Wil je een videoclip bekijken en stoort het X-files-deuntje jou daarbij. Schakel het deuntje gewoon uit door in deze kolon, helemaal beneden op de 2 witte balkjes in het blauwe cirkeltje te klikken, tot een pijltje verschijnt. Veel kijk- en luisterplezier en bedankt voor jouw bezoek.
The purpose of this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category. Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.
In 2012 verloor ze haar moedige strijd tegen kanker!
In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.
UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be.
Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch...
Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels.
MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen.
MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity...
Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com.
Ze geven een maandelijks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal.
Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
Strange Castle-Like Structure Emerges In Antarctica – Proof Of Advanced Ancient Civilization?
Strange Castle-Like Structure Emerges In Antarctica – Proof Of Advanced Ancient Civilization?
An enormous castle structure revealed itself inAntarctica, striking immediate opinions that the icy continent was once a homeland to an ancient civilization.
The image of the castle taken from Google Earth depicts an oval-shaped formation. Theorists have estimated it measures around 400 foot across.
This structure appears to show signs of a tremendous, man-made building, similar to a medieval motte and bailey castle.
If we observe the image carefully, we can notice how the rings of the structure look like a man-made structure in ruins, covered with ice and snow.
If it’s not a product of mother nature, then who created this castle? This question does not provide an answer since the structure locates in the only place on Earth where people can’t seem to form a life.
It wasn’t a surprise that people quickly started debating whether an ancient civilization once lived here. On the other hand, there were others who claim the castle is only a natural phenomenon.
But, whether this enigmatic construction is, it is still quite remarkable and engaging.
What if, in the distant past, Antarctica was not the picture we see today, but something rather the opposite.
Perhaps it had civilization developing over there, building structures just like this one. And we are encountering evidence of it as the time goes by.
Besides this castle, there appeared several ancient maps that painted some Antarctica parts iceless.
One of them was the 1513’s map by Turkish Admiral Piri Reis. Namely, this map shows Antarctica which was in fact discovered between 1818-1820. Weird, huh?
Recently, modern beliefs have pushed down the aisle mainstream scholars. People increasingly believe that ancient civilizations were much more advanced than we think.
Several maps discovered in the past are evidence that the story we know lacks some important parts.
Maybe these ancient maps, together with satellite images of our planet are the ultimate proof that civilizations could have lived in the most desolate places on our planet in the distant past.
Experts explained the reason to be a natural cause. They said it’s an ice structure, built by the heavy snowfall, low temperature, and Antarctica’s freezing katabatic wind.
Experts believe that what satellites spotted over Eastern Antarctica may be weirdly-shaped Sastrugi – sharp irregular grooves formed on a snow surface by wind erosion.
However, sastrugi always appear in a different shape, depending on the wind’s direction. They very rarely emerge as an oval formation, as the image appears to depict.
This fort-like structure is not the first discovery to suggest issues about ancient civilizations living in Antarctica. There was also a pyramid, hidden inside the snow, which had a triangular, symmetrical shape.
Ancient Mega Structure Found On The Deep Sea Floor
Ancient Mega Structure Found On The Deep Sea Floor
Think about the scale. 4 miles wide. How long are those things? Can you even imagine being on one of those? You probably wouldnt even realize you were in the middle of it. That thing is freaking huge! The human race really needs to investigate all of our oceans thoroughly.
While a picture painted on the wall of a cave appears to show a hunter collapsing in front of a disemboweled beast over 15,000 years ago, it may also indicate a more astronomical meaning. The ancient cave art, which was found at Lascaux (near Montignac) in France, were positioned in such a way that they may have been signs of the zodiac and was telling the story of a cataclysmic event.
A group of teenagers discovered the cave paintings in the 1940s and experts have been trying to understand the meaning of the art ever since. While it’s unclear exactly when the 600 images were created, it is believed that they are up to 17,000 years old.
Cave art found at Lascaux
The paintings found at Lascaux were being compared to zoomorphic artworks that were discovered at Neolithic sites from Göbekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük in Turkey. The research was conducted by experts from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent. They indicated that instead of lions, bulls, and scorpions portraying animals that are seen on Earth, they could have been drawn to represent constellations in the sky.
Chemical engineer Martin Sweatman, who was one of the study’s authors, claimed “Early cave art shows that people had advanced knowledge of the night sky within the last Ice Age.” If this is indeed factual, that would mean that the cave art found at Lascaux was created to record a significant event that occurred during the annual Taurid meteor shower approximately 17,000 years ago.
At first glance, it looks as though the painting was of a man collapsing in front of a disemboweled animal while a bird watches and a rhinoceros looking away. There was also a horse head that was drawn on another part of the wall. And there were geometric shapes, odd lines, and dots drawn throughout the pictures. But after further analysis, they could very well have indicated constellations in the sky.
The disemboweled bison-like animal, called an auroch, could represent the Capricorn constellation during the summer equinox, while the bird could indicate Libra during the spring equinox. While it’s unclear what the other animals are symbolizing, they could be representing Leo and Taurus during other equinoxes. These paintings could indicate that around 15,150 BCE, a cataclysmic event could have affected humans. In fact, the climate started to shift at around 15,300 BCE according to records that were taken from Greenland’s ice cores.
Last year, the stone carvings that were discovered at Göbekli Tepe were examined and it is believed that they were indicating a comet that struck Earth that was more than likely responsible for a brief return to the Ice Age climate approximately 13,000 years ago.
Another example of potential art work hinting at an astronomical event is a 40,000-year-old carving of an upright lion that was discovered in the Hohlenstein cave located in Germany. Sweatman explained, “These findings support a theory of multiple comet impacts over the course of human development, and will probably revolutionize how prehistoric populations are seen.”
The shifting sands of the deserts of the Arabia have long been steeped in myth, magic and, legend, and one of these are the tales of an ancient lost city variously called Ubar, Wabar and Iram of the Pillars, among others, said to be buried out there in the dunes forgotten and abandoned for thousands of years. Often spoken of by the Bedouin nomads of this vast land of heat and sand and even mentioned in the Quran and the classic book A Thousand and One Arabian Nights, the fabled city is said to lie somewhere out in the Rub’ al Khali desert, which spans much of the southern end of the peninsula, and was inhabited by a mysterious people called the Ad, ruled by a King Shaddad ibn ‘Ad. Said to have been established in around 3,000 BC, it was a place of grand beauty, with lofty buildings and sweeping, majestic pillars, towers and spires soaring up towards the sky, elegant and rich and beyond imagination from its position as a legendary trading post of spices and oils. It was supposedly a celebrated stop off point for traders, the land here once lush and green, in a region once called Arabia Felix, or “Fortunate Arabia,” its beauty well-known by all who passed, and the city’s legend grew as it was mentioned in fable and song.
And then the city suddenly disappeared from history, its people and magnificence fading into the mists of time sometime between around 100-300AD. The legend of the lost city of Ubar says that this vanishing was due to punishment brought down from God upon its people after they failed to follow the ways of Allah and refused the advice of the prophet Hud, their city buried by a massive, thunderous sandstorm that swept in out of nowhere to erase them from existence forever. Although it is of course unknown if this is all literally true or not, the disappearance of the mythical lost city of Ubar has over the ages been speculated to have at least been based on a real place, and its mystery is such that of course with such an alluring mythology adventurers have long sought it out in the unforgiving landscape of the Arabian desert, some claiming some success and others rumored to have never returned at all.
The Rub’ al Khali desert
One of the earlier attempts by outsiders to locate the legendary city of Ubar was made in 1930 by the explorer Bertram Thomas, who was at the time in the midst of a harrowing journey across the desolate Rub’ al Khali in a bid to become the first European to cross this sea of sun scorched sand, so inhospitable, lifeless and barren that it is locally called “The Empty Quarter.” During his perilous journey through this domain of endless sand and dunes Bertram was told by his Bedouin guides of a lost city lying out under the sand that had once been full of wealth and unrivaled beauty, but which had been ruthlessly buried by a vengeful Allah because of their sins. Bertram looked for the city they spoke of, thinking it to be in the vicinity of an area called the Ramlat Shu’ait, but found no trace of it at the time, and he would later mention it to T. E. Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, who called it “The Atlantis of the Sands.” Lawrence then made plans to search for it himself, even mentioning he might do it by airship, but he would die before ever being able to carry out his ambitious plan. In the meantime, Bertram became rather obsessed with the lost city of Ubar, making several forays out to look for it and even writing a book on it, called Arabia Felix. He would eventually find some traces of ruins in the sand and what seemed to be tracks used by caravans to get there, but it was inconclusive and he would die without ever seeing the fabled city that had consumed so much of his life.
The 1940s saw several promising finds by various explorers when English explorer Wilfred Thesiger found what he believed to be the remnants of Ubar at place called Shisr, which holds the crumbling ruins of a Bedouin well and what seems to be an ancient pre-Islamic stone fort. Then, in 1948 there was a geological party from Petroleum Development Ltd, who were conducting a geological survey of the Dhofar province when they too came to Shisr and claimed to have found a massive wall of an ancient fort, as well as a cave entrance beneath it leading down into the darkness of the earth. At the time the survey team was more interested in finding water for their camels and getting on with their harrowing work than investigating mysterious ruins, and so they did not look into it further, simply making note of it. There was also an expedition carried out by a St. John Philby, who did not find the city, but did claim to have made the unlikely discovery of a buried volcano lying dormant out there in the desert.
There have been various other expeditions in the years since to locate this mysterious Atlantis of the Sands, most of them either failing to find anything at all or merely bringing back intriguing but ultimately frustrating tales of finding enigmatic ruins in the sand, poking up like the bones of some prehistoric beast. One of the problems has always been that the area is so vast and remote, covering most of Saudi Arabia, as well as areas of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, all compounded by the fact that no one is really sure where Ubar is supposed to be, with numerous possible locations suggested over the centuries covering various far flung locales. Nevertheless, there are occasional sensational announcements that the lost Atlantis of the Sands has been found, and one of the more noteworthy of these was made in 1992 by a group of archeologists from Los Angeles who claimed that not only had they located the mythical city of Ubar, but had even determined why it had disappeared.
One of the leaders of the expedition, Nicholas Clapp, was fist inspired to look for Ubar after reading Bertram Thomas’ book on the matter, which in a sense infected him with the same obsession Thomas had had. Clapp began by studying old maps of the region, including several that had been drawn up in 200 AD by the Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemy, as well as old explorer’s reports, Thomas’ own speculations, and moving on to using advanced satellite imagery that utilized a radar detection system which allows researchers to peer right through the sand to make out subterranean features and allowed them to distinguish the ancient trade routes through the region, composed of hard packed earth flattened by endless camels. They found what they were looking for at Shisr, directly under the old well and fort ruins there.
An excavation was started and they began to uncover evidence of what would have once been some sort of settlement, including fire pits, shards of pottery, animal bones, incense burners, coins, and other artifacts, and most impressive of all some kind of mysterious fortress that lies at the center of it all, composed of eight heavy limestone walls measuring 10 to 12 feet high and about 60 feet long, and four immense towers each 10 feet in diameter and 30 feet tall. There was also found evidence of a caved-in sinkhole, which seems to have collapsed below the city to send it tumbling into the cavern below to its ruin, which would explain the stories of the city meeting a violent end. The survivors of this cataclysm would have then abandoned the city, leaving it to its fate to be reclaimed by the desert.
It seems like a remarkable discovery, but the problem is there is absolutely no way to determine if this was the actual mythical city of Ubar rather than just another set of unconnected ruins similar to those found in other areas, and indeed there has been a lot of criticism of Clapp’s claims that this is really the legendary mysterious lost city he was seeking. For one, there is no proof that the fortress found was in reality the hub of a settlement, and even if it was it does not seem that it would have been nearly on the scale of grandeur described in the great legends. In this case, the finding is just basically wishful thinking, prematurely assigning an identity to these anonymous ruins that may have had nothing to do with Ubar and which may not have been any more than a small caravan watering hole.
Then there are those who still doubt that the city ever even really existed at all outside of the tales, and that these expeditions are chasing shadows. One very prevalent theory amongst scholars is that Ubar was never actually a city at all, but rather a region and people that were once prosperous but met their end at the hands of the encroaching, withering desert and the decline of overland trade of incense oils and spices, and its romantic transformation into a mystical lush city of towers and gold was the product of later myths built around it, a real place only in the imagination. One archeologist by the name of Dr. Juris Zarins has said of this:
There’s a lot of confusion about that word (Ubar). If you look at the classical texts and the Arab historical sources, Ubar refers to a region and a group of people, not to a specific town. People always overlook that. It’s very clear on Ptolemy’s second century map of the area. It says in big letters “Iobaritae” And in his text that accompanied the maps, he’s very clear about that. It was only the late medieval version of One Thousand and One Nights, in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, that romanticised Ubar and turned it into a city, rather than a region or a people.
It seems that while the 1996 discovery is certainly interesting, there is no guarantee at all that this is the legendary city spoken of in lore and myth, and indeed Ubar, the Atlantis of the Sands, may not have even existed at all. This discovery does not solve the enigma, and neither it nor the doubts of Ubar being real have done much to quench the desire of explorers to keep pushing further out into this bleak swath of harsh desert in a quest for answers. In the end it remains just as mysterious as it always has, and for as long as the spirit of adventure and belief Ubar as a physical city exist there will be those who seek to find it. Whether they will find the once towering city out there buried in its ancient sandy grave or whether it only looms upon the landscape of the mind remains to be seen.
Bustling Mayan cities such as Tikal, in present-day Guatemala, were likely abandoned due to a combination of deforestation and drought.
Photo via Wikimedia Commons/Shark
It’s long been one of ancient history’s most intriguing mysteries: Why did the Maya, a remarkably sophisticated civilization made up of more than 19 million people, suddenly collapse sometime during the 8th or 9th centuries? Although the Mayan people never entirely disappeared—their descendants still live across Central America—dozens of core urban areas in the lowlands of the Yucatan peninsula, such as Tikal, went from bustling cities to abandoned ruins over the course of roughly a hundred years.
Scholars and laypeople have proposed countless theories accounting for the collapse, ranging from the plausible (overhunting, foreign invasion, peasant revolt) to the absurd (alien invasion, supernatural forces). In his 2005 book Collapse, though, Jared Diamond put forth a different sort of theory—that a prolonged drought, exacerbated by ill-advised deforestation, forced Mayan populations to abandon their cities. That hypothesis has finally been put to the test with archaeological evidence and environmental data and the results published this week in a pair of studies.
In the first study, published Tuesday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from Arizona State University analyzed archaeological data from across the Yucatan to reach a better understanding of the environmental conditions when the area was abandoned. Around this time, they found, severe reductions in rainfall were coupled with an rapid rate of deforestation, as the Mayans burned and chopped down more and more forest to clear land for agriculture. Interestingly, they also required massive amounts of wood to fuel the fires that cooked the lime plaster for their elaborate constructions—experts estimate it would have taken 20 trees to produce a single square meter of cityscape.
The central Yucatan lowland, site of most major Mayan cities, was abandoned due to the stresses of deforestation and drought.
Image via Barbara Trapido-Lurie/Arizona State University
The other study, published by researchers from Columbia University and elsewhere this week in Geophysical Research Letters, applied quantitative data to these trends. Using population records and measurements from current forested and cleared lands in the region, they constructed a computer model of deforestation in the Yucatan and ran simulations to see how this would have affected rainfall.
Because cleared land absorbs less solar radiation, less water evaporates from its surface, making clouds and rainfall more scarce. As a result, the rapid deforestation exacerbated an already severe drought—in the simulation, deforestation reduced precipitation by five to 15 percent and was responsible for 60 percent of the total drying that occurred over the course of a century as the Mayan civilization collapsed. The lack of forest cover also contributed to erosion and soil depletion.
In a time of unprecedented population density, this combination of factors was likely catastrophic. Crops failed, especially because the droughts occurred disproportionately during the summer growing season. Coincidentally, trade shifted from overland routes, which crossed the heart of the lowland, to sea-based voyages, moving around the perimeter of the peninsula.
Since the traditional elite relied largely upon this trade—along with annual crop surpluses—to build wealth, they were sapped of much of their power. This forced peasants and craftsmen into making a critical choice, perhaps necessary to escape starvation: abandoning the lowlands. The results are the ornate ruins that stretch across the peninsula today.
The collapse is especially intriguing because it seemingly occurred at “a time in which developed a sophisticated understanding of their environment, built and sustained intensive production and water systems and withstood at least two long-term episodes of aridity,” says B.L. Turner, the lead author of the ASU study. In other words, the Maya were no fools. They knew their environment and how to survive within it—and still they continued deforesting at a rapid pace, until the local environment was unable to sustain their society.
One of the lessons of these complementary studies, says climate modeler Robert Oglesby of the University of Nebraska, who worked on the second paper, is that our reshaping of the environment can often have unintended consequences—and we may not have any idea of what they are until it’s too late. For a present-day example, we can even look to another region where the ancient Maya lived, Guatemala, which is undergoing rapid deforestation. “There’s a tremendous amount of change going on in Guatemala,” said Oglesby. “They may be that much more vulnerable to a severe drought.”
Archaeologists have found two new caves near Qumran in the West Bank that they think may hold some Dead Sea Scrolls. The newly found caves, which are called 53b and 53c, are located close to other caves where some scrolls have already been found.
The previously found Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in twelve caves that were near Qumran and included 900 manuscripts. It is thought that a group of people called Essenes lived in Qumran and that they were the ones who wrote a lot of the scrolls. The Essenes ended up leaving the area around 70 A.D. when a revolt began against the Romans.
The first eleven caves were found between the years 1946 and 1956. Those eleven caves held the majority of the scrolls. The twelfth cave, however, was discovered much later in 2017 and only one blank scroll was found inside. They archaeologists did, however, find jars, textiles, string, and rope that were used to store the scrolls. By finding the remains of items used to store them, but not finding the actual Dead Sea Scrolls, it would indicate that they were more than likely stolen at some point.
The two new caves that have been recently discovered are close in proximity to the twelfth cave and they also contain evidence that indicates scrolls were indeed there in the past. Unfortunately, archaeologists have yet to find any remaining scrolls but they still have a lot of investigating to do.
Inside of cave 53b, researchers found several artifacts from humans visiting the cave years earlier, which included a bronze cooking pot and an oil lamp. In a paper written by archaeologists Randall Price of Liberty University in Virginia and Oren Gutfeld of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, they wrote that researchers found “large amounts of pottery representing store jars, flasks, cups and cooking pots, and fragments of woven textiles, braided ropes and string.”
After analyzing the bronze cooking pot, it was determined that it dates back from between 100 B.C. and 15 B.C. which is also the same time that people were living at the archaeological site of Qumran. Also, the oil lamp that was found in the cave looks quite similar to the lamps that were found at Qumran which would indicate that the people who inhabited the site more than likely used the caves as well.
Price told Live Science, “We have not analyzed all of the pottery from this cave, so we do not know if a scroll jar was present.” But since the rope, string, and textiles found in cave 53b are quite similar to the ones previously found in cave 12, it may have also been used to store the scrolls as well.
As for the second newly found cave, called 53c, researchers found a piece of a scroll jar which indicates that scrolls were stored in that cave at one time. They are currently excavating the cave to see if they can find any evidence of hidden scrolls.
Eight limestone coffins were discovered in the area of King Amenemhat II’s pyramid that is located in the Dahshur royal necropolis which is 25 miles south of Cairo, Egypt. While it’s not entirely clear exactly when and how long Amenemhat II ruled Egypt, it is believed that his reign lasted for around 30 years around 1900 B.C.
Several other high-ranking officials and courtiers are buried in the necropolis. This area is also the location of some of the earliest pyramids on Earth, which includes the Red Pyramid and the Sneferu’s Bent Pyramid.
According to the Egyptian archaeological mission’s manager and Head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mostafa Waziry, the mission began their work in August of 2018. The mummies were inside of limestone coffins and were wrapped in a layer of colorful painted cardboard in the shape of a human. Waziry said that three of the eight mummies were in good condition and that they were from the late period of 664 to 332 B.C.
Waziry also mentioned that the coffins were transported to a restoration warehouse and that the Ministry of Antiquities would show photographs of the sarcophagus at a local museum.
The Minister of Antiquities, Khaled el-Anany, said that another recent discovery happened on November 24th when Mut Temple’s Tomb was found. An archaeological mission that’s connected to the French University of Strasbourg discovered the sarcophagus in the same general area as tomb TT33 which is located in the West Bank of Luxor.
The sarcophagus, which is from the 18th dynasty, contains a mummy that is wrapped in linen. After researchers examined the mummy for the first time, it was determined that it was re-wrapped in linen during the late period which would explain why it was in such good condition.
Another mysterious discovery was found in the city of Alexandria when experts found an ancient “cursed” black granite sarcophagus. Inside of the huge coffin were the remains of three skeletons along with gold sheets.
The Great Khufu pyramid looms behind the Sphinx at Giza, just outside Cairo, Egypt. The three large pyramids at Giza were built by King Khufu over a 30-year period around 2550 BCE with a newly discovered system of ramps.
SEAN GALLUP/GETTY IMAGES
Egyptianpyramidsare a wonder that have left scientists and engineers scratching their heads. How did heavy rock slabs get placed — higher and higher — to construct the iconic shape?
It seems we may have an answer, and it wasn't aliens after all. Researchers have uncovered a sophisticatedramp systemdating back 4,500 years. Located at Hatnub, a rock quarry in Egypt's Eastern Desert, the ramp was used to transport massive alabaster stones up steep angles and into place during pyramid construction.
The remains of the ramp were found by an Anglo-French team of researchers
Yannis Gourdon/Ifao/University of Liverpool
"This kind of system has never been discovered anywhere else," said Yannis Gourdon, co-director of the expedition, which also included archaeologists from the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo and from the University of Liverpool in England.
Based on the tool marks and inscriptions, the group matched the ramp's age and conscription with the reign of Khufu, the pharaoh who called for the construction of the Great Pyramid, which is the largest of the three Giza Pyramids. It also turned out to be the world's largest pyramid.
"This system is composed of a central ramp flanked by two staircases with numerous post holes," Gourdon said in a statement. "Using a sled which carried a stone block and was attached with ropes to these wooden posts, ancient Egyptians were able to pull up the alabaster blocks out of the quarry on very steep slopes of 20 percent or more."
The ropes allowed rock-movers to multiply their efforts, making it possible to pull a sled up the ramp, even though the sled was topped with a rock that weighed an average of 2.5 tons (2.3 metric tons).
Egyptologists have surmised for some time that ramps were used when the pyramids were built. However, the discovery of this ramp system shows that the stones were hauled at a far steeper angle than was previously suspected.
Who Really Built the Pyramids of Giza? Thoth’s Enigmatic Emerald Tablets May Provide the Answer
Who Really Built the Pyramids of Giza? Thoth’s Enigmatic Emerald Tablets May Provide the Answer
The Emerald Tablets are one of the greatest enigmas of archaeology. They can be considered an obscure side of Egyptian mythology, characterized by events where myth seems to meet history.
Scholars consider the Emerald Tablets a legend concerning the gods of Ancient Egypt, revealing mysteries involving the ancient societies that survived the Great Flood. The tablets are known as a cryptic Hermetic inscription said to contain the secrets of alchemy and the foundation of the Hermetic tradition.
An imaginative 17th century depiction of the Emerald Tablet from the work of Heinrich Khunrath, 1606.
According to the myth, Thoth - the Gods' scribe - compiled the tablets. He divided his knowledge into 42 plates of emerald, codifying the great scientific principles ruling the Universe. The legend tells that after the gods’ fall, the Hermetic tablets were cleverly hidden so that no human being might find them. Only Thoth, on his return to that dimension, was able to recover the mysterious book.
A figure of Thoth carved on the back of the throne of the seated statue of Rameses II.
According to other interpretations, the tablets were kept in the so-called Hall of Records and then later hidden within the Library of Alexandria until they were lost forever, after the terrible fire which destroyed the ancient building and its legendary books.
A 17th-century edition of the Emerald Tablets, as created in legend by ‘Hermes Trismegistus’—a combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.
A very interesting legend told by Jewish mystics connects Thoth’s Tablets to Abraham’s wife, Sarah. According to the myth, she found the Egyptian God’s tomb and his precious manuscripts during their escape into Egypt, fleeing a starvation afflicting Canaan.
In that case, if the narrative is historically accurate, we can assume that the Emerald Tablets’ origins may refer to an ancient time, substantially before the Bible’s Great Flood. Therefore, the origins of the Egyptian gods and the Zep Tepi (a Golden Era or time where gods ruled in Ancient Egypt) may have an intriguing connection, confirmed by other civilizations’ legends.
It was only during the Middle Ages that the Hermetic documents were translated into Latin from Arabic, while the first European printed version was published in Nuremberg, in early 1541. The title was “De Alchimia” written by alchemist Johannes Baptista Montanus Veronensis Patricius. Thanks to his work, the ancient documents have survived until now.
Fact or Fiction?
Analyzing the legendary texts, questions surface: can we assume that the Hermetic document is a real historical fact and not a myth? What should we make of the contents and scientific codes inscribed into the tablets? Is there a possible connection between the god Thoth and the Pyramids Civilization?
According to the mysterious document, can we state that Thoth was the builder of Giza?
In my two decades of experience, I learned to trust in objective facts, as a result of a precise model of investigation. Starting from a study of the myths, I aim to propose a new point of view concerning the possibility that the myth of Thoth is a true story.
“Built I the Great Pyramid, patterned after the pyramid of earth force, burning eternally so that it, too, might remain through the ages. In it, my knowledge of ‘Magic-Science' so that it might be here when again I return from Amenti. Aye, while I sleep in the Halls of Amenti, my soul roaming free will incarnate, dwell among men in this form or another.” – Emerald Tablet 1
Emerald Tablet I – The History of Thoth
If the Emerald Tablets are reliable, what might the relationship between Thoth and the Great Pyramid look like?
Djehuty (Thoth) in the Luxor Temple by night.
(CC BY-NC 2.0)
The first line, “ Built I the Great Pyramid ”, is a clear expression concerning an unambiguous assignment of the project ownership. Have findings confirmed this possibility, least of all for the Great Pyramid, within which no inscription referring to the builders was ever found?
The only exception are some symbols found on the back of the Gantenbrink’s door—a limestone door with two eroded copper handles found in shafts in the Great Pyramid’s Queen’s Chamber, discovered by German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink. In my opinion, and by analyzing the signs, I can assume that the marks cannot be assigned to a well-known Ancient Egyptian writing, although Egyptologist Luca Miatello related the obscure handwriting to Hieratic, and its meaning to a sequence of numbers and measurements by which to build the conduits into the Queen’s Chamber. I consider his theory unfounded because of the lack of correlation among clues and hieratic writing. It could be a kind of unknown writing, increasing the mystery on the origins of the Giza Pyramids.
Markings on Gantenbrink’s door.
In 2013, I achieved a very interesting result, which might prove a possible relationship between the Hermetic Emerald Tablets and the Giza Plateau. Something happened quite by chance during my archaeological campaign at the Sphinx and its temples.
Map of the Giza Plateau
During a moment of peace, in the shadow of the Valley Temple, I observed a Giza map taken from above, thinking that each pyramid looked like a microcosm, as the satellite pyramids, fences, temples and other constructions characterize each one. Considering the pyramids altogether, I perceived an order of factors making them an independent form of architectural expression.
In fact, pyramids, seen from above, look like three very large stylus-wedges embedded in the ground. Their very special shape enlightened me, suggesting an intriguing hypothesis. Just out of curiosity, I traced some guidelines starting from the corners of the major pyramids, toward the center of the monuments, following the satellite pyramids’ orientation. Then I drew the same lines for the satellite pyramids, according to their cardinal direction.
Therefore, I obtained the following image.
Pyramids look like enormous wedges.
(Image via author)
Ancient Scripts Tell a Tale
It is curious to observe how a very easy geometric exercise might instill a deep doubt, challenging the foundation of humankind’s history and the origins of modern societies. In fact, to detect the possible existence of cuneiform writing in the land of hieroglyphics can be considered a crazy idea. As presently known, academic considerations about Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations story are very precise; in fact, they assume that during their time the two cultures had never been in contact.
With this in mind, I should have given up my curiosity; however, I wanted to listen to my own instincts because I found the possible connection between pyramids and cuneiform writing very compelling.
Cuneiform alphabet and their geometric forms, and possible relationship with the Pyramids of Giza.
(Image via author)
A comparison between the pyramids’ geometric forms and cuneiform writing is possible by analyzing the Sumerian alphabet, containing the symbols of each letter.
Sometimes, you begin the game for fun, but during the conduct of the pastime, you feel that something is changing, a realization is coming, and you are enchanted. I felt those same emotions, analyzing results of my ‘game’ that over time revealed themselves.
The possible coincidence slowly became something different, perhaps a detailed concept. Despite the fact that I was confident that scholars’ theories were well anchored, in my core something pushed me to improve a hypothesis never examined before. Observing the following image, it is astonishing to note the unbelievable correlation between some Sumerian letters and the signs I obtained while drawing the lines at the pyramids base.
For example, Mycerinus Pyramid (Pyramid of Menkaure, the smallest of the three main Giza Pyramids and at the bottom of the map) – with a triangle projection towards its satellite pyramids – has a geometrical form very similar to the cuneiform letter for “G”; i.e. a wedge downward. Equally, I can state that Mycerinus’ satellite pyramids look like the cuneiform letter for “L”, having three wedges downward.
The relationship between tridimensional wedges of the pyramids and cuneiform letters from the Sumerian alphabet.
(Image via author)
I followed the same procedure for all pyramids of Giza. Khafre’s Pyramid, for example, (the second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, and in the middle of the map) has a little peculiarity, because of the position of its satellite pyramid, very close to the major monument. It is a very unusual architectural technique, compared to the other pyramidal complexes, showing the precise builders’ will to meld the monuments into having a single and homogeneous design. As result of this, the graphic sign is very similar to the Sumerian letter for “Z”.
Finally, the Great Pyramid (the largest of the plateau and at the top of the map) and its satellites give very exciting symbols, perfectly connected to cuneiform letters, i.e. to the letter “T” as a cuneiform towards the right side, and to the letter “H”, characterized by three cuneiform symbols towards right side.
Therefore, I obtained the following sequence:
GL – Z- TH
Originally, cuneiform writing was inscribed vertically, and in the event of more lines, they were aligned from right to left. It is interesting to note that pyramid position on the Giza Plateau develops in accordance with a vertical orientation – from the highest place, i.e. the Great Pyramid, until the lowest, i.e. the Mycerinus Pyramid – and in different lines. Moreover, as the Sumerian writing was characterized for a lack of vowels, so is for the geometrical symbols obtained by the pyramids.
Letters sequenced from West to East, observing the pyramids from South.
(Map via author)
So far, we have observed some technical characteristics of the Sumerian writing and its homogeneity with symbols coming from graphics processing of the Giza buildings. Now, let us look to the complete sentence, with vowels, searching for a possible meaning of the ancient message:
GaL Zu TeHu
Finding meaning in the message.
(Image via author)
The meaning of the message is: TeHu the Great Wise
It is very clear that the word TeHu refers to a proper noun, very probably to the designer of the Giza Project.
To unveil the name, I studied the Egyptian Book of Dead (as translated by Wallis Bydge and also Boris de Rachewiltz) where the name of TeHu refers to Thoth. In fact, one of the Egyptian words indicating the Ibis is Tekh, which sounds like the name TeHu; that word refers to the Moon as Measurer of the Time, and that is why Egyptians depict Thoth as Ibis.
Thoth is often depicted as an Ibis. Egypt, Late Period, 712-332 B.C.
The analysis is very fascinating, but proposes a series of questions:
1) The message indicates that Thoth was the designer of Giza, as reported in the Emerald Tablets. Does it mean that the Book of Thoth really exists?
2) If the Sumerian correlation with the monuments has a scientific validity, the question is why, in the distant past of Egypt, did the population use the Sumerian writing?
When one studies the origins of cuneiform writing, we find that archaeologists date it to 3500 BC. Nevertheless, it’s very interesting that when the writing appeared it was characterized by an extraordinary complexity, consisting of over a thousand phonetic symbols. Over time, the writing had a rationalization process and it reduced to hundreds of symbols. So, we can suppose that Sumerian writing was born in a very full form, and experienced a process apart from all other writing forms which display real signs of evolution. Only cuneiform is considerably convoluted – or, as archaeologists suggest, “rationalized” – as if it followed its founders’ decline.
Can we argue that the Sumerian was the language used by the ancient Gods? Can we state that Middle Eastern and Egyptian cultures, during the pre-dynastic age, were influenced by an ancient and unknown Civilization?
Sumerian inscription in monumental archaic style, c. 26th century BC
According to historians, due its geography, Egypt was isolated from the outside world until the First Intermediate Period, around 2000 BC—without experiencing any kind of influence from other civilizations. Therefore, the possible ‘corruption’ could have happened a long time before the pre-dynastic age. Furthermore, one of the most interesting pieces of evidence could be the numbers of Egyptians gods that are very similar to the Sumerians ones. Indeed, the story of the Sumerian Gods is very similar to the Egyptian Neteru, and the great part of religious traditions of eastern civilizations.
An unknown civilization seems to have bequeathed symbols we can find everywhere around the planet; for example, the winged sun, or caduceus, even the gods who have different names but similar functions. It is possible that this civilization could have inspired the Sumerian and Egyptian cultures, uncontacted, and likewise shared many symbols and divinities. It is undeniable that the two cultures originated from a “matrix” which lived in the distant past.
If Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations have deep cultural and religious correlations, it may mean they were generated by a lost civilization, maybe the same who built pyramids all around the planet.
The Legendary Emerald Tablets
Lastly, did the Emerald Tablets really exist? Maybe we will never have a confirmation, but it is thrilling to show the relationship between the god Thoth and the Giza Plateau, as the result of an easy geometrical game, which gave an unexpected answer to one of the most fascinating mysteries of the past. It is also interesting to suppose that the Sumerian writing system offered a Hermetic link with the Ancient Egyptians, which was historically never detected, but clear in my proposal.
All these indications can be considered very important clues and may be regarded as the starting point to understanding the scientific meaning of the pyramids and the Knowledge of which they are keeper.
(Top image: The Giza Pyramids - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, and Egyptian god Thoth – CC0)
Archaeologists have discovered an ancient mask that was used during the Neolithic period (New Stone Age). The 9,000-year-old mask was found just a few months ago and is currently being examined by experts of the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Geological Survey of Israel. The mask was traced to an archaeological site in the southern part of Har Hevron in the Pnei Hever region.
Ronit Lupu of the IAA Antiquities Theft Prevention Unit said, “The mask is a unique finding in the archaeological world. It is even more unusual that we know which site it came from. The fact that we have information regarding the specific place in which it was discovered makes this mask more important than most other masks from this period that we currently know of.”
The mask was made from pinkish-yellow limestone and was made to look like a human face. It also had drilled holes along the edge of the mask where it could be tied to a person’s face or even to a pole for others to view it. Lupu went on to say, “Discovering a mask made of stone, at such a high level of finish, is very exciting. The stone has been completely smoothed over and the features are perfect and symmetrical, even delineating cheek bones. It has an impressive nose and a mouth with distinct teeth.”
9.000-year-old Rare Stone Mask Uncovered. 11-28-2018. Tzippe Barrow · Mask Dating to Neolithic Period,
Photo, IAA, Clara Amit
The mask was used for ancestor worship during that time. “It was part of the ritual and retention of family heritage that was accepted at the time,” Lupu explained. He continued by saying, “Stone masks, such as the one from Pnei Hever, are similar in size to the human face, which is why scholars tend to connect them with such worship.”
There have been a total of fifteen masks found in relation to that time period. Because two of those fifteen masks were found in an archaeological context, researchers know exactly where they originated from and that means they can study the site. The other thirteen masks are part of private collections around the world.
Since the mask was found in Pnei Hever, it is believed that the southern Hebron Hills (Judean Desert area) was a hot spot for creating stone masks, as well as using them for rituals during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period.
Although this ancient mask was used for rituals, it looks more like something Jason wore in the Friday the 13th horror movies. Or even the first ever goalie masks that hockey players wore. Nevertheless, it’s one creepy, yet incredible discovery.
It’s almost like Prometheus was prophesying the findings published today. In the film, researchers discover the same set of symbols depicting a single star constellation in multiple (newly discovered) ancient caves across the planet. In today’s study, researchers analyzed already-known archeological sites, finding a set of symbols representing an array of constellations that track to our night sky today.
A number of cave paintings across Europe were revealed to depict representations of astrological symbols in a study published this week. Because of these findings, it’s been suggested by researchers from the University of Edinburgh that our common-knowledge history’s in need of an update. “These findings support a theory of multiple comet impacts over the course of human development,” said study leader Dr Martin Sweatman. “[This data] will probably revolutionize how prehistoric populations are seen.”
Once a set of astrological symbols was found in caves and other ancient structures across Europe, these scientists used rabiocarbon testing to place or re-place them in history. They then tracked the movement of the Earth and the probable view that these ancient people had at the time they were carving and/or painting these symbols. If the symbols and their positions did not match up with the constellations as they appeared at the time the symbols were made, these researchers’ interpretations would be false.
But, as the radiocarbon dates and the constellation positions of their associated symbols show, the two are well within the bounds of reasonable correlation. The software the researchers used was Stellarium (for archaeoastronomical dating).
Findings appeared on “many of the most well-known archaeological finds in Europe and the Near East,” including the following:
• The Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel, southern Germany circa 38,000 BC • Chauvet, northern Spain circa 34,000 BC • Lascaux, southern France circa 15,000 BC • Altamira, northern Spain circa 14,000 BC • Göbekli Tepe, southern Turkey circa 10,000 BC • Çatalhöyük, southern Turkey circa 7000 BC
They used such structures as the Vulture Stone at Göbekli Tepe, the animal symbols at Neolithic Çatalhöyük, and Palaeolithic cave art at multiple locations throughout Europe. The paper cites the Aurignacian Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany, Magdelanean Altamira in northern Spain, and the Shaft Scene at Lascaux, France.
Above you’ll see ancient Anatolian bear symbols appearing at three separate ancient locations. One of these alone can be interpreted as many different possible symbols – but when seen together, they become clear.
“Early cave art shows that people had advanced knowledge of the night sky within the last ice age,” said Dr Martin Sweatman, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering. “Intellectually, they were hardly any different to us today.”
The chances that these symbols, dates, and constellations could match up so perfectly is extremely unlikely. According to the study, “The probability that this zodiac could match by pure chance the radiocarbon dates of Palaeolithic cave art and the 2 shrines at Çatalhöyük is 1 in 150 million.” Further, when combined outcomes of all statistical tests on this study are combined, “we find that the probability that all these correlations could have occurred by pure chance is around 1 in 15,000 trillion.”
“Therefore,” said these researchers, “we have cracked this ancient zodiacal code.”
As such, Hipparchus of Ancient Greece is no longer the first to discover effects caused by the gradual shift of the rotational axis of our Earth. Precession of the equinoxes wasn’t discovered by Hipparchus around 120 BC, nay! Instead, “this level of astronomical sophistication was actually known at least 36 thousand years earlier.”
Break out your history books, it’s time to do a few edits.
You can learn more about this subject in a paper authored by Martin B. Sweatman and Alistair Coombs called “Decoding European Palaeolithic art: Extremely ancient knowledge of precession of the equinoxes.” This paper was published on November 27th, 2018 in the Athens Journal of History. You can find this paper with code arXiv:1806.00046 [physics.hist-ph] as of this week. This paper was originally submitted by researchers on the 31st of May, 2018.
The findings suggest that ancient people understood an effect caused by the gradual shift of Earth’s rotational axis.
Discovery of this phenomenon, called precession of the equinoxes, was previously credited to the ancient Greeks.
Around the time that Neanderthals became extinct, and perhaps before mankind settled in Western Europe, people could define dates to within 250 years, the study shows.
The findings indicate that the astronomical insights of ancient people were far greater than previously believed.
Their knowledge may have aided navigation of the open seas, with implications for our understanding of prehistoric human migration.
Researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent studied details of Palaeolithic and Neolithic art featuring animal symbols at sites in Turkey, Spain, France and Germany.
They found all the sites used the same method of date-keeping based on sophisticated astronomy, even though the art was separated in time by tens of thousands of years.
Researchers clarified earlier findings from a study of stone carvings at one of these sites – Gobekli Tepe in modern-day Turkey – which is interpreted as a memorial to a devastating comet strike around 11,000 BC.
This strike was thought to have initiated a mini ice-age known as the Younger Dryas period.
They also decoded what is probably the best known ancient artwork – the Lascaux Shaft Scene in France.
The work, which features a dying man and several animals, may commemorate another comet strike around 15,200 BC, researchers suggest.
The team confirmed their findings by comparing the age of many examples of cave art – known from chemically dating the paints used – with the positions of stars in ancient times as predicted by sophisticated software.
The world’s oldest sculpture, the Lion-Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave, from 38,000 BC, was also found to conform to this ancient time-keeping system.
This study was published in Athens Journal of History.
Early cave art shows that people had advanced knowledge of the night sky within the last ice age. Intellectually, they were hardly any different to us today. These findings support a theory of multiple comet impacts over the course of human development, and will probably revolutionise how prehistoric populations are seen.
The first type of red paint used by humans was ochre and it dates back hundreds of thousands of years. Ancient art work using ochre includes prehistoric drawings on cave walls and paintings on canvasses.
Ochre is a reddish mineral that consists of oxidized iron (iron that has been mixed with oxygen). Since it is a mineral, ochre doesn’t decay or wash away over time. April Nowell, who is a paleolithic archaeologist, a professor and chair at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Victoria in Canada, explains ochre in more detail, “Its vibrant color and ability to adhere to surfaces – including the human body – make it an ideal crayon or paint base.”
Ochre really isn’t that difficult to find. It can be found in soil and rocks were the iron minerals have formed, such as the edges of valleys, cliffs, and even in caves. When ochre is found, it can be turned into powder by grating it against the ground or on a stone. After it is in powder form, it can be mixed with liquid (water, egg whites, or saliva) and turned into paint. In addition to being turned into paint, it can also be broken into small pieces and used as a crayon.
This ochre painting of an aurochs (an extinct species of large cattle) was painted above El Mirón Cave, in Spain, about 35,000 to 24,000 years ago.
Credit: Copyright Lawrence Guy Straus
Prehistoric people created this ochre fingerprint artwork in Chufín, a cave in western Cantabria, Spain, about 24,000 to 20,000 years ago.
Credit: Copyright Lawrence Guy Straus
Scientists have found evidence of early humans using ochre as far back as around 285,000 years ago in the Paleolithic period. Archaeologists found about 70 pieces of ochre that weighed around eleven pounds at a Homo erectus site in Kenya called GnJh-03.
Other evidence was found at a Neanderthal site in the Netherlands called Maastricht-Belvédère where archaeologists excavated small amounts of ochre that dates back to around 250,000 years ago. Paul Pettitt, who is a professor of paleolithic archaeology at Durham University in the United Kingdom, said that it is believed the Neanderthals perhaps turned the ochre into powder and mixed it with water in order to paint their clothing or their skin. In fact, archaeologists have found several cave paintings made by Neanderthals.
Ancient humans even used ochre in burials. Pettitt explained that it is believed that the clothing worn by the deceased were colored with ochre, but as time passed the clothes decayed, resulting with the human bones as well as the grave turning a reddish color from the mineral. In fact, this is exactly what happened in the grave of the famous Red Lady of Paviland in South Wales, United Kingdom. Although it was initially thought that the grave was that of an improper scarlet woman (since it was stained red), the burial site was actually of a young man who lived during the Paleolithic times around 33,000 years ago.
While ochre is a perfect color to draw or paint with, and is especially easy to see in the dark settings of a cave, it has several other uses. The ancients used the mineral to tan hides, as well as a type of glue to secure handles to stone tools. It was also used as mosquito repellent, protection against the cold or the sun, and even for medicinal purposes.
It seems to be apparent that early humans preferred using the color red. Whether it was to mark their bodies or to create ancient art work, the fact that ochre has been used for nearly 300,000 years is quite astonishing.
The ancients never cease to baffle us with the mysterious structures and puzzles they have often left in their wake. Bizarre artifacts, strange relics, and confounding buildings or structures litter the landscape of history, often challenging us on what we think we know of ages gone by. One very mysterious such structure can be found in the country of Lebanon, where a temple and its vast monoliths have been baffling engineers and archeologists for years.
Nestled within the foothills of Lebanon’s fertile Beqaa Valley is an ancient city called Baalbek. Considering the valley itself has been continuously inhabited for approximately the past 9,000 years the city is absolutely ancient, with a long history spanning back to the dawn of civilization, and it has over the eons been passed from the Egyptians and Assyrians on to the Greeks, the Roman Empire, and beyond, and throughout it all this has long been considered a mystical and holy place by all who set foot here. The large number of ancient temples and religious ruins here are testament to this long history as a sacred place, and one of the first that was erected here was an altar built by the Canaanites in 2,000 BC for the purpose of trying to appease and harness the powers of their god Baal, who controlled rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture. When Alexander the Great swept in in 334 BC, the temple area was expanded and enlarged, and changes and additions continued on with the coming of subsequent conquerors such as the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Greeks, who called it the called Heliopolis, or “City of the Sun,” but perhaps the biggest changes were made by the Roman Empire.
The then ruler of the Empire, Julius Caesar himself, launched a massive campaign to erect an enormous temple complex that was envisioned as encompassing three main gigantic temples dedicated to Jupiter, god of sky and thunder, the god of agriculture and wine, Bacchus, and the goddess of love and beauty, Venus, and additionally another temple would be built in honor of the god Mercury on a nearby hill. It was an ambitious project to say the least, and indeed Julius Caesar would never see it completed as it would take around 3 centuries before the immense temples were completed. The Roman Empire was certainly the heyday of Baalbek, but although the Romans left behind many breathtaking ruins here from the era, they also left behind some perplexing unsolved mysteries.
While all of the temples of the complex are impressive, the mystery lies within the one dedicated to Jupiter, which measures 47.7 m × 87.75 m (156.5 ft × 287.9 ft), and sits elevated above the land around it, once decked out with 54 giant columns, of which only a few remain. What really makes it stand out are the three colossal megalithic blocks squatting on one side of its podium, each measuring 22 meters in length and weighing over a hundred tons, and all of them carefully and tightly linked together upon a foundation of 6 massive blocks of granite. These gargantuan stones are collectively known as the Trilithon, and they are so incredibly heavy that no one is quite sure how they were put into such a precise position there, as not only are they raised a considerable distance above the ground, but the nearest quarry for these rocks lies around 1 km away.
Massive stones at the Temple of Jupiter
The stones themselves are far too heavy for any known method the Romans had at their disposal to move them such distances or place them as they are. Even the sophisticated cranes the Romans were known to have used were not believed to be sufficient to lift such massive mighty weight, and it doesn’t look like any one even tried, as the Romans usually drilled holes into heavy rocks to help them be moved by crane, called “Lewis holes,” but the Trilithon have no such holes. So how did they do it? There have been theories that they could have been sort of rolled into place along earthen banks, or that they used some system of capstans, pulleys, or other tools to inch the rocks along with the help of hundreds of men, but no one has really been able to adequately explain it or show how it would have actually been possible with the tools available to the people of the era, and indeed moving and precisely placing such massive rocks would be quite difficult to do even with the technology we have now. At the moment no one can really figure out how they not only moved these rocks from the quarry, but also raised them and put them into such a perfectly aligned position.
Adding to the mystery is another rock of even larger dimensions lying partially buried and discarded nearby called the Stone of the South, which is 19.6 meters (64 feet) in length, 6 meters (19.6 feet) in width, and about 5.5 meters (18 feet) in height, and claimed to weigh over 1,000 tons, and within the quarry itself is yet another enigma called the “Stone of the Pregnant Woman.” This rock is 69 x 16 x 13 feet in dimension, also weighs around 1,000 tons, and in this case is still attached to the quarry, only partially unearthed as if it was abandoned in mid-construction. Both of these enigmatic giant stones are some of the oldest human hewn megalithic rocks known to man, and seem to suggest that there was still construction going on that was abandoned for reasons unknown. Indeed, no one is really even sure of why the Trilithon was built in the first place or even how old it is. Some ideas are that it was used as a retaining wall, that they were meant to be eventual foundation stones for something even larger, or that it was merely an impressive show of religious devotion, but no one really knows why it was made or why construction was seemingly halted.
Of course as with many other mysterious megalithic sites around the world there are more far out theories. Some have suggested that the Trilithon actually not only predates the Romans and the Greeks, but also was not even built by humans at all, and Baalbek is often mentioned in the same breath as ancient aliens. Why aliens would want to build it is anyone’s guess, but it remains a popular theory among ancient alien theorists, who claim that it is not just improbable that humans moved these stones, but that it is downright impossible without some incredible technology that we don’t even possess now. Other equally fringe theories are that this was the anomalous work of some lost civilization from beneath the earth that had access to antigravity technology, or that the giant blocks were actually moved by a lost race of ancient literal giants.
Making the pursuit of answers more frustrating is that there seem to be no Roman written records on the construction of this marvel of engineering, making its creators, methods, and purpose lost to the mists of time and open to debate and conspiracy theories. In the end we are left to wonder who built the Trilithon of the Temple of Jupiter and why? Indeed, how did they do it and why is there no record of it? Was this the work of some unknown Roman method of using applied physics, some previously known technology they had that was well ahead of its time? Was it the work of some lost civilization or even aliens? Why did they stop? There is no real way to know the answers to any of these questions, and Baalbek remains an enigmatic place full of great wonder, historical significance, and inscrutable mysteries.
“Now first of all we must recall the fact that 9000 is the sum of years since the war occurred, as is recorded, between the dwellers beyond the pillars of Heracles and all that dwelt within them; which war we have now to relate in detail. It was stated that this city of ours was in command of the one side and fought through the whole of the war, and in command of the other side were the kings of the island of Atlantis, which we said was an island larger than Libya and Asia once upon a time, but now lies sunk by earthquakes and has created a barrier of impassable mud which prevents those who are sailing out from here to the ocean beyond from proceeding further.”
One must wonder whether Plato could have ever known the controversy he would evoke–having lasted close to 2400 years by now–when he penned these words in Critias, one of his most curious philosophical treatises.
Taken by most scholars to have merely been a dialogue (as were his other writings, aimed at producing deeper truths with the aid of allegory), there have nonetheless been countless thinkers who have questioned whether the Atlantis Plato mentioned in the aforementioned text, along with the similarly-themed Timaeus, had not been a literal retelling of events from long ago, dating to a time far earlier than written history has survived to tell of.
Due to its lasting intrigue, every few years or so (and at times, every few months, it seems), someone else manages to “discover” what they believe to be the “real” Atlantis. The latest of the bunch, as reported recently, was a group of UK-based researchers (around whom a new documentary has been made, and is thus being promoted) who have claimed that Atlantis actually existed off the coast of Spain.
There have been countless similar theories that have arisen over the years, placing Atlantis in a variety of hypothetical locations: since Ignatius Donnelly wrote his landmark Atlantis: The Antediluvian World in 1882, popular theories have included the Azores, a series of mid-Atlantic islands occupied by the Portugese since their “discovery” in the early 14o0s (these islands were apparently known even prior to the 15th century, and in recent years have come to the attention of archaeologists for interesting features which could lend credence to the idea of settlement dating back as much as 2000 years, although this remains unproven).
São Jorge, part of the Azores as they appear today.
Other theories involve Santorini (known as Thera in ancient times), which was partially destroyed by a massive volcanic eruption between 1642–1540 BCE. Recent proponents of this theory include Gavin Menzies, whose fanciful theories of early circumnavigations by various cultures have received a fair amount of criticism, despite the popularity of his writings.
It is not entirely illogical to consider the historicity of the Atlantis theme in Plato’s writing. Not only does the story of Atlantis bear similarity to historical events like that of the eruption of Thera, but Plato also mentions numerous historical characters in his telling of the legend; namely Solon, the Athenian statesman who Critias cites as having been the first to share the story with his grandfather (who was also named Critias, a minor point that has led to some confusion over the centuries). However, other individuals Plato speaks of are less easily proven to have been real, historical figures. Sonchis, the elderly Egyptian priest to whom Solon attributed the Atlantis story, has never been confirmed to have existed through separate mention in other known historical texts (as was the case with Solon, for instance).
Much like enigmatic Egyptian elder Sonchis of Sais, separate mention of Atlantis in other ancient texts has remained curiously absent from the historical record. It remains possible that Solon’s exposure to Egyptian mythology could very well have been the real inspiration for something Plato later chose to expand upon in one of his dialogues; however, the fact that an element to history so seemingly important as the existence of an entire inhabited continent–let alone one renowned for a level of advancement that was mythic in proportion–makes its absence in other ancient writing particularly suspect.
Perhaps what is more fascinating about the Atlantis myth than the theories that have sought to explain or incorporate it into literal history are the similar notions of “lost” continents or ancient homelands that emerge in various world mythologies. Some appear in legends, like those of the Aztecs and their Aztlán, an ancient mythical home from which their culture derived (although it was not always depicted in their mythology as an island, per se). Others do appear in historical writings, like the fabled Hyperborea, land “beyond the north wind,” as mentioned by Herodotus and others in ancient times. Other examples include Mu, a hypothetical lost land similar to the Atlantis idea, which was “discovered” by French scholar Abbé Charles-Éttienne Brassuer from his misreading of Mayan symbols written of by Diego de Landa in his 1566 Relación de las cosas de Yucatán.
An early artistic depiction of Aztland featured in the 16th century Codex Boturini.
Countless other versions of the “lost continent” motif have come and gone over time, procured for reasons ranging from the spiritual, to the pseudo-historical, and stemming from an array of ideologies both well-intended and ill-conceived. “Thus,” noted L. Sprague de Camp in his highly entertaining Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme, “the Atlantis theme has been tied to communism, socialism, anti-socialism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, racialism, pacificism, romanticism, diffusionism, Roussellian primitivism, and Hörbigerism. When these tales are taken as a whole, I think the best entertainment is still provided by those which, like (Charles John Cutcliffe Wright) Hyne’s Lost Continent, have no ideological axes to grind but simply tell a lively story in competent, professional style.”
In truth, Plato’s own telling of the story had probably been something akin to this: while allegorical, it hadn’t been concocted for use as a pseudo-historic “origin story” for whatever occult doctrine was popular at the time. Equally true is that whether or not it had truly been borrowed from whispers of earlier Egyptian mythology, passed down to the likes of Solon and other “tourists” to the region, who may have been shown such things on the columns and temple walls by elders the likes of Sonchis and other Saisians, is beside the point. Allegorical though Plato may have intended it to be, the Atlantis theme has lasted for this long because it makes for damned good storytelling, and humankind is always in search of things that push our calendars back, bespeaking earlier origins for our myths and histories.
The Atlantis story in its various forms still fascinates us for all these reasons. With little doubt (and whether or not anything akin to Atlantis truly existed), others will continue to search for this long-lost, fabled continent of human myth, history, and the imagination.
Scientists Confirm That Moses Did Cross The Red Sea, After Finding The Egyptian Army At The Bottom Of The Red Sea
Scientists Confirm That Moses Did Cross The Red Sea, After Finding The Egyptian Army At The Bottom Of The Red Sea
The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities announced that a team of underwater archaeologists had discovered the remains of a large Egyptian army of the fourteenth century BC, in the Gulf of Suez, 1.5 km from the coast of the modern city. By Ras Gharib
The team was looking for ancient ships and artifacts related to the Stone Age and Bronze Age trade in the Red Sea region, when it stumbled upon a giant mass of human bones blackened by years of immersion.
Led by Professor Abdel Muhammad Gader, who are linked to the Faculty of Archeology at the University of Cairo, they have recovered more than 400 different skeletons, as well as hundreds of weapons and pieces of armor, also the remains of two cars.
It is estimated that more than 5,000 skeletons could be scattered over a larger area, suggesting that a large army was in place.
Many clues led Master Gader to conclude that the bodies may be related to the famous episode of Exodus.
The old soldier seemed to have died in the dry land, since there are no traces of ships that are in the area.
The positions of the bodies and the fact that they were stopped in a large amount of clay and rock, implies that they could have died in a landslide or a tsunami.
This magnificent sheet of an Egyptian khopesh was undoubtedly the weapon of a main character.
It was found near the remains of a richly decorated chariot, suggesting that it might have belonged to a prince or nobleman.
The number of corpses suggests that a large ancient army perished on the site dramatically, both seem to corroborate the biblical version of the Red Sea crossing, when the army of the Egyptian pharaoh was destroyed when the Jewish people had passed through the Red Sea.
It shows that a great Egyptian army was destroyed by the waters of the Red Sea during the reign of Akhenaten. The famous biblical story of “crossing the Red Sea” was discredited by most scholars and historians.
This surprising discovery provides undeniable scientific proof that one of the most famous episodes of the Old Testament is really based on a historical event. What do you think? Do not forget to share information.
ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND THE SECRET TOMB OF GOD OSIRIS UNDER THE SPHINX
ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND THE SECRET TOMB OF GOD OSIRIS UNDER THE SPHINX
He was the king of kings, the god of the gods. Now archaeologists believe they have found the “tomb” of the Egyptian supreme deity, Osiris. The Egyptian media reports that two new tombs were announced during the weekend, one of which belonged to an unknown queen.
In reality, it is not a tomb: it is a place of symbolic burial used in rituals to link the immortal powers of the god with those of the ruling pharaohs.
THE MINISTER OF ANTIQUITIES
Mamdouh al-DamAcaty said that the structure was inspired by a real tomb, with multiple axes and cameras. It consists of a transversal corridor supported by five pillars, as well as a staircase that goes down the rock to a complex dedicated to Osiris.
It was discovered by Project Min, an Italian-Spanish initiative in cooperation with the Egyptian government that aims to study the tombs of the New Kingdom in Thebes, namely a private tomb TT109 (also known as Tomb of Min) and Kampp -327-, which it is an extension of the original tomb.
A CENTRAL CAMERA
Deep in the rock is a statue of Osiris, an axis and two rooms full of rubble. The room facing west was where the sarcophagus of the owner of the tomb was intended (Matjaz Kacicnik, Project Min). Its main feature is a large room supported by five pillars.
A staircase leads to a burial chamber containing a carving of the dead god. An adjacent room contains reliefs of demons holding knives, which the archaeologist in charge of the Spanish-Italian excavators described as guardians.
A well of 9 m depth leads to a central chamber, below which another 6 m axis leads to two more unexplored, with rooms full of rubble. It is believed that the “tomb” is based on the ancient complex of the tomb / temple of the Osirion in Abydos, Sohag.
It is not the first time that the tomb is discovered. The Department of Antiquities in Egypt says that part of the structure was discovered in the 1880s by archaeologist Philippe Virey. Despite some attempts to make a map, the meaning and nature of the site remained unknown until now.
The exciting Bronze Age discovery was made in a rock shelter in Azerbaijan, and it suggests that the ancient people who designed it had long-reaching and intriguing cultural exchanges.
A dot pattern chiseled on stone at a Eurasian rock-shelter indicates that an ancient Near Eastern game called 58 Holes quickly spread to a distantherding population, a scientist says.
Image credits: W. Crist / Gobustan State Historical and Cultural Preserve.
A game called “58 Holes” or “Hounds and Jackals” is believed to have been invented in Egypt 4200 years ago, becoming increasingly popular over the next centuries, and ultimately fading away some 3650 years ago. But before its popularity dropped, it reached other parts of the world, such as Mesopotamia and Persia, where it also became pretty common.
At least 68 gameboards of 58 Holes have been found archaeologically, including examples from ancient cities such as Babylon, Ur, and Thebes. Archaeologist Walter Crist had been looking for examples of the game in the Azerbaijan area (which lies in the Caspian, a former USSR region). He got lucky when he found a photograph in an Azerbaijani online magazine. He had a contact in the country and arranged to visit the country in April 2018. His luck, however, took a turn for the worse: the site had been scrapped by bulldozers to develop a residential neighborhood. Thankfully, a science official learned of the situation and informed Crist about another similar pattern.
The archaeologist traveled to the new site and indeed found another board game sketched on the inside of a Bronze Age rock shelter that dated to approximately 4,000 years ago. Although precise dating has not been carried out, the archaeological context strongly suggests this approximate time frame.
Bronze Age herders in that region must have had contacts with the Near Eastern world,” Crist said. “Ancient games often passed across cultures and acted as a social lubricant.”
In the game, the two players are each presented with five pegs and dice. They have to reach a common end-point finish by moving their pieces along their respective tracks had to reach the finish, a common end-point, by moving their pieces along their respective tracks.
The “Hounds and Jackals” name comes from decorative shapes of the heads of playing pins found in Egyptian sites, where one player’s pins would be sculpted in the shape of a hound, whereas the other player would have jackals.
The pegs found at some archaeological sites were made of valuable materials such as gold, silver, or ivory. Of course, most versions would have featured simpler pegs made from wood, but these would have perished by now.
Discovery In China contradicts current archaeological beliefs
Discovery In China contradicts current archaeological beliefs
Scientists in China discovered a treasure: Stone cuttings, sophisticated tools made by Stone Age men. The problem is that the tools are far too old to be made by Homo sapiens.
Researchersreport in the scientific journal "Nature"about newly found Levallois tools, which do not fit into the picture of known human history at all. In southeastern China, in the Guanyindong Cave, the researchers discovered 45 stone fragments that were clearly crafted using the Levallois technique - but which are actually far too old for this region. Until now, it was assumed that humans reached southeast China only 40,000 years ago.
A completely different kind of human species?
In contrast, the new found tools are 170,000 to 80,000 years old. Archaeologists are now faced with a mystery: Who made these tools?
The discoverers of the Chinese findings around Bo Li from the Australian University Wollongong consider two plausible possibilities. Either Homo sapiens actually arrived in China earlier than previously thought. Or else, a completely different kind of human species manufactured the tools.
Denisova humans could have made the tools. So far, we can only speculate about their way of life - their fossils were found in a cave in the Siberian Altai Mountains. It is possible that their wanderings also brought them to southeastern China. That's not exactly close either. But still closer than Africa.
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