeren, net zoals het onze.
“Het heeft ons begrip van onze plek in de kosmos compleet veranderd”, zegt Paul Hertz, directeur astrofysica bij NASA. “Voor we Kepler lanceerden, wisten we niet of planeten vaak voorkwamen of zeldzaam waren in onze Melkweg. Maar dankzij Kepler en zijn wetenschappelijke missie weten we nu dat planeten in onze Melkweg vaker voorkomen dan sterren.”
De Keplertelescoop concentreerde zich op sterren die duizenden lichtjaren van ons verwijderd zijn en toonde volgens NASA dat er statistisch gezien minstens één planeet rond elke ster in de Melkweg cirkelt.
In april werd de TESS-ruimtetelescoop gelanceerd: deze opvolger van Kepler concentreert zich op sterren dichter bij huis en identificeerde al enkele mogelijke planeten.
WETENSCHAPExact tachtig jaar geleden deed Orson Welles radioluisteraars geloven dat marsmannetjes op aarde landden. Tal van angstige luisteraars geloofden in het hoorspel en dachten dat het einde nabij was. Achteraf bleek de radio-uitzending deel uit te maken van fictiereeks “The War of the Worlds” waarbij wekelijks zulke uitzendingen werden gedraaid. Zou er vandaag de dag paniek uitbreken?
Op 30 oktober 1938 onderbrak een acteur de radio-uitzending met enkele verontrustende nieuwsberichten. Hij sprak met een dringende toon over “drie explosies” en “lichtflitsen” die afkomstig zouden zijn van marsmannetjes en hun ruimtevaartuig. De acteur voerde ook enkele getuigen op –althans dat leek zo want in feite waren het ook gewoon acteurs- die het drama dat zich afspeelde, omschreven. Daarbij werden termen zoals “UFO’s” en “vreemde wezentjes” in de mond genomen. Een hittestraal zou daarbij al tientallen mensen gedood hebben. Paniek.
Hoewel het programma doorspekt was met theatrale elementen, geloofden veel mensen dat het allemaal echt was. Krantenkoppen verschenen daags nadien en kopten: “Duizenden luisteraars renden weg van hun huizen in New Jersey en New York, velen met handdoeken over het gezicht als bescherming tegen de giftige gassen”. Latere studies suggereren evenwel dat de paniek veel minder groot was dan de nieuwsberichten destijds deden vermoeden.
Ruimtewetenschappers geloofden toen overigens ook al niet in een mogelijke invasie van marsmannetjes. Ze waren zich er van bewust dat de planeet niet in staat is om een beschaving van intelligente buitenaardse wezens te herbergen. “Tegen het einde van de jaren ’30 wisten we dat er weinig zuurstof was. Bovendien vonden we geen vloeibaar water”, aldus Seth Shostak, senior astronoom aan het SETI-instituut (search for extraterrestrial intelligence).
Sterker nog, de gewelddadige aflevering die Welles beschrijft en liet opvoeren tijdens de radio-uitzending, is verreweg het minst waarschijnlijke scenario voor een eerste ontmoeting tussen buitenaards leven en de mens. De wezentjes zouden immers niet alleen bestaan, maar ook op de hoogte zijn van de mens én in het bezit van technisch geavanceerde wapens.
Buitenaardse wezens afluisteren
SETI scant dagelijks het luchtruim op radiosignalen die geproduceerd worden door vormen van intelligent leven. En hoewel er waarschijnlijk veel minder intelligent leven in het universum is dan microbieel leven, zouden intelligente buitenaardse wezens hun aanwezigheid mogelijk over veel grotere afstanden kunnen uitzenden.
“Microben kunnen zuurstof in de atmosfeer maken, maar intelligent leven kan gigantische lasers of radiozenders maken, dus je kan ze, als ze bestaan, misschien wel vanop grotere afstand horen,” aldus Shostak. En natuurlijk vereist het vinden van buitenaardse signalen het eigenlijke bestaan van zo’n buitenaards leven, maar volgens Shostak is het slechts een kwestie van tijd.
Massahysterie of fascinatie?
Een soortgelijke aankondiging –als toepasselijk mopje voor Halloween- over ongewenst bezoek van buitenaards leven zou volgens Michael Wall, auteur van “Out There” (een wetenschappelijke gids over buitenaards leven), vandaag de dag eerder fascinatie dan angst opwekken. “Met al het nieuws over exoplaneten zijn mensen er klaar voor”, zegt hij.
Een eerste ontmoeting met E.T. zou dus een stuk minder beangstigend zijn dan de aliens die “War of The Worlds” aankondigde. Na de uitzending beweerde Orson Welles dat hij geen idee had dat zijn wezens met tentakels en vuurwapens zo serieus genomen zouden worden. Hij verontschuldigde zich: “Het was een schokkende ervaring om te beseffen dat ik zo’n wijdverspreide terreur had veroorzaakt.”
Joseph Mcmoneagle, one of the most successful Army-trained remote viewers, peered into the past to look into the possible origins of human history. He saw that we were created by intelligent beings in what he called a 'laboratory.'
Why is the mainstream story of human history still limited to Darwin's Theory of Evolution? Why have so many discoveries, like giants, and life on other planets, been completely concealed and brushed off as a conspiracy theory?
The true origins of human history remain a mystery, but that’s not what mainstream academia would have us believe. Since Darwin, human evolution and ‘the survival of the fittest’ has been pushed on the population as some sort of scientific truth, despite the fact that it remains a theory with multiple loopholes and ‘missing links.’ If you question it, in some circumstances, you are almost considered a nut.
This continues to happen in many different fields of knowledge; when you question beliefs that have been ingrained for so long you get a harsh response, and in some cases, you’re liable to be fined, put in jail or at the very least you receive tremendous amounts of hate and censorship. What we don’t hear about is the fact that there are several hundred scientists, if not several thousand, who have spoken up against the scientific validity of the theory of evolution. I recently wrote an article about more than 500 scientists coming together to reject Darwin’s theory of evolution and explain why it’s not really valid at all.
Our DNA Originated Somewhere Else
Even one of the founding fathers of DNA, Francis Crick, believed that human DNA must have originated from somewhere else in the galaxy, whereby “organisms were deliberately transmitted to earth by intelligent beings on another planet.” You can read more about that here. I also recently wrote about a paper that was publishedby 33 scientists in the Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology Journal suggesting that the flourishing life during the Cambrian era (Cambrian Explosion) originated from the stars.
“With the rapidly increasing number of exoplanets that have been discovered in the habitable zones of long-lived red dwarf stars (Gillon et al., 2016), the prospects for genetic exchanges between life-bearing Earth-like planets cannot be ignored. ”(The study)
There is a great little blurb from Cosmos Magazine, one of the few outlets who is talking about the study.
Serious inquiry into the origins of human history are not encouraged in the mainstream. Yet as we dig a little on what’s being done, there is a lot to find out, with new theories and discoveries that seem to be popping up every single year. Modern day education is hardly keeping up with this, and in fact continues to promulgate old theories and notions that have long been disproven. As a result, nobody beyond ardent self-motivated researchers are learning about new developments or have any knowledge of these viewpoints.
Opening Our Minds
The suppression of the discoveries of giant humanoid skeletons falls directly into this category, though the secrecy that wraps up the Smithsonian is a topic for another article. Suffice it to say that successful cover-ups of information are possible in part due to the phenomenon of ‘cognitive dissonance’, which speaks to the extreme discomfort that a piece of information that disrupts the worldview you grew up with can have on you. Many of us have and do experience this, including myself. In today’s day and age, it’s important to practice overcoming the discomfort to keep an open mind.
Consider entertaining new ideas without necessarily accepting them, just give them a chance to swirl in your mind a bit. With new information constantly emerging at a rapid pace in all fields, an open mind is what serves us best. If we stay closed and refuse to even look at or acknowledge evidence that contradicts what we believe, we will never advance towards actual truth, and simply be caught up in an agnostic state while never really getting to the bottom of the questions that are naturally on our mind.
The StarGate Program
The StarGate program was co-founded by Russell Targ (watch his banned TED talk about ESP here), Hal Puthoff, who is now a member of the ‘To The Stars Academy’ with Tom Delonge, and other notable names who have worked on Deep Black Budget programs within the U.S. government. They are currently spearheading an effort to let the American public know that UFOs are real and that there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, as Louis Elizondo says, “we are not alone, whatever that means.”
The StarGate program investigated parapsychological phenomenon like remote viewing, telepathy, telekinesis, and clairvoyance. The program yielded high statistically significant results and was used multiple times for intelligence gathering purposes. A lot of interesting information came out of the literature that was declassified in 1995 after the program ran for more than two decades.
It was a complete mystery why the program was shut down: remote viewing, for example, which is the ability to describe the physical characteristics at a given location irrespective of distance, was found to be repeatable, even more than findings in the hard sciences, with a success rate of over 80 percent. Remote viewing was how the rings around Jupiter were actually discovered by Ingo Swann before NASA was able to measure them. You can read more about that here.
To summarize, over the years, the back-and-forth criticism of protocols, refinement of methods and successful replication of this type of remote viewing in independent laboratories has yielded considerable scientific evidence for the reality of the [remote viewing] phenomenon. Adding to the strength of these results was the discovery that a growing number of individuals could be found to demonstrate high-quality remote viewing, often to their own surprise. . . . The development of this capability at SRI has evolved to the point where visiting CIA personnel with no previous exposure to such concepts have performed well under controlled laboratory conditions.”(source)
The Breadth Of Remote Viewing
There are examples in the literature, from remote viewers looking at classified Russian technology during the cold-war era, locating a lost spy plane in Africa and the prediction of future events. Yes, along with remote viewing comes the ability to view into the past, and view into the future. Obviously, this gets tricky, especially if we look at quantum physics, which works in tandem with parapsychology. In quantum physics, experiments have also shown how what happened in the past can change the future, and what happens in the future can change the past, on a quantum scale. You can read more about that here.
There were multiple people working within the Remote Viewing Program, which was conducted at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in conjunction with multiple intelligence agencies, and one of them was Joseph Mcmoneagle. Many of these people, after decades in the program, continued on with their research and experimentation long after the program was declassified. Joseph was one of the most successful Army-trained remote viewers, and one of the original members of project Stargate. He was actually awarded the Legion of Merit for “producing crucial and vital intelligence unavailable from any other source” to the intelligence community.
The Origins Of Humanity
In 1983, McMoneagle worked with Robert A. Monroe, founder of the Monroe Institute in Faber, Virginia, which provided basic out-of-body orientation for many of the military remote viewers. There, he conducted a session seeking to discover the origin of humanity. As the late great author and researcher Jim Marrs points out in his best selling book Our Occulted History points out:
During the 129-minute session, he described a shoreline on what appeared to him to be a primitive Earth. He later estimated a time of about thirty million to fifty million years after the time of the dinosaurs. Cavorting on this shoreline was a large family of protohumans-hairy animals about four feet in height, walking upright and possessing eyes exhibiting a spark of intelligence despite a somewhat smaller cranial capacity. Two things surprised McMoneagle in this session. These creatures appeared to be aware of his psychic presence, and they did not originate at that location.
McMoneagle described his experience in his 1998 book, The Ultimate Time Machine:
This particular species of animal is put…specifically in that barrier place…called the meeting of the land and the sea…I also get the impression that they’re…ah…they were put there. They mysteriously appeared. They are not descended from an earlier species, they were put there (by a) seed ship…no, that’s not right. Keep wanting to say ship, but it’s not a ship. I keep seeing a…myself…I keep seeing…oh, hell, for lack of a better word, let’s call it a laboratory, where they are actually inventing these creatures. They are actually constructing animals from genes. Why would they be doing that? Can we do this yet…here and now? Like cutting up genes and then pasting them back together. You know, sort of like splicing plants…or grafting them, one to another…Interesting, it’s like they are building eggs by injecting stuff into them with a mixture of DNA or gene parts of pieces.
He described these creatures as delicate-looking aquiline-featured humanoids, unclothed, in possession of a prehensile tail and large “doe-like” eyes. They seemed to be using some sort of light that McMoneagle had a hard time describing, but eventually described it as a “grow light.”
Marrs got the impression that it was like someone tending to a garden, and planting seeds, but “there isn’t any concern about the seeds after they are planted…It’s simply like…well…put these seeds here and on to better and bigger business. No concern about backtracking and checking on the condition of the seeds. They can live or die, survive or perish.” The session ended with him moving closer in time and perceiving these beings growing in size and ability, eventually becoming herding humans.
The surveillance of and interference with humanity is documented in the lore of almost all civilizations that have roamed the planet. Although some have called this mere ‘interpretation,’ it reminds me of people referring to the confirmation of spiritual and metaphysical realms as a result of quantum physics. It is simply labelled as an interpretation due to the fact that it upsets so many belief systems and long-held preconceived ideas.
The story of human history has a lot of holes. From the UFO extraterrestrial phenomena to the discovery of strange skeletal remains, to the rejection of Darwinism all the way to the existence of intelligence ancient civilizations like Atlantis, and others that thrived possibly millions of years ago, we are like, as author Graham Hancock coined, a species with amnesia. But perhaps we are starting to remember. Perhaps our only two explanations are incorrect, or perhaps they’re both correct, combined with other factors. The point is, what we’ve been told is not true, and the recognition of that fact will lead us on the path towards true discovery, and away from the concealment and manipulation of information and truth.
I’m not saying this is how humans are created, perhaps it is just some sort of glimpse into something much bigger that took place billions of years ago?
Is de mens gemaakt in een laboratorium? Officier vertelt wat hij zag tijdens het Stargate Project
Is de mens gemaakt in een laboratorium? Officier vertelt wat hij zag tijdens het Stargate Project
Het Stargate Project werd in 1978 in het leven geroepen door het Amerikaanse leger om onderzoek te doen naar parapsychologische fenomenen zoals remote viewing, telepathie, telekinese en helderziendheid.
Inmiddels zijn veel geheime documenten over het project openbaar gemaakt. Het is onduidelijk waarom het succesvolle project plotseling werd beëindigd.
Het Stanford Research Institute (SRI) en verschillende inlichtingendiensten experimenteerden met remote viewing.
Oorsprong van de mensheid
Eén van de mensen die deelnamen aan deze experimenten was Joseph McMoneagle. Hij was één van de meest succesvolle remote viewers.
Hij werd zelfs opgenomen in het Legioen van Verdienste, een Amerikaanse onderscheiding, omdat hij cruciale inlichtingen had aangeleverd die niet via andere bronnen verkregen konden worden.
Eén van de experimenten had betrekking op de oorsprong van de mensheid.
Gedurende een 129 minuten durende sessie zag officier McMoneagle naar eigen zeggen een kustlijn van iets wat leek op een primitieve aarde, zo’n 30 tot 50 miljoen na het uitsterven van de dinosaurussen.
Langs de kust zag hij protomensen, harige dieren die rechtop liepen en die ongeveer 1,2 meter lang waren.
Hij kreeg de indruk dat ze daar waren neergezet. “Ze stamden niet af van eerdere soorten, maar waren gemaakt in een laboratorium,” zei hij.
“Ik zie een laboratorium waar ze deze dieren maken met behulp van genen,” aldus McMoneagle tijdens de sessie. “Waarom zouden ze dat doen? Kunnen wij dat ook?”
“Het is alsof ze eieren maken door ze te injecteren met een mix van DNA of delen van genen,” klonk het.
Tegen het einde van de sessie zag hij hoe deze wezens steeds groter werden en over meer vermogens beschikten, en uiteindelijk mensen werden.
A triangular UFO that photographs show resembled a flying stingray was seen recently in Ohio near the site of a famous encounter 45 years ago between a UFO and a military helicopter – an encounter the military acknowledged but has never resolved. Have the aliens returned? Why was there no encounter this time? Or is it one of ours?
“It looked just like a sting ray and was all black. I have the original 2 photos of the craft as well as zoomed screen shots which show the craft in very plain view.”
This report comes from the site UFOStalker.com (includes five photos) which covers sightings on MUFON. The witness saw the UFO on September 3rd, 2018, and admitted that he was taking photos of a drill site with his father and neither heard nor saw anything unusual. However, they spotted the UFO in two photos taken no more than two seconds apart. Even under magnification, they admitted being unable to tell if the UFO was ascending or descending, but figured, because of the location of the pointy end, it was heading towards the Mansfield Lahm Air National Guard Base in the nearby city of Mansfield where the 179th Airlift Wing (179 AW) unit is stationed.
That’s where the story gets interesting. He claims the father showed the photo to “10-15 airmen from the wing” and none would admit to knowing what it is nor were any aware of unusual base activity on September 3rd. However, Perrysville is also the location of another report of a triangular UFO in 2016. Also, the witness claims that the photo becomes “distorted” when it is forwarded via email.
Then there’s the famous incident over Mansfield on October 6, 1973, when an Army Reserve helicopter with four crew members returning to Cleveland “encountered a near midair collision with an unidentified flying object” and filed an official signed report to their superiors. It has become known as the “Coyne/Helicopter” incident because the commander of the chopper was Major Larry Coyne, who retold the story numerous times.
“We were flying along at about 2,500 feet when the crew chief on the helicopter observed a red light on the east horizon. He then informed me that the light was closing on the helicopter — that it was coming at us on a collision course. I looked to the right and observed that the object became bigger and the light became brighter, and I began to descend the helicopter toward the ground, to get out of the collision course path. We were descending and this object was like a missile locked onto the helicopter, only it came at us on a perpendicular angle, to hit us almost broadside. It looked like we were going to collide with it and we braced for impact, and then I heard the crewmen in the back say, ‘Look up!’ and I observed this craft stopped directly in front of us — stopped — it was hovering, right over the helicopter! It was a bright green light. And all of the red night lights that we utilize for night navigation were dissolved in this green light — the whole cabin turned green. It hit all of us directly in the face. We assumed it was a high-performance fighter, but when it stopped directly in front of us, then all four of us realized that was no high-performance aircraft. This craft, from the angle that we saw it, was cigar-shaped. It had no wings, no vertical or horizontal stabilizer, was approximately 60 feet long, 15-20 feet in height.”
So, the Mansfield, Ohio, area has another unexplained UFO incident. While the shapes are dissimilar, the proximity to an air base is not, lending credence to them being secret military aircraft sightings that the military is not interested in revealing, even to its own personnel. Also, the “cigar shape” was a common UFO descriptor in the UFO-crazy 70’s while the “triangle” is popular today, matching the description of the rumored TR-3B. Forty-five years later, the question still remains … is the military becoming more open about UFOs or is it (or some other foreign military) responsible for the sightings?
If you live in the Mansfield area, have your phone ready and keep looking!
History is filled with all manner of mysteries that continue to perplex us well into modern times, and in many ways it almost seems as if there is just as much that we don’t know as that which we do. Among some of the oddities that tend to emerge from the depths of history are various artifacts and objects that defy easy classification and manage to confuse and compel. Such strange items might simply puzzle us, while others threaten to change history as we know it, but all are elusive oddities we struggle to understand. From out of place artifacts that should not exist, to strange objects that defy understanding, to just plain weird discoveries, here is a selection of strange historical oddities that have been found over the years.
Many such strange discoveries take the form of ancient artifacts that have turned up in places where they have no business being. In 1933, an archeological dig headed by archaeologist José García Payón in Mexico’s Toluca Valley, just 43 miles from Mexico City, came across a rather strange find among the many pre and post-Columbian artifacts uncovered at the site. The area was determined to have been a grave site, and as such had many grave offerings left by long forgotten visitors, such as various objects made of gold, copper, turquoise, rock crystal, jet, bone, shell and pottery, all dated to between 1476 and 1510 AD, but there amongst them was found a small terra cotta head that did not fit any of the known designs for the people of that region. Indeed, it was to prove far stranger.
When the head was examined, it was immediately apparent that it was very old, and that it had a distinctive style very similar to artifacts found in ancient Rome, which didn’t seem to make any sense at all, as this was a pre-Columbian grave site in Mexico. Later carbon dating done on the head itself put its origins at somewhere between around the 9th and 13th century AD , making it far older than the site it was found at, and generating theories that it was evidence of some sort of contact between the ancient Romans and the Mesoamericans. For his part, Payón himself sort of swept the strange find under the carpet, not publishing anything on the finding until 1960. In later years what has come to be known as the Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head has been further discussed and analyzed, and in 2001 it was examined by the archeologist Romeo H. Hristov, of the University of New Mexico. Hristov came to the conclusion that it actually dated to the 2nd century AD, and that due to its age and the distinctive hairstyle and beard of the head that it must have been a Roman artifact that had been brought to the region in pre-Columbian times, an assertion that would be shared by Bernard Andreae, a director emeritus of the German Institute of Archaeology in Rome, Italy, who would write:
[the head] is without any doubt Roman, and the lab analysis has confirmed that it is ancient. The stylistic examination tells us more precisely that it is a Roman work from around the II century A.D., and the hairstyle and the shape of the beard present the typical traits of the Severian emperors period [193-235 A.D.], exactly in the ‘fashion’ of the epoch.
The Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head
The origins of the mysterious head and how it would up in Mexico have continued to be discussed and debated, and there have been many other ideas on the matter. For some it was simply an artifact brought over by early European explorers or even Vikings in pre-Columbian times, although how it ended up at the Mexican grave site is unclear. It could have also been brought over at some point by traders from Asia, such as China or India, where it somehow managed to venture out to that site. It could even have somehow drifted to Mexico from some far away Roman shipwreck or could just be a complete hoax that was planted at the site as a prank. For now the mysteries swirl, but one thing for sure is that an ancient Roman terra cotta head is certainly a strange thing to turn up outside of Mexico City.
Almost as strange was a discovery made in 1954, when an amateur archeologist by the name of Guy Mellgren stumbled across something decidedly while exploring in the state of Maine, in the United States. Mellgren had been poking around at the site of what was once a Native American settlement at Naskeag Point on Penobscot Bay in Brooklin, Maine, when he found a treasure trove of old Native artifacts, but as he sifted through his find he came across what appeared to be an ancient silver coin, which seemed jarringly out of place there amongst the Native relics. Unsure of what he had found, Mellgren brought the coin to specialists and things would get even weirder still.
Experts who examined the highly corroded coin at first thought it to be a 12th century British penny, and it was subsequently sorted of filed away with the other relics, but in 1978 the coin was re-examined and found to in fact be a very old Norwegian coin, dating all the way back to the reign of Olaf Kyrre, who was King of Norway between the years of 1067 to 1093 AD. This has been confirmed by other experts and is not really in dispute, but what is less clear is how it ended up in a Native American settlement that dates to 1180 to 1235. Although Norse Vikings from settlements in Greenland are known to have reached areas of Newfoundland long before Columbus arrived on these shores, how would a Viking coin find its way to Maine in pre-Columbian America, far south of where Vikings were ever thought to have ventured? Theories have ranged from that the Vikings did travel south, where they made contact with the Natives of the region, which would rewrite history as we know it, or that Natives from further north traded the coin with other tribes, after which it made its way to Maine being passed along. What makes it all even more baffling is that among the 30,000 artifacts found at the site this one coin is the only thing at all that is of Norse origin. Of course there is also the idea that the coin was a hoax, but in the end the “Goddard Coin,” also called the “Maine Penny” remains a curious unsolved mystery.
The Maine Penny
Other much larger out of place artifacts have been found on occasion, and a good example would be a gigantic, 80-ton boulder found on a hillside at Hidden Mountain, in Los Lunas, New Mexico in 1933. In this year a Frank Hibben, an archaeologist from the University of New Mexico, was led to the monolithic stone by a local guide, who claimed it had first been found in the 1880s. Upon this enormous slab of solid rock was a flattened area upon which was inscribed a passage written in ancient Hebrew, which is odd considering the inscription was estimated as being anywhere between 500 to 2,000 years old, putting it well out of the time frame for ancient Paleo Hebrew to have any business being in North America.
Experts that have examined what has come to be known as the Los Lunas Decalogue Stone believe it may have been used as an ancient Samaritan mezuzah, which were boulders placed at synagogues and other important places and etched with passages from the Decalogue, but this still doesn’t explain why or how it ended up all the way over in New Mexico up to 2,000 years ago. While there has been much talk that it is evidence of pre-Columbian visitation by Semitic explorers, there is also much criticism that it is likely a hoax, either by settlers in the 1800s or perhaps even carried out by Hibben himself to support his own fringe theories on Pre-Clovis migration to North America. Archaeologist Kenneth Feder is among the skeptics, and has flat out denied the authenticity of the stone, saying:
There are no pre-Columbian ancient Hebrew settlements, no sites containing the everyday detritus of a band of ancient Hebrews, nothing that even a cursory knowledge of how the archaeological record forms would demand there would be. From an archaeological standpoint, that’s plainly impossible.
The Los Lunas boulder
However, the stone has still managed to be widely discussed and debated, and it is far from solved. It is hard to study, as its immense size make it unable to be moved to a museum, vandals have destroyed portions of the inscription, and there has never been a consensus on where this mysterious boulder came from or why it holds ancient Hebrew. Is this monstrous boulder with its enigmatic markings evidence of the pre-Columbian presence of Hebrew speaking settlers in the New World, or is it all fake? Who knows?
Some odd historical objects are not necessarily out of place, but still manage to remain confounding and anomalous all the same. In 1929, German theologian Gustav Adolf Deissmann was cataloging items at the vast library of the Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul, Turkey, when he came across an old, dusty bundled up wad of seemingly discarded gazelle skin parchment. It would have seemed like just basically garbage at the time, but when the parchment was unfurled it would prove to hold within it quite an amazing discovery indeed.
There upon the parchment was a portion of an intricate map, unlike anything Deissmann had ever seen, and when it was analyzed by experts it was found to have been made by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis in 1513 AD. Although only a third of the map was intact, the rest missing, it was found that this was not just any ordinary old map, as it seemed to be part of an actual map of the world, and it was shockingly accurate for its time. Here was a map that correctly outlined such far flung lands as Europe, Africa, Caribbean islands, and even South America, islands such as the Azores and Canary Islands, and Japan, as well as uncharted areas such as Nova Scotia, the coast of Antarctica, and the Andes Mountains, at a time when many of these places had not even been discovered yet and all with impressive accuracy that should have been impossible at the time. Indeed, some experts have even said that it simply could not have been done with anything less than satellite imagery, and this is a map drawn up in 1513.
The Piri Reis map
No one could figure out how this could have been done, but there were hints in that the map listed some of its sources, including numerous other Arab and Indian maps, and even mentioning a long lost and nearly mythical map supposedly compiled by Christopher Columbus, which is thought to have been the first map of the world that he is speculated to have made while in the West Indies. This map has never been found, but it is strongly believed that somehow Piri Reis had seen it and used it together with around 20 other maps to craft his own, although none of the source maps mentioned, nor the missing portions of the map, have ever been located. To this day the stunning accuracy of the Piri Reis Map remains a baffling anomaly. How did he get this information? How was he able to map out places not even known to have been discovered at the time? What would the lost portions reveal? We may never know.
Some historical anomalies are rather numerous, yet still manage to baffle as no one is really sure what they are. Throughout many portions of what was once the Roman Empire there have been found over 100 small bronze objects measuring around 2 to 5 inches across and with a unique shape of 12 flat pentagonal faces with holes and knobs upon them. While many examples of these artifacts have been found, and they are most certainly Roman in origin, the problem is no one has the slightest idea of what they were used for. There are no known written records or design plans for them, and these “dodecahedrons” have been speculated as being everything from navigational tools, to zodiac instruments, to astronomy tools, knitting instruments, calendars, candlestick holders or even children’s toys. Your guess is as good as anyone’s, and although there are many of these objects and they seem to have been rather common they will likely nevertheless remain an impenetrable mystery.
A Roman dodecahedron
Not all enigmatic historical objects are so old, and there have been a few such oddities in more recent times as well. In 1968 a building in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States was being renovated when a wall was torn down to reveal hiding behind it a brand new looking World War I era motorcycle with a distinctive design no one had ever seen before. It had a unique engine design not seen in any other motorcycle of the time, an innovative and one-of-a-kind brake system, had specially made parts not found in any other motorcycle then or since, and overall it was far more advanced than anything else of its era. It also still ran smoothly and seemed none the worse for wear after decades hidden away forgotten behind a wall. Most oddly of all, the one-of-a-kind bike had the word “Traub” written upon it, its meaning just as cryptic as anything else about it.
When the first owners of the building were tracked down they were able to shed a bit of light on the mystery, saying that their son had stolen the motorcycle and hidden it behind the wall before leaving to fight overseas during the war, but this did little to explain where it came from in the first place or who built it. The mysterious motorcycle has since become part of the collection of the Wheels Through Time Museum, and to this day there has not been found any other example of this bike and its design, nor any other parts for it, no one knows who made it, and it remains a cipher.
The Traub Motorcycle
Even more recently was an unusual find made in 2014 by rangers at the Great Basin National Park, in Nevada. As they were patrolling a rather remote area of the park they found a tree in the middle of nowhere that had leaning against it a very old looking rifle, just neatly propped up and abandoned out there in the wilderness. It was soon found that the rifle was an antique Model 1873 Winchester rifle that had been manufactured between the years of 1873 and 1919, and which would have been considered a valuable heirloom. It was also in very good condition, and even now no one can figure out why anyone would just leave this old-fashioned antique weapon out there against that tree. Was it left there by some pioneer, gold prospector, or hunter from the 19th century? Was it put out there by a gun collector for reasons we will never know? Was it left behind by a time traveler? Who knows? The gun sits in a museum with no known owner.
Here we have looked at just a sampling of odd and unusual historical objects that have managed to evade understanding either by being out of place, coming out of nowhere, or being just plain weird. It is interesting to think that for as much as we think we like to know about history and for as much progress we have made in chronicling it there can still be these oddities that pop up from time to time to challenge our perceptions and serve as frustrating riddles we may never solve. It certainly seems that history is far from fully illuminated, and hiding out there in the nooks, crannies, and shadows are plenty of anomalies that manage to stay obscured in the mists of time, teasing us from the recesses of past eras.
Here’s one really interesting footage that was filmed over Albufeira in Portugal. This was recorded on 13th August 2017 but it was just published online now,
Two big balls flying by with different speeds
I was walking the dog, and when I looked back to call him, I saw this two big balls flying by. They have different speed. It was really weird… I stopped the video to take a picture. It’s not so good one… I thought immediately it was an UFO, I am near the Faro Airport and know exactly how are the planes and helicopters. When I get home I showed the video to everyone and everyone says it was really very weird. I tried to get some answers online in portuguese, and nobody could explain anything, or others didn’t even respond my emails. Someone gave me this website to report it, but I didn’t do it for a long long time, just because I don’t understand some of this questionary. Recorded with Samsung Galaxy S5
Famous 86-mile UFO Hot Pursuit Still Defies Air Force Explanation
Famous 86-mile UFO Hot Pursuit Still Defies Air Force Explanation
Two Portage County, Ohio sheriff deputies spotted an abandoned vehicle along a road near Ravenna at 5 am on April 17, 1966. Deputy Dale Spaur got out of his car while Wilbur “Barney” Neff remained his.
Deputy Spaur heard a strange humming noise, and when he turned around, he saw a giant unidentified flying object. The UFO reportedly rose from behind the trees and hovered over them as the ground drenched in bright light.
An 86-mile chase then followed at speeds of over 100 mph from Ohio to Pennsylvania that took the deputies and a few more on a harrowing ride.
The bizarre trek ended in Conway, Pennsylvania but for law enforcement officers involved, it would last for the rest of their lives.
The close encounter marks the fourth instalment of The Parajournal, The Times video series by award-winning videographer Gwen Titley.
The dispatcher initially instructed to shoot the object but Sgt. Henry Shoenfelt told Spaur and Neff to stand down, wondering if the two have found a government weather balloon.
Police Chief Gerald Buchert, who was on patrol in nearby Mantua, heard the call of the deputies about lights in the sky. He immediately went home to get his camera. He snapped photos of what he described as two table saucers put together.
As the UFO zipped away toward the east, Spaur and Neff gave chase.
Spaur said that the UFO looked like the head of a flashlight from the ground. He estimated the object to be approximately 40 feet wide and 20 feet tall.
He later would say to reporters that the lines of the object were very distinct and it looked like somebody had control over it as it was not just floating around. It could manoeuvre, he added.
Spaur said the chase slowed down near Rochester as cars got tangled up in a mess of bridges.
When Spaur came out from under the bridge, the UFO came down and waited for them as if it knew these two cars were following.
As Spaur and Neff got too close to the object, it would speed up. The two did not able to follow it as they were now low on gas and their tires were balding. They decided to pull into an Atlantic service station where Conway Patrolman Frank Panzanella met them.
By 6:15 am, Spaur noticed three fighter jets chasing the aircraft. He then alerted the dispatch about it. The officers could pick up chatter on their police radios from the pilots.
The object hovered then shot straight out of sight.
Unfortunately, Buchert’s photos were severely fogged and had processing defects. It proved nothing.
The U.S. government has been keeping an eye on unidentified flying objects. Here’s everything they’ve been keeping from you.
1. The Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program
In December 2017, a blockbuster report in The New York Times revealed that the U.S. Department of Defense had been funding a program called the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program (AATIP), focused on investigating reports of unidentified flying objects, or UFOs. The Defense Department told the newspaper that the secret program started in 2007 and had been shut down in 2012, but Luis Elizondo, the military intelligence officer who came forward to say he had been in charge of it, insisted that the investigation efforts had continued after that date without specific funding. Find out 10 other secret U.S. government operations that have also been revealed.
2. Fighter jets catch UFO on video
Although the revelation that the U.S. government had been studying UFOs was exciting, the two videos that accompanied the article got lots more play—they show 2004 infrared footage of an unexplained object filmed from Navy fighter jets. One of the pilots, David Fravor, described the scene to the Times: “It accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen.” He told the paper the encounter left him feeling “pretty weirded out.”
3. Scientists aren’t convinced the footage shows extraterrestrial visitors
“The only real piece of evidence that was widely available were some short videos showing a peanut-shaped object in front of a Navy jet,” says Seth Shostak, senior astronomer and fellow at the SETI Institute, which is dedicated to exploring the origins of life and intelligence in the universe. James Oberg, a space journalist and historian and a former NASA engineer, is similarly skeptical: “Nobody’s seen the original material and its context,” he says. Oberg also points out that although we think of pilots as particularly reliable witnesses, they are also susceptible to the tendency of the brain to try to make sense of confusing sights by using past experiences to fill in gaps. He explains that fireball swarms caused by satellites re-entering Earth’s atmosphere have been perceived as “a structured object with lights mounted on it” by people of varying education levels watching from both rural and urban areas of many countries. These are the 12 UFO myths scientists wish you would stop believing.
4. AATIP was requested by Congress
Harry Reid, the Nevada Democrat who was Senate majority leader in 2007, requested funding for the project, which was cosponsored by Alaska Republican Ted Stevens and Hawaii Democrat Daniel K. Inouye. Reid told The New York Times that he’s proud of the program: “I’m not embarrassed or ashamed or sorry I got this thing going.” While it ran, the program collected pilot reports, camera footage, and radar data, and tried to match it all with known aircraft. Luis Elizondo, the official who ran the program, told Wired that they often couldn’t match aircraft they investigated with anything they knew about. Check out these famous people who said they saw UFOs.
5. UFO enthusiasts were ecstatic
Jan Harzan, the executive director of the Mutual UFO Network, which collects and investigates sightings, told Space.com columnist Leonard David that the publicizing of AATIP data would “make it safe for our scientists and engineers to study this phenomenon without fear of ridicule or retribution, but with funding provided by Congress and private industry.”
6. The Pentagon shut down AATIP in 2012
Still, Seth Shostak points out that the closure of the program doesn’t exactly make him think that it was finding lots of useful UFO information. “If there were compelling evidence for out-of-this-world craft, I would expect that the AATIP study would have continued, and not been canceled,” he says. “Programs are killed for lack of progress, not in the face of significant progress!” Check out more about the secrets of Area 51.
7. To the Stars Academy of Arts and Science
Elizondo resigned from his post at the Defense Department around the same time he was speaking to the press about AATIP, and he took a job with a new private organization called To the Stars Academy of Arts and Science. The new venture aims to raise money for UFO research, new technology development, and entertainment projects, including documentaries and science-fiction novels. To the Stars released a new video clip in March 2018 that shows Pentagon footage of an object being tracked by a Navy jet over the East Coast three years earlier. This new video isn’t any more convincing to James Oberg, who thinks the releases are part of the To the Stars publicity push. “These selected portions [of military footage] were released by a private group raising money,” he says.
8. AATIP collected metal alloys from unidentified aerial phenomena
This point in the AATIP exposé included very few details, but The New York Times specified that the company running the Defense Department program (a private contractor) had modified buildings in Las Vegas to properly store the materials for study. A Live Sciencearticle by Rafi Letzter ran this idea past some metallurgists and chemists, who didn’t think there could be any metal alloys (mixtures of elements) that would be difficult to identify. May Nyman, a professor in the Oregon State University Department of Chemistry, told the site that it would be possible to determine if an alloy had come from space by studying it for signs of ionization. (And alloys do come from space—most often in the form of nickel-iron meteorites.) Find out just how many Americans believe in aliens.
9. Project Blue Book
CrackerClips Stock Media/Shutterstock
AATIP isn’t the first U.S. government UFO investigation program—between 1947 and 1969, Project Blue Book collected more than 12,000 reports of UFO sightings. More than 90 percent were explained away (as being weather, known astronomical events, etc.), but 700 didn’t have ready explanations. However, after a research committee headquartered at the University of Colorado examined the unexplained reports and found no evidence of extraterrestrial visitations, Project Blue Book was shuttered.
10. Other countries keep UFO files, too
The United Kingdom’s Air Ministry (and later Ministry of Defence) collected UFO files between 1959 and 2009, when it too closed down its program. In France, a UFO program started in 1977—known now as GEIPAN, it’s still operating. Residents who see something they can’t explain file official reports, and the agency collects them for researchers and scientists but doesn’t independently investigate them. When GEIPAN put its archives online in 2007, so many people logged on to read them that the website crashed. As of May 2018, more than 2,700 cases had been submitted to the database.
11. China’s new radio dish was built to listen for extraterrestrial signals
It’s more than 1600 feet in diameter, which is twice the size of the biggest U.S. radio telescope, the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. That means it will be sensitive enough to find celestial objects such as distant galaxies and pulsars, but China’s government also specifically built it in order to search for signals sent from intelligent beings elsewhere in the universe.
12. Project 1794
In the 1950s, during flying-saucer fever, the U.S. government actually tried to build a disk-shaped aircraft. They were hoping it would go as high as 100,000 feet and fly at around 2,600 miles per hour, and it was meant to take off and land vertically. After spending more than $3 million (that would be more than $26 million today) on the top-secret development program, it didn’t pan out and was scrapped. Next, find out about 12 crazy conspiracy theories that actually turned out to be true.
Still, Seth Shostak points out that the closure of the program doesn’t exactly make him think that it was finding lots of useful UFO information. “If there were compelling evidence for out-of-this-world craft, I would expect that the AATIP study would have continued, and not been canceled,” he says. “Programs are killed for lack of progress, not in the face of significant progress!”
Merrylin Cryptid Museum: Proof for the Existence of Mythical Beings or Elaborate Hoaxes?
Numerous mythical creatures have been created Over the course of human history. Most of them were based on misunderstandings of real animals, plants, or even other human populations. Greek Legends of satyrs and dog-faced barbarians, for example, may have been based on distorted traveler’s accounts of apes and monkeys. Is it possible, however, that some mythical creatures may actually exist more or less as they were described in legend and myth? This is the claim of the Merrylin Cryptid Museum, which contains what it claims to be the bodily remains of a variety of fantastic creatures ranging from dragons to aliens. They could be genuine, but they also resemble specimens that turned out later to be hoaxes.
The creatures in the museum were apparently found in the 1960s in the basement of a mansion owned by Thomas Theodore Merrylin, a crypto-zoologist and an eccentric archaeologist. The specimens were found enclosed in boxes and resembled the withered skeletal remains of various fantastic creatures: mermaids, faeries, gnomes, dragons, vampires, and even some extraterrestrials. In addition to skeletal remains, some of the original tissue such as fur and scales were preserved on the remains.
Not all the specimens are fantastic. There are a few dinosaurs, for example, and some specimens which could just be unusual animals. On the other hand, items like regalia related to Cthulhu and the remains of an ancient pharaoh are less likely to be genuine, since they imply much more improbable things than just the existence of mythical creatures.
Just because the remains of creatures like werewolves have been found doesn’t mean that we can conclude that they exist. There was at least one case where the body of a fantastic creature was found but later turned out to be fake and was created through sewing together corpses of different animals. This example would be the Fiji Mermaid.
The Fiji Mermaid gained a surge of fame when, in the year 1842 in New York City, it was presented by a man claiming to be an English naturalist by the name of Dr. J. Griffin of the “British Lyceum of Natural History.” The tale he told was that he found the mermaid off the coast of the Fiji Islands in the south Pacific. Dr. Griffin was approached by a man named P.T. Barnum. According to the story, P.T. Barnum tried to pressure Dr. Griffin into putting the mermaid on display at his museum by publicizing the existence of the mermaid by giving woodcuts of mermaids to the press and claiming that they were depictions of the mermaids found by Dr. Griffin.
[Top] Fiji Mermaid, in the Folklore section at the Haus der Natur (House of Nature), a natural history collection in Salzburg, Austria. ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 ) [Bottom] P.T. Barnums Feejee mermaid
After the creature was displayed, it was quickly revealed to be a hoax. It turned out that P.T. Barnum and Dr. Griffin were working together all along to pull off the deception. Dr. Griffin was not even a real naturalist but a conman named Levi Lyman. The Fiji Mermaid was in fact not a mermaid but a creature created by sewing the tail of a fish to the torso of a monkey. This particular act of sewing the tales of fish to the upper bodies of primates was an artform in Japan and the East Indies used to create half-monkey, half-fish figurines for religious purposes. The Fiji Mermaid was probably one of these.
The Fiji Mermaid was most likely made around 1810 by a Japanese fisherman and sold to a British sea captain named Samuel Barret Eades in 1822 by Dutch merchants who had been to the East Indies or Japan. Eades attempted to make a profit from presenting it as a genuine mermaid. But his effort to gain a fortune through this turned out to be unsuccessful. After his death, it was passed to his son who sold it to a showman named Moses Kimball. P.T. Barnum in fact leased the Fiji Mermaid from Moses Kimball to present it as an actual creature discovered by Dr. Griffin.
A depiction of what would later come to be known as the Fiji mermaid, commissioned by Captain Samuel Barrett Eades.
A more recent version of this kind of hoax was done with photography, when during a photoshop contest, human skeletons were superimposed onto paleontological excavation sites involving the excavation of mammoth bones to make it appear as if they were unearthing the bones of giant humans. This was of course done with photography, not sewing together animal corpses, but it shows how easy it is to make a mythical creature look real in the modern world.
Could the specimens at the Merrylin Cryptid Museum be genuine? There are too many to dismiss them all, but there are some issues to consider. The astronomer Carl Sagan once said that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. The reality of the Ctulhu regalia found at the museum, for example, would imply that H.P. Lovecraft’s fiction was really history disguised as fiction, something he never claimed and something that is not supported by any other evidence.
Some of the creatures also do not follow known biological and physical laws. If these creatures turned out to be real, we would not just have to revise our views of what is mythical, but also our understanding of biology and natural history. This would certainly be the case if the dinosaur specimens were genuine.
Another example of this would be one specimen of a lycanthrope, which supposedly represents the remains of a human in the process of transforming into a lycanthrope. The problem with this being real is that the process described would likely kill anyone who went through it, making it improbable that this is a genuine lycanthrope.
Lycanthrope specimen at the Merrylin Cryptid Museum.
For the moment, we cannot come to conclusions since none of these specimens have been examined by teams of experts. Until then all we can do is guess. From the available data though, the proponents of the reality of these extraordinary creatures will require some extraordinary evidence.
Top Image: ‘The Hexing Box’ at Merrylin Cryptid Museum. Source: Alex CF 2014
DIERENVoordat het een van de grootste toeristische trekpleisters in Amerika werd, liepen er uiteenlopende wezens door de Grand Canyon. Zo zijn de oudste pootafdrukken afkomstig van een primitief dier dat 310 miljoen jaar geleden op vier poten door de kloof dwaalde. Diagonaal.
De restanten werden onlangs teruggevonden, nadat het gesteente rondom afgebrokkelde. Normaal vervagen zulke voetafdrukken als deze, maar door een gelukkig toeval verhardden de afdrukken van dit dier tot zandsteen, waardoor paleontologen zich over een nieuw vraagstuk kunnen buigen. De sporen zijn immers bijzonder eigenaardig door hun vreemde oriëntatie. Elke pootafdruk is in een hoek van veertig graden ten opzichte van de looprichting in het zand getekend. Daardoor lijkt het wel alsof het dier niet recht vooruit, maar diagonaal ging.
Hoe dan ook gaat het om een bijzondere vondst volgens Stephen Rowland, paleontoloog van de University of Nevada in Las Vegas. Het zijn immers afdrukken van 310 miljoen jaar geleden. Maar de mysterieuze gang van de duinenloper roept toch wat vragen op. Zo hebben paleontologen geen enkel idee over welke diersoort het zou gaan.
Rond die tijd was er in ieder geval voor het eerst sprake van reptielen die op zoogdieren begonnen te lijken. Ze waren niet langer afhankelijk van water voor hun voortplanting en hadden een harde huid die hen beschermde tegen uitdroging.
Schots soortgenootje Eerder zijn er in Schotland al eens soortgelijke pootafdrukken gevonden. Die zouden afkomstig zijn van een soortgelijk, maar geëvolueerd reptiel dat er 229 miljoen jaar geleden leefde. De eigenaar van de afdrukken in de Grand Canyon kan daardoor wel eens de voorloper zijn van een soortgenootje dat later in Schotland voorkwam.
Voor zulke besluiten zullen onderzoekers jammer genoeg op zoek moeten gaan naar meer details. Een skelet en tanden zouden bijvoorbeeld al helpen. Ook over de tred van het dier kan men geen uitspraak doen zonder verdere aanwijzingen. Het dier kon ook gewoon diagonaal zijn gegaan omdat het bergafwaarts liep en zo probeerde om niet uit te schuiven.
WETENSCHAPDe Parker-zonnesonde, in augustus gelanceerd vanop Cape Canaveral in het Amerikaanse Florida, is maandag tot op 42,73 miljoen kilometer van de zon gekomen. Nooit eerder kwam een ruimtevaartuig zo dicht bij het hemellichaam. Dat heeft de Amerikaanse ruimtevaartorganisatie Nasa gemeld.
Op 12 augustus werd de sonde gelanceerd. Sindsdien is hij op volle snelheid onderweg naar de zon. Parker heeft maandag de zon benaderd tot op 42,73 miljoen kilometer: een record. Het vorige record was in handen van de Duits-Amerikaanse ruimtesonde Helios 2. Die kwam in 1976 tot op 43,43 miljoen kilometer van de zon.
“De sonde werd 78 dagen geleden gelanceerd en we zijn al dichter bij onze ster gekomen dan ooit tevoren”, zegt projectleider Andy Driesman. Intussen zet Parker zijn weg naar de zon verder: in 2024 moet de sonde zich op iets minder dan 7 miljoen kilometer van de zon bevinden.
1.217 graden Celsius
Het ruimtevaartuig kost 1,5 miljard dollar. Die kosten zijn deels te verklaren door het zeer dikke zonneschild: Parker zal te maken krijgen met de bijzonder hoge temperaturen binnen de corona, de atmosfeer rond de zon. Tijdens de missie, die zeven jaar duurt, zal de sonde 24 banen rond de zon afleggen en daar temperaturen tot 1.217 graden Celsius tegenkomen. Op topsnelheid bereikt de sonde snelheden tot 690.000 kilometer/uur.
De missie heeft ook een Belgisch kantje. Zo ontwikkelde het ruimtevaartcentrum van de universiteit van Luik een van de vier instrumenten aan boord, de WISPR of Wide-Field Imager For Solar Probe Plus. Het gaat om twee telescopen die opnames maken van de corona en de zonnewind.
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ENORM OBJECT ONTDEKT OP JUPITER ( VIDEO )
ENORM OBJECT ONTDEKT OP JUPITER ( VIDEO )
Wanneer je op reis gaat in de ruimte vertrekkend vanaf de zon, dan komt er na Mars, de enorme planeet Jupiter.
Een planeet die 1321 keer groter is dan de aarde, met talloze manen en waar veel meer dingen gebeuren dan wij denken.
Er is weer eens iets merkwaardigs verschenen op een door NASA vrijgegeven foto. Het betreft hier een opname van de planeet Jupiter en daar, aan de rand van de planeet, is iets merkwaardigs te ontdekken.
Volgens Scott Waring bestaat er geen enkele twijfel over dat we hier te maken hebben met een door buitenaardsen neergezette constructie op het oppervlak van Jupiter. Je ziet het gebouw als het ware uitsteken boven de wolkenlaag waarmee Jupiter is omringd en Waring zegt dat die bewolking bewust door buitenaardsen is gemaakt om de aanwezige beschavingen aan het oppervlak van de planeet te verbergen.
Wat ze daar volgens hem doen is een soort variatie van het cloaken (verbergen) van hun ruimteschepen door het maken van een wolk. Er kan tijdelijk iets misgegaan zijn, waardoor het cloaking mechanisme even niet goed werkte en dit gebouw zichtbaar werd.
Wanneer je de grootte van het object vergelijkt met de planeet en dan bedenkt dat Jupiter 1321 keer groter is dan de aarde, dan moet ook dit gebouw enorm groot zijn.
Het is niet de eerste keer dat de planeet Jupiter in het nieuws komt dit jaar voor wat betreft buitenaards leven. Dat wil zeggen, niet de planeet zelf, maar wel één van haar vele manen.
Formeel breken wetenschappers zich het hoofd over een maan die hoort bij de enorme planeet Jupiter. Deze maan, Ganymedes, is de grootste in ons zonnestelsel en is tevens iets heel anders dan men ons wil doen geloven.
In het midden van de jaren negentig werd er veel gesproken over een man met de naam Alex Collier. Deze man kwam met heel interessante informatie omtrent ons zonnestelsel en vooral ook buitenaards leven.
Hij verkreeg al deze kennis omdat hij als kind al was ontvoerd door buitenaardsen en dat hij als gevolg daarvan in contact staat met iemand van het sterrenstelsel Andromeda.
Eén van de dingen waar hij over vertelde tijdens zijn presentatie was één van de manen van de planeet Jupiter, Ganymedes genaamd.
Ganymedes is de grootste maan van Jupiter en tevens de grootste maan van ons hele zonnestelsel. Ze is groter dan de planeet Mercurius, maar heeft slechts half zoveel massa als die planeet. Ganymedes is ongeveer anderhalf keer zo groot als de Maan van de Aarde, twee keer zo groot als de dwergplaneet Pluto en heeft drie vierde van de omvang van Mars. Aan de hand van het aantal kraters per vierkante kilometer wordt geschat dat de maan 3,5 tot 3 miljard jaar oud is, wat vergelijkbaar is met onze Maan.
En net zoals er vaak wordt gezegd dat onze maan een kunstmatige satelliet is, zo is dat volgens Collier ook het geval met Ganymedes. Het is een centrale hub voor veel buitenaards verkeer en volgens Collier was er water, zuurstof en een atmosfeer op Ganymedes.
In de tijd was er echter geen manier om te kunnen controleren of dat hetgeen Collier vertelde ook daadwerkelijk klopte.
Maar, sinds die tijd zijn er meer en meer opnames gemaakt door satellieten en ruimtetelescopen van deze bijzondere maan en lijken een aantal zaken de theorie van Collier te ondersteunen.
Eén van die dingen is een soort aurora op Ganymedes, die alleen maar veroorzaakt kan worden door een magnetisch veld, wat er weer op wijst dat Ganymedes inderdaad over water beschikt, heel veel water en zelfs meer dan al onze zeeën en oceanen bij elkaar.
Daarnaast zijn er andere bijzondere ontdekkingen gedaan op Ganymedes zoals te zien op de volgende afbeelding. Iets dat lijkt op een enorme donker getinte koepel, waarop zelfs de reflectie van het zonlicht is te zien.
Bovenstaande is wederom afkomstig van de man die de Men in Black op zijn dak heeft, de bekende Tyler van Secureteam en hij denkt dat net zoals met de planeet Venus waar we eerder over schreven, dat Ganymedes veel belangrijker is dan men ons wil doen geloven en dat ook in het geval van deze maan er alles aan wordt gedaan om de aandacht af te leiden.
The search for extraterrestrial life has been a dominant theme of both science fiction and astronomy for decades now. “Are we alone?” remains one of the burning questions of humanity, one that, depressingly, we may never answer. Aliens may be extinct, hiding from us, trapped by their own planets’ immense gravity, or maybe they don’t exist in the first place.
Wouldn’t that be the biggest bummer of all? In order to avoid the horrible realization that we may be the only living things stinking up the cosmos, one Netherlands-based company plans to take matters into their own hands by breeding bona fide extraterrestrials all on their own – extraterrestrial humans, that is.
SpaceLife Origin hails themselves as the world’s first “bio-tech & mission development company,” meaning their interests lie in developing both specialized medical equipment and then sending that equipment to space. According to their website, the company’s ultimate goal is to “make embryo conception in space feasible by 2021 and enable real human birth in space by 2024.”
Like many other tech visionaries, SpaceLife Origin Founder and CEO Kees Mulder says that his company wants to enable humanity to break the chains holding us onto this dying planet and secure a future among the stars:
If humanity wants to become a multi-planetary species, we also need to learn how to reproduce in space. SpaceLife Origin is thrilled to announce its Missions Program to enable sustainable life beyond earth. A world’s first and truly unique critical step in the future of mankind. We believe that any space company, agency or nation with ambitions for colonization of other planets will benefit from partnering with us for the successful execution and completion of their own plans.
SpaceLife Origin has three missions currently in development. The first, Mission Ark, is scheduled to launch in 2020 and will send special capsules into space containing human “Seeds-of-Life” cells to act as an interstellar insurance policy for all of humankind. The second mission, Mission Lotus, will launch a “Space-Embryo-Incubator” in 2021 and see human embryos form in low-Earth orbit before returning to Earth for in-utero fertilization and terrestrial birth.
What would aliens do with they human ‘seeds of life’ if they ever recovered it from one of these probes?
Finally, Mission Cradle is planned for 2024 and will see the world’s first extraterrestrial human born – if all goes according to SpaceLife Origin’s plan. The Mission Cradle mission proposes sending a pregnant woman into space for 24-36 hours to “give birth at 250 miles above Earth, accompanied by a trained, world-class medical team” aboard a space station. No word yet on how they plan to keep an extremely pregnant woman calm and healthy throughout a launch into space – not exactly the most stress-free environment.
While giving in birth in space makes for one heck of a story, a successful extraterrestrial birth would also lend hope to the dream of someday sending colonies of humans on multi-generational voyages to strange and distant new homes out among the stars. Could it happen in our lifetime?
Pterodactyl UFO Over Perrysville, Ohio Throws Shadow On Clouds, Sept 3, 2018, UFO Sighting News.
Pterodactyl UFO Over Perrysville, Ohio Throws Shadow On Clouds, Sept 3, 2018, UFO Sighting News.
Date of sighting: Sept 3, 2018
Location of sighting: Perrysville, Ohio, USA
Source: MUFON #95976
This is a report from MUFON that just came in yesterday. The person was looking at the photos when they got home an noticed a triangular UFO in excellent detail in one photo. The UFO is also throwing a shadow onto the cloud below...which is 100% amazing, because this means that UFO was freaking huge! I'm talking several times bigger than a 747. This UFO must have been cloaked because something that big would normally stand out like a sour thumb. So I say the digital eye caught this because it is more precise of an instrument than our flawed eye which misses out on a lot of the spectrum. The object also resembles a Pterodactyl...a flying dinosaur. Because its throwing a huge shadow on the cloud, that means this was giant in size, ruling out remote control planes, drones, kites, balloons...this one is a true mystery.
ISS astronauts return to Earth amid US-Russia tensions
ISS astronauts return to Earth amid US-Russia tensions
by Dana Rysmukhamedova
Two American astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut returned to Earth on Thursday wrapping up a six-month mission at the International Space Station as tensions between Washington and Moscow threaten a rare area of cooperation.
National flags of Russia and the US.
NASA astronauts Drew Feustel and Ricky Arnold and Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos touched down on steppe land southeast of the Kazakh town of Dzhezkazgan at the expected time of 1145 GMT.
The landing came with Russian and US officials investigating the appearance of a mysterious hole in a Russian space craft docked at the orbiting station.
Detected in August, the hole caused an air leak on the ISS but was quickly sealed up.
This week the outspoken chief of the Russian space agency, Dmitry Rogozin, said investigators believed the small hole had been made deliberately and was not a manufacturing defect.
The official, who was placed under US sanctions over the Ukraine crisis in 2014, also bemoaned "problems" in the Russian space agency's cooperation with NASA that he attributed to interference from unnamed American officials.
Last month the Russian daily Kommersant reported that an investigation had probed the possibility that US astronauts deliberately drilled the hole in order to get a sick colleague sent back home—something Russian officials later denied.
ISS commander Feustel has called the suggestion that the crew was somehow involved "embarrassing" and NASA on Wednesday expressed doubts over the theory that the hole was the result of sabotage.
The US space agency said that ruling out defects "does not necessarily mean the hole was created intentionally or with mal-intent."
ISS astronauts are planning a spacewalk in November to gather more information on the hole.
The ISS is one of the few areas of tight Russia-US cooperation that had until now remained unaffected by the slump in ties, including after Washington's sanctions against Russia over Ukraine and other crises.
Earlier the ISS hosted the usual emotional goodbyes as the returning trio left Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, NASA's Serena Auñón-Chancellor and Roscosmos' Sergey Prokopyev waiting for the next three-person crew's arrival.
The next launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan is scheduled for next Thursday.
'Glory days in hot sun'
The crew was all smiles on return to Earth, with Artemyev first out of the descent module and shown tucking into a fruit and vegetable feast that included a giant cantaloupe melon in footage broadcast by Roscosmos.
He also wrote "spasibo" (thank you) and signed his name on the craft in chalk.
Feustel, 53, invoked Hollywood comedy actor Jack Black's character Nacho Libre as he tweeted farewell to life on the space station.
"I have had my 'glory days in the hot sun' and now it's time to come home," he wrote late Wednesday in a tweet that included a photo of the sun taken from the ISS.
While he was on his third mission in space, 47-year-old Artemyev and 54-year-old Arnold had previously only served on one mission each.
Their journey that began with a blastoff from Baikonur in March was particularly poignant for Arnold, who during his debut mission in 2009 helped build the space station he has now spent 197 days living in.
While aboard the ISS, Arnold, who has a teaching background, gave lessons on space that Sharon Christa McAuliffe—one of seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986—had originally been supposed to teach.
In a NASA video, Arnold revealed that fellow educator McAuliffe's death in an explosion just over a minute after the challenger crew blasted off was one of the things that prompted him to take up teaching.
Since the official claim is that mankind did not learn to extract and manufacture metallic aluminum until around 200 years ago, news of finding aluminum that dates back as early as 250,000 years ago leaves people with a lot of questions.
With this type of discovery, many theories emerge, some feeding challenges of science while others fiercely debate and reject any non-empirical claims.
It must be admitted that it’s intriguing to peek into another possible theory of human life and civilization on our planet than the commonly accepted one.
The aluminium piece looks as if it was a handmade object
Reportedly, the discovery of a sensational object that challenged ideas about aluminum took place in Romania in the town of Aiud, near the banks of the Mures River, during the 1970s. At this time the country was under Communist and the news was not exposed to the public in detail.
At the time, builders who worked on a project on the banks of the aforementioned river excavated three objects, of which one was later thought to be made by a human.
Alum crystals have been used in a wide range of industries since antiquity.
In the 1970s examination, two massive bones of an extinct mammal, which vanished from the face of the Earth 10,000 to 80,000 years ago, were reportedly discovered next to a piece of lightweight metal.
These discoveries were analyzed by Swiss scientists in Lausanne, who concluded that the metal object contained around 90 percent aluminum and was around 250,000 years old.
Mureş River, Arad, Romania. Photo by NorbertArthur CC BY-SA 3.0
The primary claim was quickly dropped as the scientists revised the calculation and said that this metal piece might be anywhere from 400 to 80,000 years old, a possibility that still created problems because aluminum was first produced by humans 200 years ago.
The object when found was noted as 7.8 inches long, 4.9 inches wide, and 2.8 inches thick. The experts who investigated its structure were perplexed by the concavities in the metal, which led them to believe that the object was formerly a part of an unknown mechanical system. The scientists searched for clues about the object’s etymology, use, or significance.
The aluminum puzzle led to speculations that the piece might have been, in fact, part of an unidentified flying object and proof that aliens once visited the Earth. This supposition was supported by those who assert that we Earthlings are not the only advanced life forms in the universe.
It could be 250,000 years old
The discovery has only just been made public after it was found in communist Romania in 1973
George Cohal, the director of the Ufologists Association of Romania, stated: “The substances of which the object is compromised are combined of an obviously unavailable technology on Earth.” On the other hand, according to the Daily Record, Romanian historian Mihai Wittenberger opposed any UFO speculation, claiming that the metal piece was actually part of a WWII aircraft.
Today, the ancient aluminum piece is displayed in the History Museum of Cluj-Napoca, the main city of the Romanian region of Transylvania, with the notation “origin still unknown.”
The National Museum of Transylvanian History.
Photo by CristianChirita CC BY 2.5
The history of the artifact has been the subject of a heated viral debate.
While conspiracy supporters believe the story of an extraterrestrial life bringing it to our planet, others doubt the claims over the discovery and suggest that the scientists should consider revising human capacity to produce aluminium alloys before the official date of the invention.
Some people even discuss possible evidence of advanced human civilizations that might have lived on Earth long before the generally known beginning of civilization.
According to several historians, the following passage, citation unknown, may refer to the creation of an early aluminum artifact:
“Once a certain Roman jeweler was allowed to show the Emperor Tiberius a chalice made of a new metal. The chalice was remarkable for its unusually lightweight, and it shone just as brightly as silver. The goldsmith told the emperor that he made this metal from ordinary clay. He also assured the ruler that the means of obtaining this metal from clay was known only to him and the gods. The emperor was intrigued by the craftsman’s words, and the financial side of the matter did not concern him much. But soon he was struck by the thought that if people master the production of this bright metal from ordinary clay, all the stores of gold and silver in his treasure trove would instantly become worthless. Therefore, instead of the expected reward, the craftsman lost his head.”
L’affaire “Roswell” du Royaume-Uni : Un OVNI repéré dans la forêt de Rendlesham confirme bien la réalité du phénomène
L’affaire “Roswell” du Royaume-Uni : Un OVNI repéré dans la forêt de Rendlesham confirme bien la réalité du phénomène
Les chasseurs d’OVNI sont retournés dans le plus grand foyer extraterrestre du Royaume-Uni et ont découvert que les extraterrestres ciblent encore le site, selon des chercheurs dans le paranormal.
Le 26 décembre 1980, une patrouille autour de la RAF Woodbridge a signalé avoir vu des lumières qui semblaient se poser près de la forêt Rendlesham.
Ils se sont précipités sur le site, pensant qu’il s’agissait peut-être d’un avion humain écrasé, mais ils ont prétendu avoir trouvé un objet métallique rond et brillant avec une lumière colorée qui faisait peur aux animaux dans une ferme voisine.
Aujourd’hui, les enquêteurs paranormaux sont retournés sur les lieux du crime et ont repéré des activités plus étranges dans un endroit surnommé le Roswell du Royaume-Uni.
Au cours des 8 et 9 octobre, un groupe connu sous le nom de Ghostech Paranormal Investigationsa passé du temps dans la forêt de Rendlesham à la recherche d’activités extraterrestres.
À leur grande surprise, ils ont repéré ce qu’ils croyaient être des ovnis et ont même obtenu des images.
Jeff Young, enquêteur principal de Ghostech Paranormal Investigations, a déclaré à express.co.uk que les talkies-walkies ne fonctionnaient plus et que “pas un seul oiseau, écureuil, hibou, pas un seul animal sauvage” n’avait été vu pendant leur enquête, alors que les lumières d’un OVNI étaient visibles de loin.
M. Young a dit : “Le premier soir, nous avons réussi non seulement à voir les lumières par nous-mêmes, mais nous les avons aussi filmées.”
“Nous étions les seules personnes dans la forêt et nous avons dû marcher 5 kilomètres à travers la forêt pour atteindre l’endroit, il n’y a donc pas de routes ou toute autre explication pour ce que nous avions vu.”
“Sachant où nous avions vu les ovnis se déplacer à l’intérieur de l’arbre, la deuxième nuit, nous avons placé nos caméras face à ces zones, mais cette fois-ci j’ai marché un kilomètre vers le côté opposé pour pouvoir observer toute la zone ainsi que mon équipe se trouvant sur le site d’atterrissage afin que nous puissions mieux voir ces objets.”
“Cette fois, nous avons tous vu les ovnis se déplacer à travers l’arbre et nous les avons à nouveau capturés sur pellicule, mais cette fois-ci beaucoup plus clairement qu’auparavant.”
À ce stade, M. Young dit que des hélicoptères Apache planaient au-dessus des enquêteurs, qui semblaient suivre les lumières vives de la forêt.
Il a poursuivi : “Alors que nous observions les ovnis, un hélicoptère Apache Longbow est apparu au-dessus de moi, et il s’est ensuite dirigé vers l’endroit où le reste de mon équipe se trouvait sur le site d’atterrissage, l’hélicoptère nous a encerclés plusieurs fois, puis un autre l’a rejoint et un troisième a suivi.”
L’équipe Ghostech Paranormal Investigations
(Image : GHOSTECH PARANORMAL INVESTIGATIONS)
“On s’est alors rendu compte qu’ils suivaient aussi ces OVNIs ainsi que nous avec nos caméras.”
L’équipe a alors décidé de quitter la forêt car elle craignait d’être persécutée et de voir leurs preuves confisquées.
Après l’incident initial de la forêt de Rendlesham en 1980, les recrues de l’armée sont retournées sur les lieux le lendemain matin et ont trouvé un certain nombre de traces triangulaires sur le sol.
Un témoin de l’événement, l’officier à la retraite de l’armée de l’air américaine Steve Longero, a déclaré en Décembre 2016 : “Je pense que ce n’était pas quelque chose de ce monde.”
Il a dit de l’objet trouvé dans les bois : “D’après ce dont je me souviens, c’était comme une lueur rougeâtre, verdâtre, elle brillait vraiment comme une lumière rougeâtre.”
“Elle brillait vraiment, comme si quelque chose était vraiment chaud et qu’elle brillait.”
Il a également rappelé comment l’objet a disparu. Il a ajouté : “Au fur et à mesure que les gens se sont approchés de cette chose, elle s’approchait un peu plus de nous, puis elle s’est mise à aller de l’avant, puis vers l’arrière et tout à coup elle a disparu, comme dans Star Trek, c’était comme une vitesse de distorsion et nous étions tous là en mode ‘quoi?'”.
Interstellar Visitor Found to Be Unlike a Comet or an Asteroid
Interstellar Visitor Found to Be Unlike a Comet or an Asteroid
The mystery of ’Oumuamua, the first interstellar object ever observed, continues to deepen. A new analysis argues that if it were a comet, it would have broken apart as it passed near the sun.
Like a hit-and-run driver who races from the scene of a crash, the interstellar guest known as ’Oumuamua has bolted out of the solar system, leaving confusion in its wake. Early measurements seemed to indicate that it was an asteroid — a dry rock much like those found orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. Then by this past summer, astronomers largely came around to the conclusion that it was instead a comet — an icy body knocked out of the distant reaches of a far-off planetary system.
Now a new analysis has found inconsistencies in this conclusion, suggesting that ’Oumuamua may not be a comet after all. Whether it’s actually a comet or an asteroid, one thing is clear: ’Oumuamua is not quite like anything seen before.
The object was first spotted a year ago by scientists with the Pan-STARRS telescope in Hawaii. ’Oumuamua (a Hawaiian word meaning “scout”) appeared to be a rocky, elongated asteroid at first, a stubby cosmic cigar.
Other astronomers quickly joined in the hunt, measuring everything they could. (One team even trained radio telescopes on it to check whether it might be transmitting extraterrestrial broadcasts. It was not.) By last December, a team of astronomers published ’Oumuamua’s electromagnetic spectra, which can be used to probe what an object is made of. The researchers found that ices with organic material similar to those seen in comets in our solar system lurked just below ’Oumuamua’s surface; that ice could have survived a long interstellar journey.
They also looked at ’Oumuamua’s rotation. Many asteroids tend to spin around their long axis like an expertly thrown football. ’Oumuamua, by contrast, tumbled like an errant pass by Charlie Brown.
A few months later, another collaboration found that ’Oumuamua wasn’t just being pulled by the sun’s gravity. Instead, it was being slightly accelerated by an unseen force, which they argued could only be attributed to comet “outgassing” acting like a thruster. With this additional information, the case appeared to be closed. “Interstellar asteroid is really a comet,” read the headline of a press release put out by the European Space Agency.
The explanation seemed to fit with what we know about our own solar system. In the distant reaches beyond Neptune, countless comets orbit our sun. Anytime one of these comets gets too close to a planet, it could be ejected out into the galaxy. In contrast, there are far fewer asteroids in the asteroid belt, and they orbit closer to the sun, where they’re harder to knock into interstellar space. “There are more comets, and it’s easier to fling them away from a planetary system,” said Ann-Marie Madigan, an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado, Boulder. “For the first interstellar traveler that we see in our solar system, for that to be an asteroid, would be shocking.”
Yet comets have tails. And ’Oumuamua, if it was indeed made out of icy rock and propelled by jets of gas as it passed by the sun, should have displayed a tail that would settle the question of its origin. Yet no tail was ever found.
Now in a new study that is currently under peer review, Roman Rafikov, an astrophysicist at the University of Cambridge, argues that the same forces that appeared to have accelerated ’Oumuamua — the same forces that should have also produced a tail — would have also affected its spin. In particular, the acceleration would have torqued ’Oumuamua to such a degree that it would have spun apart, breaking up into smaller pieces. If ’Oumuamua were a comet, he argues, it would not have survived.
“There’s very strong and unequivocal evidence on both sides,” said Rafikov. “If it’s an asteroid, then it’s really unusual, with exotic scenarios for its formation.” He proposed such a scenario earlier this year, whereby an ordinary star dies, forming a white dwarf, and in the process rips apart a planet and launches the shards clear across the galaxy. ’Oumuamua is one of those shards. “Basically, it’s a messenger from a dead star,” he said.
In part to help resolve the impasse, researchers have tried to identify the star system where ’Oumuamua originated by combing through the newly released data troves of the Gaia space telescope. Perhaps it came from a binary star system, or a system with a giant planet, either of which could have launched the object into interstellar space.
But of all the possible candidate star systems, none provided a match. ’Oumuamua’s trajectory was at least two light-years away from all the candidates anyway — too far for them to be its source. And if ’Oumuamua got launched hundreds of millions of years ago, all the local stars will have shifted quite a bit since then. “It’s unlikely you’d ever be able to track it back to a single individual parent system, which is a shame, but it’s just the way things are,” said Alan Jackson, an astronomer at the University of Toronto.
Ultimately the transient nature of the observations has frustrated astronomers’ ability to solve the mystery of our first interstellar guest. “We had only a few weeks, with almost no planning, to make the observations,” said Matthew Knight, an astronomer at the University of Maryland. “Everybody’s trying to wring out every last bit of information they can from what data we were able to collect as a community.” Had ’Oumuamua been spotted earlier, or had Hurricane Maria not taken Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory out of action, astronomers would have more to go on.
One takeaway for a number of astronomers is that space rocks don’t necessarily fit into one of two wholly separate categories. “There’s much more of a gradation between what’s a comet and what’s an asteroid,” said Michele Bannister, an astronomer at Queen’s University Belfast in Northern Ireland. “I feel like we’re fighting over an unnecessary binary here.”
And although ’Oumuamua was the first visitor from outside the solar system, astronomers will soon have more to puzzle over. Estimates are that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, scheduled for “first light” in 2021 in Chile, could find as many as one such object every year for a decade.
“What I hope ’Oumuamua brings home is that planetary systems grow and evolve. They create trillions of little planetesimals throughout the galaxy, and some of those will come and visit us every once and a while,” Bannister said. “Our planetesimals are no doubt visiting other stars.”
Black Knight Satellite (Dark Knight) - de UFO die over ons waakt ( of ons in de gaten houdt?)
Black Knight Satellite (Dark Knight) - de UFO die over ons waakt ( of ons in de gaten houdt?)
De geschiedenis van de Black Knight Satellite, een object dat rond onze planeet cirkelt in een polaire baan, zou niet zo controversieel mogen zijn. De polaire baan is een baan die in de tegenovergestelde richting ligt van degene die onze planeet op natuurlijke wijze roteert. Deze polaire baan wordt gebruikt voor toezicht en noch de Verenigde Staten noch Rusland hadden de technologische mogelijkheid om satellieten in die baan en op die hoogte te brengen toen de Black Knight Satellite (vermoedelijk) in 1954 voor het eerst werd ontdekt.
Momenteel op de NASA-site:
Op 7 september 1958 werd de eerste Black Knight Missile uit het Verenigd Koninkrijk gelanceerd vanuit het AustralischeWoomera en bereikte het een hoogte van meer dan 300 mijl; de tweede Black Knight Satellite wordt beschreven als een Britse satelliet die in 1959 op 12 maart ook in Australië werd gelanceerd en 350 voet hoogte heeft bereikt en een gewicht van 1000 pond had.
Op 28 februari 1959 werd de 1450-pond ARPA Discoverer I-satelliet met succes in een polaire baan gebracht door de USAF Thor-Agena A Booster van de Pacific Missile Range; maar stabilisatieproblemen maakte het moeilijk om de overname te volgen.
Op 20 februari 1962 maakte de Amerikaanse astronaut, John Glenn,met succes een baan rond de aarde in de missie van Friendship 7 en werd zo de eerste Amerikaan in de ruimte. Hij was de vijfde persoon in de ruimte na de voorgaande 4 astronauten uit Rusland., die hem vooraf gingen.
Geen enkele van de rapporten op de NASA-website geeft enige geloofwaardigheid dat deze Black Knight-satelliet verbonden kan worden met één van hun verkenningsactiviteiten in de ruimte, noch van die van Rusland en noch aan die van de Verenigde Staten uit die periode. De Black Knight Satellite weegt duidelijk veel meer dan 1000 pond en is veel groter. De meeste personenauto's wegen meer dan dat. We zijn er bijna 100% zeker van dat in 1958 geen enkel land de technologische mogelijkheid bezat om meer dan een paar honderd pond te lanceren en in een baan om de aarde te brengen en zeker niet in een polaire baan. De geschiedenis vertelt ons dat.
En dan zwijgen we nog van al die ruimteafval die we actueel terugvinden in een baan rond de aarde (meer dan 20.000 stukken). En toch is deze bijzondere satelliet er in geslaagd om niet te worden beschadigd door botsingen met dit rondzwervend ruimte afval, noch beschadigd door andere natuurlijke verschijnselen in de ruimte, zoals meteoren, zonnevlammen, ed.
Grumman Aircraft Corporation zou naar verluidt op 3 september 1960 met behulp van een trackingcamera een foto hebben gemaakt van de Black Knight in een baan rond de aarde. Ik vind wel heel toevallige gelijkenissen met de Grumman F-14 Tomcat en de afbeeldingen van de Black Knight terug gevonden op het internet. De eerste vlucht van de F-14 Tomcat was in 1970 en hij ging met pensioen in 2006.
Astronauten aan boord van Space Shuttle Endeavour namen in 1998 naar verluidt satellietfoto's van de Black Knight en deze foto's circuleren nog steeds op het internet met de uitleg dat het hier gaat om ruimtepuin van een vorige missie. Het was een afgebroken brokstuk dat daar bleef rondzwerven.
In 1954 beweerde de UFO-onderzoeker en gepensioneerde commandant van de luchtvaart Donald Keyhoe, in verschillende kranten, dat het object van de US Air Force zelf was. Hij had twee satellieten ontdekt die rond de maan in de buurt van de aarde cirkelden. Later trok hij zijn verklaringen terug in.
Naar aanleiding van deze verklaringen, analyseerde de auteur, Duncan Lunan, de herhaaldelijke radiosignalen die Nikola Tesla tijdens zijn radio-experimenten in 1899 had gehoord, en ook de lange echo's van onbekende oorsprong in 1928 verzameld door de amateur radio-operator, Jorgen Hals, Oslo uit Noorwegen. Hij beweerde dat de signalen kwamen van een buitenaardse sonde die sinds ongeveer 13.000 jaar geleden in een baan rond onze maan draaide. Deze sonde, zei hij, is voortgekomen van een ster uit het zonnestelsel Epsilon Bootis. Lunan trok later zijn verklaring in en beweerde dat hij rekenfouten had gemaakt toen hij de signalen decodeerde.
Afbeelding van 2018
Jij zal deze foto's , in1998 op internet geplaatst, zeker ook al gezien hebben. Ik heb er vaak over nagedacht. De eerste keer dat ik die foto's zag, herinnerde deze mij aan de film Spaceballs. Het lijkt op Harry's vacuümschip, maar het mist wat stukken.
Het idee om zo'n duister en sinister object te benaderen in de geïsoleerde grenzen van de onmetelijkheid van de volledig onbekende ruimte beangstigt me een beetje. Indien dit echt al meer dan 13.000 jaar toertjes draait rond onze planeet, wie heeft dat daar geplaatst? Er kan misschien wel het lichaam van een overleden man of zelfs een vrouw binnen in zitten hebben... Desondanks denk ik nog steeds dat het niets meer is dan een afleiding is voor ons. Zo niet, dan zou er een duidelijke, betere en beknopte verklaring voor zijn.
Ik denk dat regeringen zich voorbereid hebben en ingecalculeerd om mensen te verliezen tijdens ruimtemissies en dat sinds het begin van de bemande ruimtevaart in de jaren 1950. Het is altijd een mogelijkheid geweest. Ik denk dat de NASA van "nature" vele onverklaarbare gebeurtenissen veroorzaakt heeft die wij als ongeïdentificeerde vliegende objecten beschouwen. Zeker omdat alle regeringen nog steeds geheimen verbergen voor hun burgers.
In 2018 kijken we naar de hemel, net zoals Nostradamus en Galileo, anderen vóór hen deden. Niet in de wereld om ons heen.
En blijft het voor ons geen droom, geen ultiem verlangen om eens andere intelligente wezens uit het heelal te ontmoeten?
Ruimtesonde Hayabusa2 oefent afdaling naar oppervlak van planetoïde Ryugu
Ruimtesonde Hayabusa2 oefent afdaling naar oppervlak van planetoïde Ryugu
En daar zijn beelden van!
Eigenlijk had ruimtesonde Hayabusa2 deze maand al af moeten dalen naar het oppervlak van Ryugu om aldaar wat monsters te verzamelen. Maar zoals je eerder op Scientias.nl kon lezen, durfde de Japanse ruimtevaartorganisatie (JAXA) zo’n afdaling nog niet aan; Ryugu is namelijk rijkelijk bedekt met voor Hayabusa2 gevaarlijke kiezels. De touchdown is dan ook uitgesteld naar januari 2019. Het geeft JAXA wat meer tijd om de afdaling voor te bereiden én te oefenen. Want zoals we eerder meldden, zouden er in oktober al twee generale repetities plaatsvinden.
Generale repetitie En JAXA heeft woord gehouden. Beide generale repetities zijn achter de rug en goed verlopen. En wat nog mooier is: er zijn beelden van!
Dropping down…! Sequential images taken during the approach to Ryugu in our second touchdown rehearsal, TD1-R1-A.
Hierboven zie je beelden die tijdens de tweede generale repetitie zijn gemaakt. Ruimtesonde Hayabusa2 naderde het oppervlak van Ryugu tijdens deze generale repetitie tot een afstand van slechts 22,3 meter(!).
Landingsplaatsje Op de beelden die Hayabusa2 tijdens de afdaling maakte, is ook de tot op heden meest veelbelovende landingsplaats op Ryugu te zien. Deze landingsplaats wordt door de Japanners aangeduid als L08-B. Zoals je op de foto hieronder kunt zien, is dit één van de weinige gebieden waarin vrijwel geen grote kiezels te vinden zijn. En dat is belangrijk; JAXA wil voorkomen dat Hayabusa2 tijdens de afdaling en bemonstering per ongeluk een kei raakt en beschadigd raakt. Het liefst had JAXA daarom een 100 meter groot landingsgebied zonder grote kiezels gehad, maar dat is op heel Ryugu niet te vinden. En daarom zullen we het met dit slechts 20 meter brede landingsplaatsje moeten doen.
Een deel van het gebied waarin Hayabusa2 straks monsters moet verzamelen, is op deze foto te zien.
Afbeelding: JAXA, University of Tokyo, Kochi University, Rikkyo University, Nagoya University, Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji University, University of Aizu, AIST.
De afdaling naar het oppervlak wordt hoe dan ook uitdagend, zo benadrukt JAXA keer op keer. Want hoewel L08-B vrij is van grote kiezels, zijn er in de omgeving wel vrij grote keien te vinden die ontweken moeten worden.
Tijdens de generale repetities heeft JAXA een schat aan informatie verzameld. Een analyse van die informatie moet in januari bijdragen aan een geslaagde touchdown.
Kepler heeft minder potentieel leefbare exoplaneten ontdekt, dan gedacht
Kepler heeft minder potentieel leefbare exoplaneten ontdekt, dan gedacht
We dachten 30 planeten in de leefbare zone ontdekt te hebben, maar misschien zijn het er in werkelijkheid maar twee.
Dat blijkt uit een analyse van de Kepler-data, uitgevoerd in het licht van de Gaia-missie.
Gaia en Kepler De Gaia-satelliet werd in 2013 gelanceerd en heeft in de afgelopen jaren onder meer de helderheid en positie van ongeveer 1,7 miljard(!) sterren vastgesteld. En uit dat onderzoek rolt een opmerkelijke conclusie: veel van de sterren die ons reeds bekend waren, blijken – afgaand op de metingen van Gaia – veel helderder en groter te zijn dan we dachten. En dat heeft ook implicaties voor de planeten die ruimtetelescoop Kepler rond deze sterren heeft ontdekt.
Hoe zit dat precies? Kepler ontdekt nieuwe planeten door langdurig naar sterren te turen, in de hoop dat de helderheid van die sterren regelmatig enigszins afneemt. Zo’n afname kan namelijk veroorzaakt worden doordat een planeet voor de ster langs beweegt en tijdelijk een deel van het sterlicht tegenhoudt. Zodra Kepler op deze manier de aanwezigheid van een planeet heeft vastgesteld, willen onderzoekers natuurlijk graag weten hoe groot de planeet is. Dat leiden ze dan weer af uit de afname van de helderheid van de ster. Want als je een idee hebt van hoe helder en groot een ster is, kun je uit de afname van de helderheid ook weer afleiden hoe groot die planeet ongeveer moet zijn om zoveel sterlicht tegen te kunnen houden.
Leefbare zone Kepler heeft op deze manier al duizenden planeten ontdekt. Daar zitten grote jongens tussen – gasreuzen bijvoorbeeld – maar ook kleine, rotsachtige planeten en superaardes. Maar nu blijkt uit de Gaia-data dus dat we de helderheid en omvang van sterren onderschat hebben; sterren zijn in veel gevallen veel helderder en groter dan gedacht. En dat betekent dat veel van de door Kepler ontdekte planeten ook veel groter moeten zijn, om de afnames in helderheid te kunnen verklaren. Het heeft onder meer gevolgen voor die klasse planeten die onderzoekers doorgaans het meest interessant vinden: de kleine, rotsachtige planeten in de leefbare zone van een ster (zie kader).
De leefbare zone is een denkbeeldige zone rond een ster. Planeten die zich in die zone bevinden, ontvangen voldoende warmte van de ster om te voorkomen dat eventueel water op hun oppervlak bevriest. Tegelijkertijd ontvangen ze ook weer niet zoveel warmte dat eventueel water op hun oppervlak verdampt. Kortom: van planeten in deze zone wordt verwacht dat ze vloeibaar water kunnen herbergen.
Tot op heden heeft Kepler zo’n 30 kleine, rotsachtige planeten in de leefbare zone rond een ster ontdekt. Tenminste: dat dachten we. Want afgaand op wat Gaia ons leert, vermoeden onderzoekers nu dat veel van die planeten in werkelijkheid rond grotere en heldere sterren cirkelen – wat gevolgen heeft voor de locatie van de leefbare zone – en zelf ook wat groter zijn dan gedacht. Rekening houdend met wat Gaia tot op heden over de moedersterren van deze potentieel leefbare exoplaneten heeft onthuld, denken onderzoekers dat in werkelijkheid veel minder van deze planeten leefbaar kunnen zijn. In plaats van dertig, zouden ons mogelijk maar tussen de 2 en 12 rotsachtige exoplaneten in een leefbare zone bekend zijn.
Meer onderzoek Maar: onderzoekers houden een beetje een slag om de arm. Want eigenlijk is er nog veel meer data nodig – onder meer over het verband tussen de omvang en samenstelling van een planeet – om harde conclusies te kunnen trekken. “We zijn nog steeds bezig om uit te zoeken hoe groot een rotsachtige planeet kan zijn,” vertelt onderzoeker Jessie Dotson.
De nieuwe bevindingen lijken misschien wat teleurstellend: we hebben minder potentieel leefbare planeten ontdekt dan gedacht. Maar de onderzoekers wijzen erop dat ze er nog steeds van overtuigd zijn dat potentieel leefbare planeten een veelvoorkomend verschijnsel in ons universum zijn.
In de zomer van 1770 scheerde een komeet op een afstand van slechts twee miljoen kilometer langs de aarde. Maar niemand weet waar ‘ie sindsdien gebleven is.
Dit artikel is oorspronkelijk verschenen in het onlangs geheel vernieuwde blad ZENIT, waarin je elke maand alles kunt lezen over sterrenkunde, weerkunde en ruimteonderzoek.
De Franse astronoom Charles Messier ontdekte de komeet Lexell op 14 juni 1770, in het sterrenbeeld Schutter. Een week later was de komeet met het blote oog te zien. En op 1 juli – toen de komeet het dichtst bij de aarde stond – was deze even helder als Sirius. Zijn coma – de nevelige gaswolk rond de kern van de komeet – was toen aan de hemel vijf maal zo groot als de volle maan. De komeet Lexell was de eerste en enige komeet die ooit zo dicht bij de aarde is waargenomen. En op 3 oktober verdween deze weer uit het zicht. Anno 2018 proberen astronomen nog steeds te achterhalen waar de komeet sindsdien is gebleven.
Radaropnamen van planetoïde 2010 JL33, gemaakt met NASA’s Goldstone Solar System Radar op 11 en 12 december 2010, toen deze planetoïde op 7 miljoen kilometer langs de aarde scheerde. Het rotsblok draait in 9,4 uur eenmaal om zijn as en zou de kern van komeet Lexell kunnen zijn.
Afbeelding: NASA / JPL-Caltech.
Kortperiodieke komeet Na het verdwijnen van de komeet vroegen astronomen zich af wat voor baan de komeet had beschreven. Zoals gebruikelijk werd eerst aan een paraboolbaan gedacht, omdat men toen nog geen enkele komeet met een ellipsbaan kende en de komeet zich blijkbaar voor het eerst had vertoond. Maar een paraboolbaan voldeed niet. De Fins-Zweedse wis- en sterrenkundige Anders Johan Lexell vond de oplossing. Hij probeerde andere baanvormen en ontdekt dat alleen een elliptische baan rond de zon met de waarnemingen overeenstemde. Het meest nabije punt (perihelium) van die baan lag volgens zijn berekeningen bij de baan van Venus en het verste punt (aphelium) nabij de baan van Jupiter. De omlooptijd bedroeg 5,6 jaar. De allereerste kortperiodieke komeet was gevonden.
Silhouetportret uit 1784 van Anders Johan Lexell (1740-1784), de Zweeds-Finse wis- en sterrenkundige die aantoonde dat de later naar hem genoemde komeet in een ellipsbaan om de zon draaide.
Jupiter als komeetregelaar Maar ook deze oplossing leidde weer tot vragen. De komeet was in juli 1770 zeer helder geweest, dus waarom zou hij al niet tijdens een eerdere passage zijn waargenomen? Ook op deze vraag vond Lexell het antwoord. De komeet had aanvankelijk in een baan gedraaid die grotendeels buiten de baan van Jupiter lag, te ver om hem vanaf de aarde te kunnen zien. In 1767 leidde een passage op korte afstand van deze reuzenplaneet tot een drastische baanverandering. De komeet kwam toen in een kleinere baan met een omlooptijd van 5,6 jaar die hem drie jaar later dicht langs de aarde bracht en hem dus voor het eerst zichtbaar maakte. De passage langs de zon in maart 1776 bleef ongezien omdat de komeet toen, gezien vanaf de aarde, achter de zon stond. Maar in 1778 kwam Lexell met de waarschuwing dat de komeet zich misschien nooit meer zou vertonen. Doordat zijn omlooptijd de helft was van die van Jupiter, zou de komeet in augustus 1779 – na twee omlopen rond de zon – opnieuw zeer dicht langs Jupiter komen. Door de baanverandering die hiervan het gevolg zou zijn, kwam het perihelium ergens tussen de banen van Mars en Jupiter te liggen, ver weg van de zon zodat de komeet onzichtbaar bleef. Lexell kreeg gelijk, want ondanks naarstig zoeken was er in 1781 en 1782 geen spoor van de komeet te zien. En daarna ook niet, nooit meer. Andere astronomen bevestigden min of meer de bevindingen van Lexell. De komeet – die inmiddels de naam van Lexell had gekregen en niet die van zijn ontdekker – moest als verloren worden beschouwd.
William Robert Brooks (1844-1921), de Amerikaanse astronoom die in 1889 een komeet ontdekte waarvan even werd gedacht dat hij dezelfde was als komeet Lexell. Plaats en datum van de foto zijn onbekend.
Afbeelding: Smith Observatory Library.
Komeet 16P/Brooks onder de loep Toch bleef het lot van komeet Lexell astronomen intrigeren. Op 6 juli 1889 ontdekte de Amerikaanse astronoom William Robert Brooks komeet 1889d, ofwel 16P/Brooks. De komeet bleek in ongeveer zeven jaar rond de zon te draaien en was dus evenals komeet Lexell een lid van de Jupiter-kometenfamilie. De Amerikaanse astronoom Seth Carlo Chandler berekende dat de komeet voorheen in een heel andere baan om de zon had gedraaid, met het perihelium nabij de baan van Jupiter en het aphelium buiten de baan van Saturnus, waardoor de komeet nooit voor ons zichtbaar kon worden. Een zeer dichte nadering tot Jupiter in 1889, tot op een vergelijkbare afstand als komeet Lexell, had die baan echter ingrijpend veranderd en wel zodanig dat hij evenals komeet Lexell in de buurt van de aarde kon komen. Deze baanverandering zou volgens de berekeningen van Chandler hebben plaatsgevonden in dat deel van de baan van Jupiter waar ook komeet Lexell zich in augustus 1779 bevond. En wat het meest opvallende was: enkele belangrijke grootheden van zijn baan leken wel heel sterk op die van komeet Lexell. Dat bracht Chandler tot het ‘overweldigende vermoeden’ dat deze komeet dezelfde was als komeet Lexell. Helaas gooide zijn Amerikaanse collega Charles Lane Poor in 1905 roet in het eten. Zijn berekeningen na twee nieuwe verschijningen toonden aan dat komeet 16P/Brooks hoogstwaarschijnlijk niet dezelfde was als komeet Lexell. Bovendien wees Poor erop dat behalve overeenkomsten in banen ook overeenkomsten in fysische eigenschappen belangrijk zijn en die waren in dit geval niet te bepalen. Komeet Lexell bleef zoek.
De Pools-Russische astronome Elena Ivanova Kazimirchak-Polonskaya (1902-1993) in 1934. Volgens haar zou komeet Lexell nu in zo’n 280 jaar in een baan om de zon kunnen draaien.
Transneptunische baan? In de jaren 1960 begon de Pools-Russische astronome Elena Ivanova Kazimirchak-Polonskaya, van het Instituut voor Theoretische Astronomie in Leningrad, de baanveranderingen van alle bekende kortperiodieke kometen te bestuderen. Elena simuleerde de veranderingen van de komeetbanen gedurende de periode 1660-2060 met een BESM-2, een vroege Sovjetcomputer die nog met vacuümbuizen werkte. Ze bestudeerde de belangrijke rol van de vier reuzenplaneten bij het veranderen van de baan, invangen en wegslingeren van kometen. In het kader van dit onderzoek werden ook de baanveranderingen van de verloren komeet Lexell bestudeerd, waarbij de invloed van alle planeten in rekening werd gebracht. Kazimirchak-Polonskaya vond dat de komeet vóór zijn eerste ontmoeting met Jupiter, in 1767, minstens een eeuw lang in een bijna cirkelvormige baan met een omlooptijd van tien jaar in de buurt van Jupiter om de zon had gedraaid. Na de tweede ontmoeting met Jupiter, in 1779, zou de komeet mogelijk in een elliptische baan op afstanden tussen 5 en 81 astronomische eenheden van de zon zijn gekomen, in een transneptunische baan die tot twee maal zo ver als Pluto reikte en een omlooptijd van 280 jaar had. Maar deze berekende waarden waren heel gevoelig voor zelfs heel kleine fouten in de oorspronkelijke positiemetingen. Het was daardoor ook mogelijk dat komeet Lexell via een hyperbolische baan het zonnestelsel had verlaten.
Grote kans op herontdekking? Amerikaanse astronomen hebben nu opnieuw de lotgevallen van komeet Lexell bestudeerd. Met behulp van geavanceerde computerprogramma’s berekenden Paul Wiegert, Quan-Zhi Ye en Man-To Hui de baan en baanveranderingen van komeet Lexell vanaf het moment dat hij in 1767 voor het eerst rakelings langs Jupiter kwam. Daarbij werd rekening gehouden met de aantrekkingskracht van de zon, het stelsel aarde-maan en de zeven andere planeten. Zij vonden dat er een kans van 98 procent is dat de komeet zich momenteel nog steeds ergens in de omgeving van de banen van Mars of de aarde ophoudt. Het perihelium zou zich in ieder geval een stuk binnen de baan van Jupiter moeten bevinden en misschien zelfs binnen de baan van de aarde. In tegenstelling tot wat voorheen werd gedacht, zou er dus toch nog een (grote) kans zijn dat komeet Lexell zich een keer in onze buurt vertoont. Uitgaande van de schijnbare helderheid van de komeet tijdens zijn verschijning van 1770 berekenden de drie astronomen dat zijn absolute helderheid eertijds vier maal zo groot was als die van komeet Halley. Lexell behoorde daarmee tot de helderste ‘aardscherende’ kometen. De afmetingen van de kern van de komeet zou tussen de 4 en 22 kilometer liggen, waarmee Lexell tevens een van de grootste kometen was die zich in de buurt van de aarde heeft vertoond.
Jupiter met zijn Grote Rode Vlek, gefotografeerd in april 2014 met de Hubble Space Telescope. Deze reuzenplaneet heeft er voor gezorgd dat komeet Lexell zich één keer in de buurt van de aarde vertoonde.
Afbeelding: NASA, ESA, A.Simon.
Lexell als planetoïde? Als komeet Lexell zich inderdaad ergens binnen de baan van Jupiter verschuilt maar inmiddels inactief is geworden, zou hij zich als een dode komeet of een planetoïde kunnen voordoen. Misschien is hij zelfs al gefotografeerd in het kader van programma’s waarmee objecten in de omgeving van de aarde worden opgespoord. Om daar achter te komen hebben Wiegert en collega’s de banen van NEO’s (Near Earth Objects) groter dan één kilometer onder de loep genomen en die teruggerekend naar 1770, het jaar waarin komeet Lexell langs de aarde kwam. Er werd één planetoïde gevonden waarvan de baan in 1770 heel veel leek op die van Lexell. Dat was 2010 JL33, een 1800 meter grote planetoïde die tussen Jupiter en Venus om de zon draait. Maar helaas blijkt die planetoïde toen niet op hetzelfde moment als komeet Lexell langs de aarde te zijn gekomen. Dit verschil kan veroorzaakt zijn door enkele nauwe passages langs Jupiter in de afgelopen tweehonderd jaar. Ander effecten die misschien een rol hebben gespeeld zijn de niet-gravitationele krachten die op de planetoïde kunnen werken. Dat zijn krachten die onder invloed van het zonlicht optreden en weliswaar heel zwak zijn, maar op lange termijn toch een niet te verwaarlozen invloed op de baan hebben. Ook dit effect hebben Wiegert en collega’s bestudeerd en na heel veel uitproberen vinden zij dat zulke krachten het tijdsverschil inderdaad kunnen verkleinen. Helemaal wegwerken lukt echter niet. De astronomen concluderen in hun artikel in het aprilnummer (2018) van de Astronomical Journal dat planetoïde 2010 JL33 en komeet Lexell hetzelfde object zouden kunnen zijn, maar dat de overeenkomst nog ‘verre van overtuigend’ is. Komeet Lexell is dus nog steeds niet teruggevonden, net zomin als de zeventien andere kometen die sinds Lexell spoorloos zijn verdwenen.
ZENIT Kom nog meer te weten over kometen, maar ook over sterren, planeten en andere hemellichamen met ZENIT. In het magazine ZENIT lees je elke maand het laatste nieuws over sterrenkunde, ruimteonderzoek, weer en klimaat.
Zo lees je in het novembernummer bijvoorbeeld alles over de spectroscoop, een bijzonder instrument dat niet meer weg te denken is binnen de moderne sterrenkunde. Verder: de ALMA-telescoop opent een nieuw venster naar het heelal, alles over komeet Wirtanen die eind dit jaar met het blote oog aan de hemel te zien zal zijn, en hoe je zandlawines op andere planeten kunt bestuderen in een centrifuge.
Nieuwsgierig geworden? Kijk op de website voor meer informatie of sluit hier direct een abonnement af!
Mars Express heeft een vreemde wolk gespot op de rode planeet.
De onbemande ruimtesonde Mars Express heeft wel een hele mysterieuze pluim gespot op de rode planeet. Zo is de sonde al ruim een maand in de ban van een langgerekte wolk, die rond de 20 kilometer hoge Arsia Mons-vulkaan zweeft.
Vulkaan De locatie doet wellicht vermoeden dat het eigenaardige verschijnsel te maken heeft met vulkanische activiteit. Maar toch zijn de onderzoekers er vrij zeker dat dit niet het geval is; zo hebben wetenschappers nog nooit enige vorm van vulkanische activiteit op Mars ontdekt. Nee, de onderzoekers neigen eerder naar een waterijswolk. Zo is het bekend dat aan weerszijden van de zuidwestelijke flank van de Arsia Mons-vulkaan een seizoensgebonden, terugkerende wolk bestaande uit waterijs ontstaat. Deze is ook eerder waargenomen in 2009, 2012 en 2015. En dit is – helaas – een doodnormaal meteorologisch fenomeen op de rode planeet.
De langgerekte wolkenpluim op de rode planeet.
Wolk De foto hierboven is genomen met de Visuele Monitoring Camera (VMC) van de Mars Express. De sonde heeft de wolk de afgelopen weken wel honderden keren afgebeeld. De witte, langwerpige pluim strekt zich uit over zo’n 1500 kilometer ten westen van de Arsia Mons vulkaan, die zich dichtbij de evenaar van de planeet bevindt. Ter vergelijking: de kegelvormige vulkaan heeft een diameter van zo’n 250 kilometer.
Groot De waterijswolk verandert gedurende de Martiaanse dag meerdere keren van uiterlijk. Zo groeit de wolk immens in lengte tijdens de ochtend, aangespoord door een wind die langs de vulkaan raast. Hierdoor loopt de wolkpluim bijna evenwijdig aan de evenaar en bereikt zo’n indrukwekkende grootte, dat deze zelfs voor telescopen op aarde zichtbaar kan zijn.
De vorming van waterijswolken is gevoelig voor de hoeveelheid stof die in de atmosfeer aanwezig is. En aangezien er in juni en juli een enorme stofstorm op de rode planeet woedde, kunnen de beelden belangrijke informatie opleveren over het effect van stof op de ontwikkeling van de wolken, en de variabiliteit ervan gedurende het jaar.
NASA fotografeert een perfect rechthoekige ijsberg
NASA fotografeert een perfect rechthoekige ijsberg
Moeder Natuur kan een strak lijnenspel blijkbaar ook wel waarderen.
De prachtige foto is gemaakt tijdens NASA’s IceBridge-project. Tijdens dit onderzoeksproject worden de Antarctische en Arctische gebieden elk jaar vanuit de lucht geobserveerd. Door de beelden en metingen naast elkaar te leggen, kunnen we zien hoe de ijskappen, ijsplaten en zee-ijs zich door de jaren heen ontwikkelen.
From yesterday's #IceBridge flight: A tabular iceberg can be seen on the right, floating among sea ice just off of the Larsen C ice shelf. The iceberg's sharp angles and flat surface indicate that it probably recently calved from the ice shelf.
Afkalven IJsplaten zijn eigenlijk niets anders dan gletsjertongen die op het water drijven. Doordat de achterliggende gletsjer ijs richting zee duwt, zou je verwachten dat zo’n ijsplaat alleen maar groter wordt. De praktijk is echter anders; er ontstaan met name aan de rand van de ijsplaat – waar het ijs dun is – scheuren. En die scheuren monden uiteindelijk uit in het loskomen van ijsbergen. Bij ijsbergen denk je in eerste instantie misschien aan een hoge, onregelmatig gevormde berg ijs. Maar ijsbergen die loskomen van een platte ijsplaat zien er vanzelfsprekend heel anders uit: ze zijn plat. En vaak hebben ze ook redelijk rechte randen, omdat de scheuren die in een ijsplaat ontstaan vaak redelijk recht lopen. Maar de ijsberg die nu voor de Larsen C-ijsplaat is gespot, is – voor zover we dat op deze luchtfoto kunnen zien – wel heel strak afgekalfd.
Zo strak blijft de ijsberg niet; nu deze los is gekomen van de Larsen C-ijsplaat zijn alle randen blootgesteld aan wind en golvend water. Het lijkt dan ook een kwestie van tijd voor het strakke lijnenspel door die nietsontziende eroderende krachten wordt aangetast.
History is full of various aviation mysteries that have gone unsolved. There are dozens upon dozens of cases of planes shooting up into the skies only to come back with fantastic stories of weirdness, or conversely to never come back at all. From missing flights like that of Amelia Earhart to encounters with UFOs, vanished aircraft over the Bermuda Triangle, and more, the skies have always been a mysterious place to venture into, with numerous unsolved mysteries to be found here among the clouds. One very odd case of an aviation mystery is a flight that supposedly disappeared into nothingness, only to reappear decades later halfway across the world with nothing but riddles and strange clues.
A very odd account was written of in an issue of the Weekly World News magazine on November 14, 1989 by a journalist named Irwin Fisher, and although the name of the magazine should be sending alarm bells ringing, the tale that it told has gone on to be an oft-discussed oddity. The whole story supposedly centers on an airliner, Santiago Flight 513, which was a Lockheed Super Constellation that was carrying 88 passengers and 4 crew members when it embarked on a flight from Aachen, Germany on September 4, 1954 on what was to be a routine flight to Chile. However, this was all to apparently become far from routine, and the plane went on to completely vanish without a trace somewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, flying off into nothingness and legend. Despite an intensive search, no wreckage was ever found, and the flight was considered simply lost at sea, with all on board officially considered dead.
That is far from the end of the story, and according to the article decades later, on October 12, 1989, a plane came in out of the blue over Port Alegre, Brazil, where it proceeded to circle the airport several times before coming in for a landing and then simply sitting there on the tarmac. Throughout the whole surreal scene there was apparently no successful communications between air traffic control and the pilots of the mysterious craft, just a wall of quiet, so a team was put together by airport personnel to approach the idling plane that was crouched out there on the runway in total radio silence.
When the team warily approached the dormant aircraft, which sat there almost as if a beast ready to pounce, they pried the doors open, and at that point probably no one there had the slightest idea of the horror show that was awaiting them within that dim vessel. According to the tale, within the cramped confines of that aircraft there was not a single living person on board, but rather the macabre sight of every single passenger and crew member sitting there as skeletons, their empty eye sockets staring off into the abyss of whatever they had seen. Even the pilot, Captain Miguel Victor Cury, was a skeleton, his desiccated fleshless fingers still gripping the controls tight, and leaving everyone to wonder just how the plane had managed to land in the first place. Through this all, the planes perfectly working engines were still idling away, completely ignorant to the fact that 35 years had passed since the doomed aircraft had left its destination.
Upon this grim discovery, the airport officials apparently went about totally covering the whole thing up, and there was quite a bit of debate on what was going on. One researcher named Dr. Celso Atello has said that the case demonstrated a clear case of a portal or wormhole of some sort, saying that Flight 513 had “almost certainly entered a time warp, there is no other explanation.” According to the reports, the only thing the Brazilian government was willing to concede was that the flight had appeared out of nowhere and landed safely, but other than that it has refused to offer any further explanation or speculation. Retired physics professor Roderigo de Manha chimed in on this lack of transparency, complaining that the government had a duty to share what it had learned in the investigation, saying:
The public has a right to know everything about this plane and the government has a duty to tell them. If this plane did enter a time warp and there is evidence to prove it, the entire world should be told. Something like this could change the way we view our world and alter science as we know it. It is crime to keep information like this secret, especially from the relatives of the people who perished on Santiago Airlines Flight 513.
In the meantime, the Brazilian government has refused to offer up any more information of the case, and it has subsequently been left open to discussion and debate. Of course considering the source of this story and its spectacular nature there has been quite a bit of skepticism pointed its way, saying that it is all merely a clever urban legend and hoax, but what if it isn’t? Is there any truth to this tale at all, and if so what was going on here? How could a plane vanish and then reappear decades later, good as new, only to make a perfect landing while all of its occupants were skeletons? While this is most likely a good old-fashioned journalistic yarn, it is certainly curious nevertheless, and it joins the many aviation mysteries that have come before it.
Europa has been thought to have water vapor plumes similar to those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. But new research shows Europa’s plumes differ significantly from those on Enceladus – or, perhaps – don’t really exist at all.
Artist’s concept of a water vapor plume on Europa. New research shows that, if they do exist, Europa’s plumes aren’t as dynamic as those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
Does Jupiter’s moon Europa have water vapor plumes? A growing body of evidence in the last few years suggests the answer is yes, but a final confirmation has remained elusive. If the plumes do exist on Europa, they seem to be less active than those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, where huge geyser-like plumes erupt from the moon’s south pole on a regular basis. Data from the Hubble Space Telescope has strengthened the case for plumes on Europa. But a new finding – presented on October 22, 2018, at the Division of Planetary Sciences meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee – has thrown a wrench into the possibility.
Researchers led by Julie Rathbun of the Planetary Science Institute said they found a lack of the expected heat signatures at locations where Europa’s plumes should originate. In other words … no hot spots.
Jupiter’s moon Europa as captured by the Galileo spacecraft, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. Galileo found the 1st evidence that a global ocean of liquid water exists under Europa’s icy crust.
We searched through the available Galileo thermal data at the locations proposed as the sites of potential plumes. Reanalysis of temperature data from the Galileo mission does not show anything special in the locations where plumes have possibly been observed. There are no hotspot signatures at either of the sites.
This is surprising because the Enceladus plumes have a clear thermal signature at their site of origin, so this suggests that either the Europa plumes are very different, or the plumes are only occasional, or that they don’t exist, or that their thermal signature is too small to have been detected by current data.
Composite photos from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Galileo spacecraft, showing a suspected plume erupting on Europa in 2014 and 2016.
Previous observations had suggested a plume originating from an area north of Pwyll Crater on Europa, and reanalysis of Galileo magnetometer and plasma data also supported the existence of a plume source about 600 miles (1,000 km) northeast of the first site.
But if the plume locations on Europa don’t show any heat signatures – as they do on Enceladus – that result suggests that either Europa’s are different from those on Enceladus, or that Europa’s plumes don’t even exist. Rathbun put it simply when she said:
Europa was expected to be active.
Rathbun said there are four possible explanations for the lack of heat signatures on Europa. The plumes may be intermittent. They may be fundamentally different from those on Enceladus and not be associated with anything hot. They may be smaller than expected. Or, they don’t exist; however, other data from Hubble provide strong evidence that they do exist.
Artist’s concept of the global subsurface ocean thought to lie beneath Europa’s icy crust. The plumes on Europa, if they exist, stem from there.
Image via NASA/JPL-Caltech.
On Enceladus, the plumes originate from a salty global subsurface ocean, where the water makes its way to the surface through large cracks called “Tiger Stripes” in the outer ice shell near the south pole. Data from the Cassinispacecraft, which orbited Saturn until September of 2017, also showed that there is likely geothermal activity on the ocean floor. That’s intriguing because, on Earth, geothermal vents on the sea floor provide conditions suitable for life.
It’s thought that conditions similar to those on Enceladus probably exist in Europa’s global subsurface ocean as well. But finding out for sure will require a return mission to the vicinity of Jupiter. Europa’s subsurface ocean has given it a powerful allure for space scientists, and a future planetary mission is already bound there. NASA’s upcoming Europa Clipper mission, to be launched in the early-mid 2020s, will be able to study the marine environment in Europa’s ocean better than ever before. It will be able to examine deposits left on the moon’s surface by evaporating ocean water. Some water may simply seep to the surface, but if there are plumes, they could deposit a large amount of minerals on the surface, which Europa Clipper could analyze.
It’s even possible that Europa Clipper could fly directly through the plumes and analyze their composition, much as Cassini did at Enceladus, when that spacecraft discovered complex organic molecules in Enceladus’ plumes.
Geyser-like water vapor plumes on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, as seen by the Cassini spacecraft. Analysis by the spacecraft showed they contain water vapor, ice particles, organics and salts.
Whatever the explanation for Europa’s plumes turns out to be, it will provide scientists with valuable insight into how plumes occur on other worlds, including the nitrogen gas ones on Neptune’s moon Triton. Those plumes have nothing to do with water, but are active geysers of extremely cold nitrogen gas – something not seen anywhere else in the solar system.
Bottom line: New research shows that Europa’s plumes may be significantly different from those on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, since they don’t exhibit the same heat signatures. The upcoming Europa Clipper mission should be able to help finally determine what is happening (or not) on Europa.
Star motions in the Small Magellanic Cloud – as revealed by the Gaia space observatory – confirm that this small satellite galaxy of our Milky Way collided in the past with its larger neighbor.
The video above simulates an interaction between the Small Magellanic Cloud and Large Magellanic Cloud, starting 1 billion years ago. It shows a collision about 100 million years ago. And indeed astronomers now think this happened.
Just a few years ago, astronomer Gurtina Besla at University of Arizona used a computer to model what would have happened if, sometime in the past, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds collided. The simulation above comes from her work. She and her team predicted at that time that a direct collision would cause the southeast region of the Small Magellanic Cloud – which astronomers call the Wing – to move toward the Large Magellanic Cloud. On the other hand, if the two galaxies simply passed near each other, the Wing stars should be moving in a perpendicular direction. This past week (October 25, 2018) – thanks to ESA’s Gaia space observatory – Michigan astronomers were able to confirm that what Besla and team predicted is in fact occurring.
The Wing is moving away from the main body of the Small Magellanic. They said this observation provides:
… the first unambiguous evidence that the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds recently collided.
The Magellanic Clouds, visible from Earth’s Southern Hemisphere, are known to be small satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. They’re located not far from each other on the sky’s dome. Star motions in the smaller Cloud provide evidence for the collision, but we didn’t have data on these motions prior to Gaia, whose second data releasewas last April. Astronomers have been mining the Gaia data to learn all sorts of interesting insights about our galaxy and its neighborhood of space, and now here’s another one. Astronomer Sally Oey of University of Michigan, lead author of the study, said:
This is really one of our exciting results. You can actually see that the Wing is its own separate region that’s moving away from the rest of the Small Magellanic Cloud.
Oey and colleagues published their results in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.
Astrophotographer Justin Ng caught the edgewise view into our Milky Way galaxy, the bright star Canopus and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds at sunrise, in September 2013, over East Java’s Mount Bromo. Read more about this image.
A statement from University of Michigan described some of the processes these astronomers used to make their discovery:
Together with an international team, Oey and undergraduate researcher Johnny Dorigo Jones were examining the SMC [Small Magellanic Cloud] for ‘runaway’ stars, or stars that have been ejected from clusters within the SMC. To observe this galaxy they were using a recent data release from Gaia …
Gaia is designed to image stars again and again over a period of several years in order to plot their movement in real time. That way, scientists can measure how stars move across the sky.
Artist’s concept of Gaia in space.
Image via D. DUCROS/ESA.
We’ve been looking at very massive, hot young stars – the hottest, most luminous stars, which are fairly rare. The beauty of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Large Magellanic Cloud is that they’re their own galaxies, so we’re looking at all of the massive stars in a single galaxy.
Examining stars in a single galaxy helps astronomers in two ways, these researchers said. First, it provides a statistically complete sample of stars in one parent galaxy. Second, this gives the astronomers a uniform distance to all the stars, which helps them measure their individual velocities. Dorigo Jones said:
It’s really interesting that Gaia obtained the proper motions of these stars. These motions contain everything we’re looking at. For example, if we observe someone walking in the cabin of an airplane in flight, the motion we see contains that of the plane, as well as the much slower motion of the person walking.
So we removed the bulk motion of the entire Small Magellanic Cloud in order to learn more about the velocities of individual stars. We’re interested in the velocity of individual stars because we’re trying to understand the physical processes occurring within the cloud.
Oey and Dorigo Jones study runaway stars to determine how they have been ejected from these clusters. In one mechanism, called the binary supernova scenario, one star in a gravitationally bound, binary pair explodes as a supernova, ejecting the other star like a slingshot. This mechanism produces X-ray-emitting binary stars.
Another mechanism is that a gravitationally unstable cluster of stars eventually ejects one or two stars from the group. This is called the dynamical ejection scenario, which produces normal binary stars. The researchers found significant numbers of runaway stars among both X-ray binaries and normal binaries, indicating that both mechanisms are important in ejecting stars from clusters.
In looking at this data, the team also observed that all the stars within the Wing – that southeast part of the SMC – are moving in a similar direction and speed. This demonstrates the SMC and LMC likely had a collision a few hundred million years ago.
The Magellanic Clouds – satellite galaxies of the Milky Way – via ESO/Wikipedia.
Dorigo Jones commented:
We want as much information about these stars as possible to better constrain these ejection mechanisms.
Everyone loves marveling at images of galaxies and nebulae that are incredibly far away. The Small Magellanic Cloud is so close to us, however, that we can see its beauty in the night sky with just our unaided eye. This fact, along with the data from Gaia, allows us to analyze the complex motions of stars within the Small Magellanic Cloud and even determine factors of its evolution.
Bottom line:The motions of stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud – as revealed by the Gaia space observatory – show that this small satellite galaxy of our Milky Way collided in the past with its larger neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud.
From the X Files –“Why Don’t Astronomers See UFOs”
From the X Files –“Why Don’t Astronomers See UFOs”
As a NASA research scientist who worked for four years at NASA Ames Research Center in the Intelligent Systems Division, and now a professor of physics, Kevin Knuth attended the 2002 NASA Contact Conference, which focused on serious speculation about extraterrestrials. During the meeting a concerned participant said loudly in a sinister tone, “You have absolutely no idea what is out there!”
The silence was palpable as the truth of this statement sunk in. Humans are fearful of extraterrestrials visiting Earth. Perhaps fortunately, the distances between the stars are prohibitively vast. At least this is what we novices, who are just learning to travel into space, tell ourselves.
Are we alone? Unfortunately, neither of the answers feel satisfactory. To be alone in this vast universe is a lonely prospect. On the other hand, if we are not alone and there is someone or something more powerful out there, that too is terrifying. And Why don’t astronomers see UFOs asks Knuth, an Associate Professor in the Departments of Physics and Informatics at the University at Albany. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Entropy.
Knuth writes: I have always been interested in UFOs. Of course, there was the excitement that there could be aliens and other living worlds. But more exciting to me was the possibility that interstellar travel was technologically achievable. In 1988, during my second week of graduate school at Montana State University, several students and I were discussing a recent cattle mutilation that was associated with UFOs. A physics professor joined the conversation and told us that he had colleagues working at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Great Falls, Montana, where they were having problems with UFOs shutting down nuclear missiles.
At the time I thought this professor was talking nonsense. But 20 years later, I was stunned to see a recording of a press conference featuring several former US Air Force personnel, with a couple from Malmstrom AFB, describing similar occurrences in the 1960s. Clearly there must be something to this.
With July 2 being World UFO Day, it was a good time for society to address the unsettling and refreshing fact we may not be alone. I believe we need to face the possibility that some of the strange flying objects that outperform the best aircraft in our inventory and defy explanation may indeed be visitors from afar – and there’s plenty of evidence to support UFO sightings.
The nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi was famous for posing thought provoking questions. In 1950, at Los Alamos National Laboratory after discussing UFOs over lunch, Fermi asked, “Where is everybody?” He estimated there were about 300 billion stars in the galaxy, many of them billions of years older than the sun, with a large percentage of them likely to host habitable planets. Even if intelligent life developed on a very small percentage of these planets, then there should be a number of intelligent civilizations in the galaxy. Depending on the assumptions, one should expect anywhere from tens to tens of thousands of civilizations.
With the rocket-based technologies that we have developed for space travel, it would take between 5 and 50 million years for a civilization like ours to colonize our Milky Way galaxy. Since this should have happened several times already in the history of our galaxy, one should wonder where is the evidence of these civilizations? This discrepancy between the expectation that there should be evidence of alien civilizations or visitations and the presumption that no visitations have been observed has been dubbed the Fermi Paradox.
Carl Sagan correctly summarized the situation by saying that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” The problem is that there has been no single well-documented UFO encounter that would alone qualify as the smoking gun. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that many governments around the world have covered up and classified information about such encounters. But there are enough scraps of evidence that suggest that the problem needs to be open to scientific study.
When it comes to science, the scientific method requires hypotheses to be testable so that inferences can be verified. UFO encounters are neither controllable nor repeatable, which makes their study extremely challenging. But the real problem, in my view, is that the UFO topic is taboo.
While the general public has been fascinated with UFOs for decades, our governments, scientists and media, have essentially declared that of all the UFO sightings are a result of weather phenomenon or human actions. None are actually extraterrestrial spacecraft. And no aliens have visited Earth. Essentially, we are told that the topic is nonsense. UFOs are off-limits to serious scientific study and rational discussion, which unfortunately leaves the topic in the domain of fringe and pseudoscientists, many of whom litter the field with conspiracy theories and wild speculation.
I think UFO skepticism has become something of a religion with an agenda, discounting the possibility of extraterrestrials without scientific evidence, while often providing silly hypotheses describing only one or two aspects of a UFO encounter reinforcing the popular belief that there is a conspiracy. A scientist must consider all of the possible hypotheses that explain all of the data, and since little is known, the extraterrestrial hypothesis cannot yet be ruled out. In the end, the skeptics often do science a disservice by providing a poor example of how science is to be conducted. The fact is that many of these encounters – still a very small percentage of the total – defy conventional explanation.
The media amplifies the skepticism by publishing information about UFOs when it is exciting, but always with a mocking or whimsical tone and reassuring the public that it can’t possibly be true. But there are credible witnesses and encounters.
I am often asked by friends and colleagues, “Why don’t astronomers see UFOs?” The fact is that they do. In 1977, Peter Sturrock, a professor of space science and astrophysics at Stanford University, mailed 2,611 questionnaires about UFO sightings to members of the American Astronomical Society. He received 1,356 responses from which 62 astronomers – 4.6 percent – reported witnessing or recording inexplicable aerial phenomena. This rate is similar to the approximately 5 percent of UFO sightings that are never explained.
As expected, Sturrock found that astronomers who witnessed UFOs were more likely to be night sky observers. Over 80 percent of Sturrock’s respondents were willing to study the UFO phenomenon if there was a way to do so. More than half of them felt that the topic deserves to be studied versus 20 percent who felt that it should not. The survey also revealed that younger scientists were more likely to support the study of UFOs.
UFOs have been observed through telescopes. I know of one telescope sighting by an experienced amateur astronomer in which he observed an object shaped like a guitar pick moving through the telescope’s field of view. Further sightings are documented in the book “Wonders in the Sky,” in which the authors compile numerous observations of unexplained aerial phenomena made by astronomers and published in scientific journals throughout the 1700s and 1800s.
Evidence from government and military officers
Some of the most convincing observations have come from government officials. In 1997, the Chilean government formed the organization Comité de Estudios de Fenómenos Aéreos Anómalos, or CEFAA, to study UFOs. Last year, CEFAA released footage of a UFO taken with a helicopter-mounted Wescam infrared camera.
Declassified document describing a sighting of a UFO in December 1977, in Bahia, a state in northern Brazil. Arquivo Nacional Collection
The countries of Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Ecuador, France, New Zealand, Russia, Sweden and the United Kingdom have been declassifying their UFO files since 2008. The French Committee for In-Depth Studies, or COMETA, was an unofficial UFO study group comprised of high-ranking scientists and military officials that studied UFOs in the late 1990s. They released the COMETA Report, which summarized their findings. They concluded that 5 percent of the encounters were reliable yet inexplicable: The best hypothesis available was that the observed craft were extraterrestrial. They also accused the United States of covering up evidence of UFOs. Iran has been concerned about spherical UFOs observed near nuclear power facilities that they call “CIA drones” which reportedly are about 30 feet in diameter, can achieve speeds up to Mach 10, and can leave the atmosphere. Such speeds are on par with the fastest experimental aircraft, but unthinkable for a sphere without lift surfaces or an obvious propulsion mechanism.
1948 Top Secret USAF UFO extraterrestrial document. United States Air Force
In December 2017, The New York Times broke a story about the classified Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program, which was a $22 million program run by the former Pentagon official Luis Elizondo and aimed at studying UFOs. Elizondo resigned from running the program protesting extreme secrecy and the lack of funding and support. Following his resignation Elizondo, along with several others from the defense and intelligence community, were recruited by the To the Stars Academy of Arts & Science, which was recently founded by Tom DeLonge to study UFOs and interstellar travel. In conjunction with the launch of the academy, the Pentagon declassified and released three videos of UFO encounters taken with forward looking infrared cameras mounted on F-18 fighter jets. While there is much excitement about such disclosures, I am reminded of a quote from Retired Army Colonel John Alexander: “Disclosure has happened. … I’ve got stacks of generals, including Soviet generals, who’ve come out and said UFOs are real. My point is, how many times do senior officials need to come forward and say that this is real?”
There is a great deal of evidence that a small percentage of these UFO sightings are unidentified structured craft exhibiting flight capabilities beyond any known human technology. While there is no single case for which there exists evidence that would stand up to scientific rigor, there are cases with simultaneous observations by multiple reliable witnesses, along with radar returns and photographic evidence revealing patterns of activity that are compelling.
Declassified information from covert studies is interesting, but not scientifically helpful. This is a topic worthy of open scientific inquiry, until there is a scientific consensus based on evidence rather than prior expectation or belief. If there are indeed extraterrestrial craft visiting Earth, it would greatly benefit us to know about them, their nature and their intent. Moreover, this would present a great opportunity for mankind, promising to expand and advance our knowledge and technology, as well as reshaping our understanding of our place in the universe.
Image credit top of page: IJG JPEG Library
The Daily Galaxy via The Conversation
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Niet alleen is Google een machtige speler op het wereldtoneel en een werktuig in handen van hen de macht hebben, maar ook vervult het nog een bijzondere rol.
Google wordt ook gebruikt om een plek te verhullen die spannender is dan Area51 en waar zich een buitenaards ras verborgen houdt.
Eén van de meest bekende en beruchte basis van de Amerikanen is Nellis AFB (Air Force Base). De basis ligt net ten noordoosten van de stad Las Vegas en staat ook wel bekend als de basis waar zich een buitenaards ras bevindt.
Dat alles is weer heel actueel geworden door een video die is gemaakt door Tyler van Secureteam. Hij heeft deze video gemaakt naar aanleiding van een artikel op Motherboard, waar men had ontdekt dat het meest geheime gebied niet Area51 is, maar een gebied dat onderdeel vormt van Nellis AFB.
The Tonopah Test Range (TTR) is a restricted military installation located about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. It is part of the northern fringe of the Nellis Range, measuring 625 sq mi (1,620 km2). Tonopah Test Range is located about 70 miles (110 km) northwest of Groom Dry Lake, the home of the Area 51 facility.
Bij Motherboard noemen ze dit gebied: Het gebied waar Google stopte met het maken van kaarten. Jarenlang is dit gebied door Google bewust niet bijgewerkt met satellietbeelden zoals dat wel gebeurt met alle andere gebieden.
Zowel Tyler als ufoloog Scott Waring zijn het erover eens dat men hier iets heel groots probeert te verbergen, waarbij Scott Waring ervan overtuigd is dat dit te maken heeft met het type buitenaardsen dat bekendstaat als The Tall Whites. (Tegenwoordig is het heel racistisch om een buitenaards ras Tall Whites te noemen, maar vroeger voordat politieke correctheid bestond, deed men dat soort dingen).
1) Er zijn minimaal vier verschillende soorten buitenaardsen die de aarde de afgelopen duizenden jaren hebben bezocht.
2) De soorten hebben waarschijnlijk verschillende agenda’s en dienen niet beschouwd te worden als van hetzelfde ras.
3) Een van die soorten is wat men noemt de Tall Whites. Volgens Hellyer werkt dit type samen met de Verenigde Staten.
4) Er leven op dit moment buitenaardsen op aarde.
Volgens ufoloog Scott C. Waring is de plek waar de Tall Whites wonen een ondergrondse basis op het terrein van Nellis AFB.
In een nieuw artikel zegt Waring dat dit ras helemaal niet zo aardig is. Het is volgens hem een super agressief ras dat zichzelf ver superieur beschouwt ten opzichte van de mensheid. Voor het minste of geringste maken ze je dood en toch doet het Amerikaanse leger zaken met hen vanwege hun kennis en technieken.
Scott raadt iedereen die meer wil weten over de Tall Whites aan om de volgende video te bekijken. Het is een interview met een man die als burger liaison (verbinder) fungeerde tussen dit ras en de Amerikaanse luchtmacht.
Saturn has 62 moons. Of those, 53 have been formally named while nine others are such recent discoveries that they haven’t yet received an official name. Titan, the largest of Saturn’s moons, is more massive than the planet Mercury and has a nitrogen-rich atmosphere similar to Earth’s. Enceladus, another moon, likely has an internal ocean as evidenced by the volcanoes of ice that plume from its surface into space and fall back to the surface as snow. Complex organic molecules have been detected in Enceladus, making it one of the prime candidates for finding extraterrestrial life in our solar system. There may be only nine formally recognized planets in our solar system, but there are 181 moons orbiting those planets, each with their own complexities and unique mysteries.
Saturn’s moon Dione is one of those mysteries. Dione is smaller than Earth’s moon, and exists in orbital resonance with Enceladus, meaning that it completes one orbit of Saturn for every two completed by Enceladus. This orbital resonance is likely the source of the geologic heat found in Enceladus, which reveals itself in the form of Enceladus’s dramatic ice volcanoes. Despite being smaller than Earth’s moon, Dione proves that size isn’t everything in terms of astronomical weirdness. Data from Cassini shows that, along with an orbital relationship, Dione shares other similarities with Enceladus, most notably the presence of an interior ocean., but Dione isn’t simply a twin of Enceladus. According to a new study publishedin journal Geophysical Research Letters, the small moon has a mystery all its own. Streaking across its surface are bright white stripes unlike anything else seen in the solar system, and so far scientists don’t know what they are.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute
Scientists have ruled out geologic causes for the stripes like tectonic activity. Instead, they say that whatever the stripes are made of, they’re likely draped across the surface like snow. What’s strange is how they’re draped. Other bodies in the solar system, including Saturn’s moon Rhea, show bright lines on the surface but none as straight and seemingly intentional as the lines on Dione. The lines are between six and sixty two miles long and three miles wide and perfectly straight. Not only are they perfectly straight, but they run parallel to Dione’s equator, a trait that scientists say is very unusual. They are unbroken, which scientists take to mean that they are a relatively new phenomenon and possibly part of an ongoing phenomenon in the Saturn system.
The authors of the study say that the cause of these mysterious lines is likely due to some off world influence:
We explored different ways of forming linear features on planetary surfaces and favor the draping of exogenic material across a planetary surface by encounters with either Saturn’s rings, co‐orbital moons, or close flyby of comets. This debris may introduce materials into the Dione system that could contribute to creating a more habitable Dione.
One of Cassini’s final images of Dione.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute
Recently, scientists demonstrated that one of the building blocks of life here on earth was probably formed in space and deposited here on Earth. With a liquid water interior and constant depositing of off-world material on Dione, it seems possible that some strange chemistry could make its way into the underground sea and begin the process of life. Of course, such life would be likely be microscopic and completely outside our ability to study it for many years to come. This does show that, once again, the more we learn about our corner of space, the more mysteries we uncover.
BepiColombo mission to Mercury is scheduled to launch on 20 October 2018 and to arrive at Mercury on 5 December 2025. The mission is a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). BepiColombo consists of two scientific orbiters: ESA’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and JAXA’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). BepiColombo will be launched by an Ariane 5 ECA launch vehicle (Ariane Flight VA245) from Ariane Launch Complex No. 3 (ELA 3) at Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, on 20 October 2018, at 01:45 UTC (19 October, at 22:45 local time).
NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has mysteriously gone dark and scientists are trying to understand what malfunctioned.
NASA's alien-hunting Kepler Space Telescope has suffered another malfunction, with the spacecraft returning to sleep mode just days after it sent information from its latest campaign back to Earth.
"Following a successful return of data from the last observation campaign, the Kepler team commanded the spacecraft into position to begin collecting data for its next campaign," NASA said on its website. "On Friday October 19, during a regularly scheduled spacecraft contact using NASA’s Deep Space Network, the team learned that the spacecraft had transitioned to its no-fuel-use sleep mode. The Kepler team is currently assessing the cause and evaluating possible next steps."
On Oct. 15, NASA was able to download information from it latest observation campaign, Campaign 19, noting it was "monitoring the spacecraft and will provide more information when its status has been fully assessed."
On Aug. 29, Kepler began collecting data for its 19th campaign, though the government space agency said on Sept. 5 it had modified the craft's configuration due to "unusual behavior exhibited by one of the thrusters," adding that it was unsure how much fuel remained. NASA also said that Kepler's pointing performance was degraded.
At the time, NASA said it was continuing to monitor the health and performance of Kepler. Over the years, Kepler has suffered greatly. It has even "survived many potential knock-outs during its nine years in flight, from mechanical failures to being blasted by cosmic rays," NASA noted.
Even though Kepler has endured several setbacks in recent months, it has been an unquestioned success for NASA, having flown in space for nine years, surpassing the initial estimate of just one year. During that time, the $600 million spacecraft has discovered a great number of exoplanets, including Wolf 503b, which is described as "twice the size of Earth" and is 145 light-years away from our planet.
In December 2017, experts harnessed machine learning technology from Google to spot another exoplanet, Kepler