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  • REVEALED: Shock truth about Pentagon UFO picture which convinced world aliens may exist
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  • 'Surprising' UFO Sightings Are Skyrocketing in Italy—And These Government Files Back Them Up
  • Stephen Hawking says the Earth will be a fireball by 2600
  • Longest underwater cave in the world found in Mexico
  • Divers find 'amazing' underwater tunnel network that could unravel mysteries of Mayan civilisation
  • Is America's Spy Plane Back — and Hypersonic?
  • Scientists Are Tracing the Source of One of the Most Mysterious Signals in Space
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  • British UFO Files Finally Out After Years Of Campaign For Transparency By UFO Enthusiasts
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  • Strange UFO with porthole window photographed over Florida
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    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
     
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    ">

    Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.

    In 2012 verloor ze haar strijd tegen kanker!

    In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.

    BEDANKT!!!

    UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be. Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com. Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    18-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Longest underwater cave in the world found in Mexico

    Longest underwater cave in the world found in Mexico

    BY TIBI PUIU 

    Not far from the beach resort of Tulum, Mexico, lies a cave system called Sac Actun — this may be the largest flooded cave in the world. The discovery was made by a team of divers who found a connection between two underwater caverns in eastern Mexico.

    underwater cave

    Credit: GAM.

    Previously, Sac Actun was measured at 263 km but now, researchers working with the Gran Acuifero Maya (GAM) — a project concerned with preserving subterranean waters in the Yucatan peninsula — say the cave system communicates with the 83-km-long Dos Ojos system. This would make the entire system a unitary 347-km-long (216-mile) cave.

    The connection between the two cave systems was identified after speleologists spent months navigating the intricate maze of underwater channels.

    Like the vast majority of the planet’s cave systems, Sac Actun lies in limestone rocks. This karst setting occurs when acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock, causing cracks and fissures. In time, these fissures start getting bigger and bigger, until they create sinkholes or caves. It’s amazing to think about it, but these incredible features were created by groundwater. Since in the Yucatan area, where the Sac Actun system is located, groundwater is portrayed as flowing in underground rivers, caves also tend to be quite lengthy.

    Map of the connection area between Nohoch Nah Chich and Dos Ojos regions.

    Cartography by Peter Sprouse.

    GAM researchers underscore the importance of the finding in relation to the cultural heritage of the Maya civilization that dominated the area before the Spanish conquest.

    underwater-cave-mexico

    Credit: GAM.

    Many people are aware of the famous Mayan pyramids and other cultural landmarks. It’s a lesser known fact that the Mayan cities in which these relics were built drew upon an extensive network of sinkholes linked to subterranean waters known as cenotes. Some of these cenotes are known to have acquired a religious significance to the Maya, as well as their descendants.

    It allows us to appreciate much more clearly how the rituals, the pilgrimage sites and ultimately the great pre-Hispanic settlements that we know emerged,” Guillermo de Anda, director and underwater archaeologist on the Gran Acuifero Maya team, told Reuters.

    https://www.zmescience.com/ }

    18-01-2018 om 00:40 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Divers find 'amazing' underwater tunnel network that could unravel mysteries of Mayan civilisation

    Divers find 'amazing' underwater tunnel network that could unravel mysteries of Mayan civilisation

    After months of exploring maze of underwater channels, project dedicated to study and preservation of subterranean waters makes discovery 

    Samuel Osborne 

    A team of divers have discovered what is believed to be the biggest flooded cave on the planet in eastern Mexico.

    By connecting two underwater caverns, the Gran Acuifero Maya (GAM) project identified the 216 mile (347km) cave after months of exploring a maze of underwater channels.

    The project, which is dedicated to the study and preservation of the subterranean waters of the Yucatan peninsula, said the discovery could shine new light on the ancient Mayan civilisation.

    Near the beach resort of Tulum, the group found that the cave system known as Sac Actun, once measured at 163 miles (263km), communicated with the 52 mile (83km) Dos Ojos system, the GAM said in a statement. Because of this, Sac Actun has now absorbed Dos Ojos.

    Guillermo de Anda, the director of GAM and an underwater archaeologist, said the “amazing” find would help to understand the development of the rich culture of the region, which was dominated by the Mayan civilisation before the Spanish conquest.

    “It allows us to appreciate much more clearly how the rituals, the pilgrimage sites and ultimately the great pre-Hispanic settlements that we know emerged,” he told Reuters.

    mexico-cave2.jpg
    The finding has been described as ‘amazing’
    (Reuters)

    Mr de Anda and his team previously discovered what they believed was a hidden passageway beneath a 1,000-year-old Mayan temple. 

    The experts thought the tunnel under the Kulkulcan pyramid, which is part of the Chichen Itza archaeological site in Yucatan, could lead to a natural sinkhole linked to subterranean waters, known as a cenote. 

    The Yucatan peninsula is studded with monumental relics of the Mayan people, whose cities drew upon an extensive network cenotes.

    mexico-cave3.jpg
    The experts through the tunnel could lead to a natural sinkhole 
    Reuters

    Some cenotes acquired particular religious significance to the Mayans, whose descendents continue to inhabit the region.

    Several are thought to have been used by the ancient Mayans for human sacrifices and previous expeditions have found human bones in cenotes beneath Chichen Itza.

    More about: 

    http://www.independent.co.uk/ }

    18-01-2018 om 00:28 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    17-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Ancient Indian Petroglyph Depicts Mysterious Twin Suns in Earth’s Skies

    Ancient Indian Petroglyph Depicts Mysterious Twin Suns in Earth’s Skies

    Archaeologists in India believe the might have found the oldest known depiction of celestial objects in a curious example of ancient rock art. The etched stone was found at the Burzahom archaeological site in India’s Kashmir Valley. The stone was unearthed during a 1969 excavation, but has puzzled archaeologists ever since due to its enigmatic depiction of what appears to be two large objects in the sky, possibly twin suns or twin moons. Now, a new study claims that the mysterious carving may depict a particularly bright supernova which occurred around 4,500 BC. Is the Burzahom carving a record of an ancient astronomical event, or is something weirder afoot here?

    The stone, left, and a rendering of its etching.

    The stone, left, and a rendering of its etching.

    The rock drawing appears to show two hunters closing in on a stag with the help of a dog beneath two large, luminous orbs in the sky overhead. Astrophysicist Mayank Vahia of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai just published the new supernova theory after cross referencing astronomical records with radiocarbon dating of various objects found at the Burzahom archaeological site. The two objects in the rock art appear to have the same brightness and appear side-by-side, ruling out the theory that they might depict the Sun and moon. Vahia instead believes that one of the orbs could be the moon, while the other may be an extremely bright supernova which rivaled the brightness of the moon.

    Supenova HB9 as seen today.

    Supernova HB9 as seen today.

    In his recently published study of the stone, Vahia concludesthat “only one Supernova remnant, HB9, meets all these criteria and it exploded around 4500 BC with a brightness comparable to the brightness of the Moon.” Vahia goes on to speculate that the two hunters in the image might not be hunters at all, but instead represent the constellations Orion and Pisces, while the animals represent Taurus and the Andromeda galaxy.

    Could this be an ancient star chart?

    Could this be an ancient star chart?

    If confirmed, that theory would mean the ancient people at Burzahom possessed astronomical knowledge far more advanced than what archaeological records have previously indicated. Could this be an example of ancient astronomical knowledge, or could this stone depict something stranger? A visit from two orb-shaped UFOs? The memories of ancient astronauts who came from a planet with twin suns? Or could these merely be some sort of decorative elements which have been misinterpreted by modern researchers?

    Theres no telling what might have been depicted on the stone.

    Theres no telling what might have been depicted on the stone.

    One question I keep coming back to when covering these kinds of archaeological stories is wondering just how wrong our interpretation of ancient artifact may be. Could future civilizations accurately interpret the meanings of modern street art, the works of Salvador Dalí, or the Statue of Liberty? What would they make of a dead iPhone, a Furby, or a fidget spinner?

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    17-01-2018 om 11:42 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    16-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Cahokia; An Ancient American City Covered in Pyramids

    Cahokia; An Ancient American City Covered in Pyramids

    Around four centuries before the arrival of Columbus to the American continent, the Native Indians of Illinois erected a city that came to support a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants. But not only did they create a sophisticated city, for some reason they built more than a hundred mysterious earthen Pyramids, which, until this day, remain a profound enigma, as well as the general history of the site and its inhabitants.

    Scholars consider Cahokia as one of the most significant and most influential ancient settlements in the Mississippian culture that developed and built massive structures five hundred years before Europeans came to the New Continent.

    The original name of this ancient city is unknown. The name Cahokia is borrowed from a tribe that lived nearby in the 1600’s.

    The Cahokia site covered an area of nine square miles.

    Illustration: Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.

    Cahokia is an ancient settlement with a history that is more profound than we currently are willing to acknowledge.

    Washington University’s John Kelly, a longtime stalwart of Cahokian archaeology, sums up the present understanding of Cahokia nicely: “People aren’t sure what it is.”

    The first man to write about this ancient city was Henry Brackenridge, a lawyer and amateur historian who noted he was left amazed by what he had seen in 1811:

    I was struck with a degree of astonishment, not unlike that which is experienced in contemplating the Egyptian pyramids. What a stupendous pile of earth! To heap up such a mass must have required years, and the labors of thousands.”

    The city, its monuments, and cultures are of great value.

    Experts believe that Cahokia was the apogee and may have even been the origin of what scholars refer to as the Mississippian culture which spread across the American Midwest and Southeast starting before A.D. 1000 and peaking around the 13th century.

    The building process of the city is another mystery. Researchers say that everywhere they dug, they found something of value, houses, buildings, monuments. The discoveries made at Cahokia indicate that it was a massive city, which, mysteriously, was built in an extremely brief span of time.

    In other words, researchers say that it seems as if the entire city ‘sprang to life almost overnight around 1050’.

    People from all over the area started moving to Cahokia which allowed the creation of complex infrastructure. The Cahokians built MASSIVE mounds—earthen Pyramids, a playa with the size of 45 football fields and different ceremonial and religious monuments.

    To get an idea of how big the Cahokian earthen Pyramids were if you climb on top of Monks Mound, composed of 156 steps, you’d find yourself atop a structure that is larger at its base than the Great Pyramid of Giza. Now imagine the amount of work that needed to be done to create something like this around 1050.

    The base circumference of Monks Mound is larger than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan. It is believed that the inhabitants of Cahokia began building it around 900–950 CE, and was completed around 1100 CE.

    At its peak around 1100, the city of Cahokia covered more than five square miles and was made up of 120 earthen pyramids. The inhabitants of Cahokia were skilled farmers, traders, and hunters, but they were also excellent urban planners and used astronomical alignments—like many other cultures in the American Continent—to build a small metropolis which was more extensive than many European cities during that tie.

    The Cahokians did not leave behind a written language; we don’t know what they called themselves, where they came from, why they build these massive earthen Pyramids, why so many of them, and why they disappeared.

    In fact, by the time Columbus got to the Americas, the city was already a ghost town. Experts only know that the city came into existence during a favorable climate phase and began shrinking around the time the climate became cooler, drier, and less predictable.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    16-01-2018 om 01:10 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    15-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.5 Things You Probably Did Not Know About Tutankhamun

    5 Things You Probably Did Not Know About Tutankhamun

    Tutankhamun was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh belonging to the 18th dynasty of Egypt and reigned from 1336 to 1327 B.C. In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh.

    His original name, Tutankhaten means “living image of Aton,” while Tutankhamun means “living image of Amun.”

    Although it is formally defined that the XVIII Dynasty ends with the reign of Horemheb Egyptologists are convinced that the young Pharaoh was the last ruler of royal blood of the dynasty.

    His reign was marked by the return to normalcy in the socio-religious plane after the interlude starring the monotheism of Akhenaten.

    Tutankhamun is one of the most famous Pharaohs to rule over Egypt.

    Image Credit: Shutterstock

    Said return was gradual, restoring the cult and architecture of the abandoned temples belonging to gods such as Amón, Osiris or Ptah, placing the priestly caste in office and allowing the celebration of the pertinent rites.

    So, let’s go through some fascinating details about one of the most famous Pharaohs to rule over Egypt.

    Tutankhamun’s tomb was so small that it took centuries to meet. In particular, it took 3,245 years until his tomb, found on November 4, 1922, was discovered by the English Egyptologist Howard Carter.

    Tutankhamun’s reign

    Tutankhamun was between 8 and 9 years old when his reign began. Therefore, the important decisions of government fell to two older figures: the father of Nefertiti, named Ay, and a military general named Horemheb. The Boy Pharaoh ruled for a decade, from 1333 to 1324 B.C. He is considered the youngest Pharaoh to rule over Egypt.

    The Course of King Tut

    Despite the fact that many believe there’s a course related to Tutankhamun, there isn’t one.

    When Howard Carter first entered King Tut’s tomb in 1922, he was accompanied by his financial backer, George Herbert. Four months after having entered the tomb, Herbert died of alleged blood poisoning from an infected mosquito bite. Soon, newspapers would go crazy and started writing about a course, and how the Herbert was victim of King Tut’s course, which was supposedly outlined on a clay tablet just outside the tomb.

    But despite the fact that others who visited the tomb also died, there is not a single piece of evidence that suggests their deaths were connected to a course.

    Tutankhamen reversed the radicalism of his father, Akhenaten, and restored the ancient belief system.

    Image Credit: Shutterstock.

    When Carter entered into King Tuts tomb, he found a treasure trove of priceless funerary objects, including gold figurines, ritual jewelry, small boats which are said to represent the journey to the afterlife and a shrine made for the pharaoh’s embalmed organs.

    But, in addition to all of those treasures, Carter discovered a chamber which contained two small coffins with two fetuses. According to DNA testing, one of the mummies was Tutankhamen’s stillborn daughter, and the other mummy was most likely also his child.

    The artifacts recovered from Tutankhamun’s tomb are considered as some of the most viewed archaeological treasures in the world.

    His Family

    The family and the ancestry of the Tutankhamun is a little confusing.

    Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten, the husband of Nefertiti, with whom he had six daughters. However, at the same time, Akhenaten had a ‘lesser wife’ named Kira, which is supposed to be the mother of the famous pharaoh.

    Tutankhamun was married, in turn, to Ankhesenpaaten one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, and his half-sister.

    Tutankhamun’s name, nearly erased from history

    Even though Tuthankhamun is, and will remain as one of the most famous Pharaohs of ancient Egypt, evidence of his reign was obliterated after his death, when, his successor Horemhe replaced Tutankhamun’s name with his own on countless monuments.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    15-01-2018 om 23:17 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    14-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Secret Chamber In Giza Pyramid May Hold Pharaoh's 'Meteorite Throne'

    Secret Chamber In Giza Pyramid May Hold Pharaoh's 'Meteorite Throne'

    We reported in our article: 'Secret chamber found in the Great Pyramid of Giza' about a long-hidden narrow cavity in the Great Pyramid of Giza that has been found by scientists in a discovery that could finally reveal the secrets of the 4,500-year-old monument.


    Now, according to new analysis of ancient religious texts carved into pyramid walls around 2400 BC this mysterious chamber may hold an iron throne carved from meteorites.

    These texts, it is said that the pharaoh, before reaching the stars of the north, will have to pass the ‘gates of the sky’ and sit on his ‘throne of iron’.

    All credits go to Giulio Magli, Director of the Department of Mathematics and Professor of Archaeoastronomy at the Politecnico di Milano who has studied the texts.

    Although it is still a theory, Magli proposes that it’s possible the throne of Pharaoh Khufu – or ‘Cheops’ – lies inside the chamber and of course the throne would not be melted iron but meteoritic iron, that is, fallen from the sky in the form of iron meteorites and again cited in the texts,” Magli says in his paper, reports RT- read more.
    See here the article and interesting video of the Secret chamber found in the Great Pyramid of Giza. 

    Secret chamber found in the Great Pyramid of Giza (Video)

    A long-hidden narrow cavity in the Great Pyramid of Giza has been found by scientists in a discovery that could finally reveal the secrets of the 4,500-year-old monument.

    Location of the cavity, see the white dots in the above image.

    Described as a 'deep void', it is at least about 100 feet long and up to 230 feet above ground, running over the Grand Gallery, an ascending corridor that links the Queen’s chamber to the King’s in the heart of the pyramid, reports Dailymail in their in-depth article on this discovery.

    It is not known why the void exists or if there are any valuable artifacts inside as it is not obviously accessible. More research will be conducted to reveal the secrets of this cavity which is so big, it’s like a plane with 200 seats in the heart of the pyramid, explains AFP Medhi Tayoubi, co-director of the project ScanPyramids at the origin of the discovery.

    See below the interesting video of ScanPyramids using advanced non-invasive technologies which allow them to see through stone walls to discover any voids or internal unknown structures.

      

    http://ufosightingshotspot.blogspot.com/ }

    14-01-2018 om 17:38 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    13-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Egypt’s Mysterious Granite Feet and a Throne Made of Meteorites

    Egypt’s Mysterious Granite Feet and a Throne Made of Meteorites

    It seems you can’t throw a stone in Egypt without hitting some ancient artifact, and the odds are favorable that the artifact is somehow connected to a pharaoh or pyramid. It also seems that a favorite game to play there – since the country finally got serious about protecting these artifacts from looters and black marketeers – is “Guess what’s in the pyramid?” If you had bet on both happening in the same week, you’re a winner.

    In one of the strangest headlines about Egyptology, local media outlets were shouting in big letters that “Granite Feet Belonging to Pharaoh Discovered in Parking Lot!” According to Egypt Independent, which had a more subtle headline, the parking lot was in Akhmim in the Sohag governorate where construction workers were digging it up for new development. Instead, they found an old development – part of a black granite statue that appeared to be two feet with the left foot pointing forward (seen here). That points to the feet belonging to a statue of an Egyptian king who were traditionally represented in this way.

    Not a pharaoh’s foot but still impressive

    But whose kingly feet are these? That was explained by the right one which was covered with hieroglyphics (seen here) showing the coronation and birth names of King Amenhotep III. This comes as no surprise to Egyptologists – over 250 statues of Amenhotep III have been discovered, the most of any pharaoh. Perhaps that was his plan in case he didn’t get a pyramid … which he didn’t. Amenhotep III was buried in a royal tomb in the Western Valley of the Valley of the Kings. His granite feet, on the other hand, now reside at the Sohag Museum where they’re getting a restorative pedicure.

    Meanwhile, back at the pyramids

    Speculation has been running rampant among experts about what could be in the newly-discovered mysterious void in the Great Pyramid of Giza. One of the first and certainly most interesting comes from Giulio Magli, Director of the Department of Mathematics and Professor of Archaeoastronomy at the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. He writes in his new paper on the subject:

    A possible explanation of this space, interpreted as a chamber connected to the lower north channel and aimed to contain a specific funerary equipment is tentatively proposed. According to the Pyramid Texts, this equipment might consist of a “Iron throne”, actually a wooden throne endowed with meteoritic Iron sheets.

    An Egyptian throne

    That’s right. The Pyramid Texts — carved on the walls and sarcophagi of the pyramids at Saqqara during the 5th and 6th Dynasties of the Old Kingdom – say that “the pharaoh, before reaching the stars of the north, will have to pass the gates of the sky and sit on his throne of iron.” Magli believes that the only way ancient Egyptians could imagine an iron throne — actually a wooden throne covered with metal — reaching the stars was if it were covered with star material itself … metals collected from meteorites. Farfetched? We recently found out that King Tutankhamun’s dagger was made from meteor matter. Could Cheops have rested his royal tush on a star seat?

    Of course, the only way to find out is to look inside the void inside the pyramid. That may happen If the folks at ScanPyramid can get permission to drill a tiny shaft and insert a micro-blimp drone to explore it. How will it know if the throne is covered with meteor metal? Have you ever heard of accidental bumps?

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    13-01-2018 om 18:31 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    11-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Mysterious Stone Found in Egypt Contains Exotic Alien Compounds

    Mysterious Stone Found in Egypt Contains Exotic Alien Compounds

    A pebble found in a field of Libyan desert glass in southwest Egypt has proven to be quite a mystery, and may even shake up our very understanding of the history of our solar system. The pebble is known as the Hypatia Stone, named after 4th century Greek philosopher and mathematician Hypatia who is remembered as being one of the first notable female mathematicians. The pebble appears unremarkable on the surface, measuring just a few centimeters across and dark grey in color. What makes the pebble unique is its chemical composition, one that is unlike any other known substance on Earth or in space. Where did the Hypatia stone come from?

    Fragments of the pebble.

    Fragments of the pebble.

    Most planets and known meteorites contain silicate minerals and a small amount of carbon, but the Hypatia pebble has been found to have a nearly opposite composition of mostly carbon with very little silicon. Even stranger, the pebble contains a high amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a major component of interstellar dust which existed before our own solar system formed. Georgy Belyanin, a geologist at the University of Johannesburg and one of the authors of the study of the hypatia stone, says this unique composition may date it to before the birth of our own Sun and place its origin outside of our own solar system:

    In the grains within Hypatia the ratios of these three elements to each other are completely different from that calculated for the planet Earth or measured in known types of meteorites. As such these inclusions are unique within our solar system. We think the nickel-phosphorus-iron grains formed pre-solar, because they are inside the matrix, and are unlikely to have been modified by shock such as collision with the Earth’s atmosphere or surface, and also because their composition is so alien to our solar system.

    If confirmed, that would make it the only own fragment from this period of the universe’s history. It’s still unknown from where the pebble originated, however. There is a chance it could have originated in a comet or meteorite from the far edges of our solar system, but since we haven’t been able study those objects, scientists are still unsure of their compositions. Furthermore, if it came from our solar system, it would challenge our entire understanding of how our solar system formed. Pretty impressive for a pebble.

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    11-01-2018 om 11:43 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    08-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Israel’s ancient and mysterious Stonehenge

    Rujm el-Hiri in the Golan Heights. Israeli archaeologists called it the Wheel of Giants when they discovered it in 1968.

    Credit Yuval G

    Israel’s ancient and mysterious Stonehenge -Older Than the Pyramids and as Mysterious as Stonehenge

    Scientists and archaeologists agree that the enormous stone structure of Galgal Refaim is one of the oldest and largest in the region. But that's all they agree on.

    By Viva Sarah Press

    • Morbid theory in mystery of Israel's answer to Stonehenge
    • Monumental carved dolmen more than 4,000 years old found in Golan rewrites history of civilization
    • Archaeologists find vast pagan sanctuary outside Roman city in north Israel

    Rujm El Hiri, Gilgal or Galgal Refaim, Wheel of Spirits, Golan Heights, , Bashan,Israel

    Israel is filled with hundreds of archaeological and historical sites. There are caves, ancient places of worship, amphitheaters dating back thousands of years, and fortresses waiting to be explored at just about every turn.

    But there’s one off-the-beaten path archaeological site that many don’t know about, and even those who do haven’t visited.

    It’s called Galgal Refa’im (“wheel of ghosts”) or Gilgal Refa’im (“circle of giants” referring to a biblical race of giants) in Hebrew, or Rujm el-Hiri in Arabic (“stone heap of the wild cats”). It is one of Israel’s most puzzling and mysterious places.

    With massive rock walls jutting eight feet high into the sky, this Golan Heights structure is fondly called “Stonehenge of the Levant,” as according to many estimates, it is a contemporary of England’s Stonehenge.

    Aerial photograph of 4,000-year-old stone structure, known as a dolmen. (Shmuel Magal, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)

    The prehistoric Stonehenge monument in England, believed to be constructed between 3000 and 2000 BCE, is one of the world’s most famous sites. An average 1.3 million people visit this ring of standing stones every year. Other famous stone monuments popular with tourists include Chichen Itza in Mexico (1.4 million per year) and Machu Picchu in Peru (1.2 million).

    Yet, Galgal Refa’im doesn’t draw even close to those numbers. Whether it’s because the magnificence of this approximately 5,000-year-old stone structure comprising some 42,000 tons of basalt stone laid out in huge concentric circles can only be seen properly from the air or whether it’s because of a lack of publicity, this obscure site attracts only a trickle of visitors most of the year.

    A slighter bigger crowd – mostly astronomers and astrologists – comes on the days of winter solstice and summer solstice, when the sunrise lines up with cracks in the rocks.

    But for the most part, this archaeological treasure — located between roads 808 and 98 in Israel’s Golan Heights about three kilometers south of Moshav Yonatan – is still waiting for its Indiana Jones moment.

    Possible tank trench

    Possible tank trench

    Theories abound

    Scientists and archaeologists agree that this enormous stone structure is one of the oldest and largest in the region. But that’s all they agree on.

    “The excavation finished years ago. We have bits of information, but not the whole picture,” Uri Berger, an expert on megalithic tombs with the Israel Antiquities Authority, tells ISRAEL21c. “It’s a mystery.”

    Some believe it was an ancient calendar due to the solstice lineup, or perhaps a monument used for astronomical observations and religious calculations.

    Others think it was a burial site for important individuals because it has a 15-foot interment mound in the middle and a 20-foot-long burial chamber that visitors can crawl into. Another idea is that this structure was used to lay out the dead for the birds.

    Circles of walls and flowers

    Circles of walls and flowers

    “Scientists come and are amazed by the site and think up their own theories,” says Berger.

    Even the age of the structure has been debated.

    When Galgal Refa’im was first excavated in the 1960s, it was dated to the Early Bronze Age II (3000–2700 BCE). But in 2010, Michael Freikman of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem said the mysterious site was more likely built in the Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE) because it matches construction of the Chalcolithic period.

    Berger tells ISRAEL21c that each of the archaeologists who studied this place “is certain about his findings. He’s sure he has the dates of the site. But others who have excavated, they have their own theories. There’s always another opinion or theory.”

    Within the little cave

    Within the little cave

    Whilst enjoying the coolness of this little cave, I figured I should probably look for more info on the site and I found this: Gilgal Refa’im is believed to be either a tomb, a stellar calender, a ritual centre, an observatory or several other theorised places perhaps even created by biblical giants. Basically, nobody knows what this site is for and that definitely adds to the intrigue of the place. If there was one thing I could see in history, if very well might be watching the biblical giants in the Golan – the terrain is just perfect to see giants thundering down the plains.

    Berger encourages people to visit, even though on the ground Galgal Refa’im seems little more than crumbling stone walls overgrown with weeds. From above, it is easier to see its bulls-eye or labyrinth shape. Some of the rock wall circles are complete, while others are missing chunks. The outermost wall is eight feet high and 520 feet in diameter.

    The Golan Walking Trail passes Galgal Refa’im, which is only accessible by foot and open to visitors only on weekends and holidays because the area is used by the IDF for training exercises during the week.

    https://www.israel21c.org/ }

    08-01-2018 om 21:23 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    04-01-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.THE REALITY OF ANCIENT ATLANTIS & “EXTRATERRESTRIAL” CONTACT – A DISCUSSION THAT’S GAINING MORE CREDIBILITY

    THE REALITY OF ANCIENT ATLANTIS & “EXTRATERRESTRIAL” CONTACT – A DISCUSSION THAT’S GAINING MORE CREDIBILITY

    04-01-2018 om 22:45 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    29-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Experts claim there is ‘new evidence’ that Noah’s Ark really is on Mount Ararat

    Experts claim there is ‘new evidence’ that Noah’s Ark really is on Mount Ararat

    If we are to believe the latest claims from a group of explorers, we could soon find the real Noah’s Ark. According to what is written in the Bible, the Ark came to rest on ‘mountains of Ararat’ in Turkey after 150 days.

    The ark was said to have been found many times in the past, but no one has managed to bring definite evidence in order to back up their claims.

    One of the most famous groups who said to have allegedly fount the Ark were a group of evangelical Christian explorers who said in 2010 that they discovered traces of the Ark on the mountain.

    However, this was quickly dismissed as scientists called them out for not providing any evidence whatsoever to back up their claims.

    This hasn’t stopped many other explorers to continue searching for the Ark.

    Image Credit: Shutterstock

    Now an Ark Hunter from California claims he has found fresh evidence that Mount Ararat is the resting place of the Ark, and where the ark originally came aground.

    Unsurprisingly, these claims are also widely dismissed by experts.

    Everyone wants to find the Ark.

    And if anyone does come up with it, it would be one of the most important archeological discoveries ever.

    Many ark hunters know that, and its wy more than 100 explorers recently met in a three-day international symposium on Mount Ararat and Noah’s Ark in Ağrı in Turkey, in order to se whether they could come up with new clues that may help them find the Ark.

    Speaking about the Ark, Professor Raul Esperante from the Geosciences Research Institute said: “My plan is to visit the sites around the mountain in order to find clues about catastrophic events in the past.”

    Sponsored by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Geosciences Research Institute’s mission is to ‘’discover and share an understanding of nature and its relationship with the Biblical revelation of the Creator God,’ according to their website.

    Noah’s Ark appears in chapters six to nine of the Book of Genesis.

    Image Credit: Shutterstock.

    The ark was said to have been found in 2010 when a team of Chinese and Turkish explorers embarked on an expedition that explored the region where the alleged Ark’s remains were located.

    A few weeks into the search, they said to have discovered wooden remains from ‘an ark-like structure’ at an elevation of around 4,000 meters.

    Mount Ararat is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,100 meters.

    According to the team of Chinese and Turkish Ark explorers, carbon dating was carried out on the pieces of wood that allegedly belonged to the Ark which showed that they date back 4,800 years.

    Now, Professor Esperante believes that the Ark really is located on Mount Ararat and in order to find it, more ‘rigorous, serious scientific work’ in the area is required, writes the Express, urging for international investment into a full investigation.

    “The result of my discoveries will be published in books, publications, and journals, but at this point it is too early to know what we are going to find’, said Professor Esperante. Once the scientific community knows about the existence of Noah’s Ark in Mount Ararat, we can make it available to the general public.”

    View of the Ishak Palace and the Mount Ararat.

    Image Credit: Shutterstock.

    In the Bible, the legend of Noah’s Ark appears in chapters six to nine of the Book of Genesis.

    The chapters details how God, driven by the immorality and corruption of man, vows to send a vast cleansing flood.

    Considering Noah to be the only honest man worth saving, God instructs him to create a vast ship, the ark – capable of saving himself, his family and two of each of the world’s animals.

    When Noah completes his massive ship, God instructs ‘two of every sort’ of animals to the Ark Noah had built, before flood waters rise until all mountains on Earth are covered.

    Featured image credit: Shutterstock.

    Source: Express

    https://www.ancient-code.com/}

    29-12-2017 om 22:27 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    28-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Most Incredible and Mysterious Lost Inventions

    The Most Incredible and Mysterious Lost Inventions

    We humans are a species ever focused on advancing our knowledge, of inexorably moving past perceived boundaries to find new ways to break past our confines into fascinating future realms of discovery. This has done much to progress our kind, and the tireless pursuit of our great thinkers and scientists has allowed us to achieve great leaps and bounds throughout the ages. However, as much as we advance there are those discoveries that have been lost to us for whatever reasons that serve to remind us of what could have been. Here we have astounding, sometimes seemingly improbable breakthroughs that smash through our current understanding of our world, but which have slipped into the forgotten nooks and crannies of time.

    Some of the more mysterious and impressive of lost inventions are those from the ancient world, many of which were well ahead of their times and some which are thoroughly steeped in shadowy myth and lore. Perhaps the most well-known of these was a destructive weapon developed in the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century, and popularly known as “Greek Fire.” The material was more or less a volatile concoction that was sprayed from a type of cannon and which could supposedly ignite anything, continuing to burn without sputtering out and to destroy even upon water. This vast ability to annihilate the enemy in Naval battles made Greek Fire one of the most feared weapons of the time, and its manufacture one of the most jealously guarded military secrets of the Byzantine Empire.

    Greek Fire seems to have first mentioned by the historian Theophanes, who described its origins. It was written that the Emperor at the time, Konstantinos IV, had been desperately looking for some sort of secret weapon to use in the face of invaders from the Middle East, and it was then that he was approached by a Syrian refugee and chemist named Kallinikos. The Emperor took him in, and in return Kallinikos supposedly taught him the secrets of making Greek Fire, which was then used to horrific effect and resounding success in a naval battle against Arab forces under the command of Khalif of Syria in 678 AD. The Greek Fire reportedly absolutely obliterated the enemy, who could find no effective way to put the ravenous flames out, saving the city of Constantinople in the process. According to the enemy, the only things that showed any promise at all of remotely stopping the fires were vinegar, sand, or urine, which could not be provided in the amounts needed to stop the onslaught. The secret weapon would then be effectively used for centuries against all who would defy them.

    While this particular origin story may be mythical, at least in parts, it is widely believed that Greek Fire was indeed a real thing, and that it was likely developed and perfected over many years by various chemists working in unison. Not surprisingly, considering it was seen as such a decisively devastating weapon in Naval battles, many other powers wished to gain the secrets to its formula for themselves, but the exact recipe was so intensely guarded that only a very few were said to have even known how to make it. In addition to the actual recipe for Greek Fire, there was a certain set of steps required to make it work, and even when Bulgar nomads managed to capture a sizable batch of the stuff in 814, they were apparently unable to discern how to turn it into the fearsome weapon they knew it to be. Even when a purportedly leaked recipe for Greek Fire was released in the book Book of Fires for the Burning of Enemies, no one who read it could actually make it work, and it seems there were many parts that had to come together just right, including the siphon delivery systems, for the material to be properly unleashed in all of its blazing, ravenous glory.

    In this sense, the secret of Greek Fire and its utilization were kept safe from the world for centuries, and was never once successfully stolen by the enemy. However, this obsessive secrecy had a drawback in that it meant that the few who actually knew the secrets were unwilling to share them, and when they died the secrets died with them. This turns out to be exactly what happened, and the ingredients, handling, and methods needed to create Greek Fire have been thoroughly and forever lost to the sands of time, although there are some guesses and there have been numerous attempts to recreate it. It is thought that it used some sort of resin mixed with crude oil and other chemicals, and that it was likely a liquid, but that is about all we know. Although mankind in its infinite innovation for destruction has created serviceable replacements, such as napalm, the secret of the original Greek Fire remains an incomprehensible mystery.

    Just as destructive and every bit as cloaked in mystery is an invention supposedly developed in the 3rd century BC by the ancient Greek engineer and mathematician Archimedes, of the city-state of Syracuse, then a part of ancient Greece. Among his many accomplishments during his life, such as the calculation of pi, Archimedes was also known to dabble in creating various machines of war for use against the Romans, such as catapults and even a massive metal claw that could be used to pick up and sink ships, and he once boasted, “Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand and I will move the world.”

    Among these colorful and elaborate weapons was something he came up with that has gone on to be rather aptly called “The Archimedes Death Ray.” It supposedly consisted of a series of enormous mirrors that were arranged in such a precise way as to catch and focus sunlight to such a ferocious intensity that it could spontaneously ignite and burn Roman ships off the coast up to 1,000 feet away. According to the ancient historian Galen, the death ray was used to great effect during the Roman siege of Syracuse, destroying many enemy ships with its blazing, unstoppable rays. However, over the centuries all other records of the weapon and any hint of how it was built have been lost.

    In recent times there have been various efforts to try and recreate the “Archimedes Death Ray.” The most famous example was two episodes of the television show Mythbusters, but they couldn’t figure out how to make it work. Then a group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) managed to set alight a replica Roman ship measuring 10 feet long, but the whole process took a total of 10 minutes, and this plus other factors make this is all a questionable result at best. The model ship was motionless at the time, with no accounting for the motion of the waves that would be expected, and furthermore, the time from ignition to fire was 10 minutes, which seems a bit long to be of any practical value in a high stakes battle in the middle of chaos. There is also the fact that Archimedes’ Death Ray never caught on as a popular or widely used weapon, and was only mentioned a handful of times. As Archimedes biographer Sherman K. Stein writes:

    Had the mirrors done their work, they would have become a standard weapon; yet there is no sign that they were added to the armaments of the time.

    Nevertheless, the lost invention has remained the focus of many a discussion, and is speculated and debated upon to this day. Another infamous weapon of war from ancient times is a material known as Damascus steel, which originated in the Middle East and was used to fashion swords and other blades for millennia. Named after the famed city of Syria, weapons made with this mysterious breed of steel were known for the distinctive patterns within the steel itself. Damascus blades were long considered to be legendary, with many abilities and characteristics attributed to them. They were said to hold their edge exceptionally well, were considered to be almost supernaturally sharp, able to cut clean through other lesser swords without losing sharpness, and were also renowned for their incredible durability and toughness, which were said to be far beyond that of a normal blade. Some legends say that they were literally unbreakable, and that they could cleanly slice in half a human hair falling upon them.

    A replica Damascus steel blade

    Due to these purported remarkable properties, it is understandable that Damascus steel weapons were highly prized and sought after, but towards around the 17th century their production dropped off until they apparently went extinct, with the secrets of their production and manufacture lost for the very same reasons that those of Greek Fire were also lost. There were just a few master sword smiths who knew the exact balance of ores and the technique for making them, and this was always a carefully guarded secret that very often went with them to the grave. Indeed, we still have no idea how the steel and its blades were created, and the swords and knives available today which are labelled as “Damascus Steel,” are merely approximations of what they may have been like.

    It is thought that the secret to the amazing qualities of these weapons lies in the unique raw materials that were used, and that these ores may have simply been depleted and used up over time, making it now impossible to fashion one even if one knew how. Many of the unique properties of the steel are also attributed to the manufacturing process and the impurities in the blades that it produced, with elements such as tungsten or vanadium likely present, and there are even theories that the steel was imbued with naturally occurring nanowires and carbon nanotubes, which would account for its legendary toughness and resilience. Whatever the case may be, the secret to the correct combination of materials and forging techniques needed to produce a Damascus steel weapon have been lost to the ages.

    Not every mysterious lost invention is related to destruction and warfare, and indeed another legendary example is a material from the reign of Roman Emperor Tiberius Caesar, that was referred to as Vitrum Flexile, or “flexible glass.” This was supposedly a type of extraordinary glass that would not break or shatter, but rather bend, and which could be hammered back together to repair any cracks or dents. It was said to have been invented by a craftsman by the name of Isadore of Seville, and according to an early account by Petronius, the mysterious craftsman one day presented a bowl made of the material to the Emperor, who had then thrown it to the floor. However, instead of shattering into pieces as would be expected, the miracle material simply bent inward, and could be easily repaired by simply hammering the dent out, resulting in the bowl being as good as new, with no hint at all of having received any damage.

    Roman Emperor Tiberius Caesar

    According to the tale, the inventor told the Emperor that he was the only one who knew the secret of how to make the flexible glass, after which he was beheaded in order to keep the invention under wraps and to prevent undermining the value of gold and silver. The story would later be retold by Pliny the Younger and then Cassius Dio, who speculated that the inventor had perhaps been a powerful alchemist or magician. It is unknown if this was ever a real material or not, but there are currently efforts to develop something very much like it in the modern world, so perhaps this was just an innovation that was well ahead of its time. Neither the mystery of Vitrum Flexile nor its method of manufacture have been explained.

    Yet another invention from Roman times that has been lost to us is that of the so-called “Roman Concrete.” The Romans put to use a peculiar blend of concrete that allowed them to build some of their most astounding architectural creations. Roman concrete was extremely resistant to the effects of seawater, wind, weather, and cracking, and indeed outshines even the most advanced concrete mixtures today. It is precisely the reason why so many iconic Roman structures still stand in relatively good condition even thousands of years later. The thing is, this formula has been lost to the tides of time and no one really knows how they made it, other than that they likely used volcanic ash. Other than this, how they managed to create such structures to withstand the sea and the elements for so long remains unknown, and efforts to reproduce it based on the few remaining written records have proved unsuccessful.

    Another beneficial Roman invention that we have lost is a concoction known as Mithridatium, named after the king Mithridates VI of Pontus, also known as Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysus and Mithridates the Great, who supposedly discovered it. A notorious emperor known for indiscriminate killing, Mithridates racked up quite a rogue’s gallery of enemies during his tenure as ruler, and as such became absolutely obsessed with the idea that he would be poisoned. Indeed his own father had been killed in such a way, and he was convinced that he was at the heart of an assassination conspiracy. To this effect, he supposedly began to work in unison with his court physician, Crateuas, to craft an almighty elixir that would render any poison worthless.

    Mithridates VI of Pontus

    The two supposedly went about testing and perfecting a wide range range of toxins, venomous, medications, and concoctions, which they tested on prisoners in the hopes of finding a universal antidote to all poisons. He was apparently successful, because it is written by such well-known intellectuals of the day as Pliny the Elder that he managed to develop a daily supplement to take that would purportedly protect him from all forms of poisons, and which was said to be composed of 54 different ingredients mixed and matched in precise quantities.

    The result was that Mithridates was purportedly able to ingest any toxin known to man without suffering any ill effects, and it was apparently so effective that Mithridates would perform public exhibitions in which he would willingly be subjected to all manner of lethal toxins without any ill effect whatsoever. Indeed the antidote was so effective that it apparently thwarted his attempt to kill himself with poison in 63 BC, forcing him to take his own life by sword. He had, for all intents, crated a universal, cure-all antidote for any known poison. The drug, which would be known as Mithridatium, was apparently highly sought after during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, but the secret would die with him. In later years, a supposed handwritten recipe for the concoction was found in a cabinet at his home, but no one was able to make it work, and various efforts to try and recreate it have failed. The secret to this universal cure-all for poison, or even whether it ever really existed at all or was a sham, have been lost to time, although there were skeptics even in ancient times, with Pliny saying of Mithridates:

    The Mithridatic antidote is composed of fifty-four ingredients, no two of them having the same weight, while of some is prescribed one sixtieth part of one denarius. Which of the gods, in the name of Truth, fixed these absurd proportions? No human brain could have been sharp enough. It is plainly a showy parade of the art, and a colossal boast of science.

    Moving on into more modern times, we have still more mysterious supposed inventions that could have had world changing implications. In the 1970s, a man named Thomas Ogle claimed to have developed a new type of car carburetor that supposedly could make gasoline into a pressurized vapor and utilize it on the engine’s firing chambers in an incredibly super efficient manner, allowing vehicles to allegedly run over 100 miles to the gallon. In addition, Ogle claimed that any car could be modified to use the new system easily and for not much additional cost, making the whole thing seem almost too good to be true. Ogle himself showed off a Ford Galaxie that had supposedly been fitted with the new miracle carburetor and was clocked at around 113 miles to the gallon.

    Thomas Ogle

    Unfortunately we will never know. Ogle died in 1981 without ever having divulged just how the vapor carburetor worked, and even his death has sparked controversy, with some saying he was intentionally poisoned by someone within the big gasoline companies who stood to lose the most from such an innovative product. Considering that no one has ever been able to replicate the process, it has been speculated that the whole thing could have been a hoax, with Ogle simply showing an illusion utilizing hidden fuel tanks, but other have defended his invention as having been real, and in the end the fact is we simply don’t know. All we know is that it would have been a revolutionary development way ahead of its time.

    Also in the 1970s was the development of a material that was claimed to be the most incredible heat shield humanity has ever devised or even imagined. The material was called Starlite, and was supposedly created by an amateur chemist and producer of hair products named Maurice Ward, who created it in his garage by accident using common and easily accessible ingredients. After many iterations of the material he claimed that it could be simply sprayed onto any object and make it virtually impervious to heat. To demonstrate it Ward would spray it on his hand and run a flame over it to ill effect, coat eggs with it and put them under an assault by blowtorch only to show that the insides were still raw and the shell cool to the touch, and even subject the material to a concentrated laser beam running at around a diamond melting 10,000°C without showing any stress. When subjected to a test simulating a nuclear blast a Starlite coated slab only showed a small scorch mark, and many of these tests were done under scientific conditions or even televised on national TV.

    Hailed as a wonder material, Starlite is mostly considered to have been very real, and Ward was in talks to have it mass produced by many high level companies and even NASA, but could never agree to the terms or reach a deal, all negotiations falling through in the end mostly due to Ward’s own greed and insistence on keeping 51% of any proceeds from his invention. Before he was able to ever find an agreement he was comfortable with, Ward died in 2011 and took his jealously protected secret with him to the grave. Ward had in the past claimed that some of his closest family knew the secret to Starlight’s creation, which was allegedly disarmingly easy, but no one has come forward to conclusively show that this is the case. This potentially groundbreaking invention will probably be forever lost to us, and if you want to read about it more in detail you can check out an article I wrote on it here at MU some time ago.

    In the 1990s there was another supposed invention brought forward relating to computers, when a Dutch man named Jan Sloot claimed that he had discovered a revolutionary new digital coding system that enabled immense amounts of data to be compressed into a very tiny amount of storage space. The kind of compression rates he was talking about were far beyond anything available at the time, and indeed beyond what we have available today, able to supposedly smash down an entire movie into just 8KB of space. He also claimed that he could play up to 16 movies at the same time running on just a 64KB chip and without first copying it to the computer’s hard drive.

    It was all so amazing that Sloot had people definitely interested in investing in the technology, but nothing ever went through because Sloot would end up dead, apparently the day before he was to give up the secret to it all. No one really knew how it all worked except Sloot himself, and additionally there was supposedly a floppy disc holding the compiler that could not be located. It the intervening years the supposed remarkable invention has been picked apart and speculated upon, with some saying that it would be impossible based on current file compression knowledge, and others saying that Sloot had merely found an ingenious way to get around the physical limitations.

    The most controversial of all of these is perhaps a claim in 1989 that a team of scientists had achieved a theoretical process through which nuclear reactions could be obtained at room temperature for the purpose of producing energy, usually called “cold fusion.” In theory it should be impossible, as fusion typically occurs under immense pressure and millions of degrees of heat in places such as the centers of stars. Cold fusion is a concept so alien to what we know that there has never been any workable accepted theory as to how it could be accomplished, but that didn’t stop many from trying, and some claimed success.

    In 1989 there was an experiment carried out by the electrochemist Martin Fleischmann and colleague Stanley Pons, who created an apparatus which they claimed could produce “anomalous heat” through a cold fusion process. They purportedly did this all through electrolysis of heavy water on the surface of a palladium electrode, and at the time it was exciting development because it held the promise of solving the world’s energy crisis, but since it was against everything we know about fusion it was also immediately met with skepticism. Additionally, there was much made of the flaws in the experiment, and no one seemed to be able to replicate the results. Although some teams continue to pursue cold fusion, it is mostly considered by mainstream science to be a dead end, and it is unknown if Fleischmann and Pons managed to actually pull it off or not.

    This is by no means a complete list of all of the amazing discoveries we have made as a species over the ages that have, for one reason or other, been lost to us in time, for better or worse. There are many others, and while many seem to hold almost a mythical quality to them one cannot help but wonder how the world may have been different if they had come to fruition in their respective times. There is doubt that some of these were ever real to begin with, but they paint a picture of a dogged quest along  path of discovery and understanding that has hit some bumps in the road. These supposed inventions remain lost to use, ciphers in the mist, which stir the imagination but which have been forever buried within the sands of time.

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    28-12-2017 om 12:59 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    27-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Is Noah's Ark buried on a Turkish mountain? Experts claim they have 'new evidence' that suggests the Biblical ship ended up on Mount Ararat

    Is Noah's Ark buried on a Turkish mountain? Experts claim they have 'new evidence' that suggests the Biblical ship ended up on Mount Ararat

    • In Genesis 8:4, it claims the Ark settled on 'mountains of Ararat' after 150 days
    • Professor Raul Esperante from the Geoscience Research Institute says he is convinced the vessel's remains are there
    • This controversial institute is sponsored by the Seventh-day Adventist Church
    • He is part of a symposium on Mount Ararat and Noah's Ark in Ağrı in Turkey
    • In 2010, a group of evangelical Christian explorers claimed to have found traces
    • Their research was widely dismissed by experts who said it lacked real evidence 
    • Nicholas Purcell from Oxford University told MailOnline claims were 'nonsense'

    Noah's Ark could soon be found, if one group of explorers is to be believed.

    In the Bible it is claimed the ark settled on the 'mountains of Ararat' in Turkey after 150 days. 

    In 2010, a group of evangelical Christian explorers claimed to have found traces of the biblical ship on the mountain.

    But their research was widely dismissed by experts who said it lacked real evidence.

    Now a California-based 'ark hunter' believes there is new evidence Mount Ararat is where the ark and its inhabitants came aground - and the new claims have received similar reception from the scientific community. 

    Previous research has claimed to have found traces of the biblical ship on the mountain, and now a US researcher has says he is convinced the vessel's remains is there (artist's impression)

    Previous research has claimed to have found traces of the biblical ship on the mountain, and now a US researcher has says he is convinced the vessel's remains is there (artist's impression)

    MOUNT ARARAT

    Many believe that Turkey's Mount Ararat, the region's highest point, is where the Noah's Ark and its inhabitants came aground thousands of years ago.

    In 2010, a group of Chinese and Turkish evangelical explorers set out on an expedition to explore the region and find the vessel's remains.

    After a few weeks, they claimed to have found wooden specimens from an ark-like structure 4,000m (13,000 ft) up the mountain.

    The team claimed they carried out carbon dating on the wood, which proved it was 4,800 years old, around the time the Ark is said to have been afloat.

    Although considered a historical event, most scholars and archaeologists do not believe in a literal interpretation of the Ark story.  

    Nicholas Purcell, a lecturer in ancient history at Oxford University told MailOnline the claims were the 'usual nonsense'.

    'If floodwaters covered Eurasia 12,000ft [3,700 metres] deep in 2,800BC, how did the complex societies of Egypt and Mesopotamia, already many centuries old, keep right on regardless?'

     Talking back in 2010 when the claims were first made, Mike Pitt, a British archaeologist, said the evangelical explorers had yet to produce compelling evidence.

    He said: 'If there had been a flood capable of lifting a huge ship 2.5 miles [4km] up the side of a mountain 4,800 years ago, I think there would be substantial geological evidence for this flood around the world. And there isn't.'

    More than 100 researchers from around the world recenlty came together as part of a three-day international symposium on Mount Ararat and Noah's Ark in Ağrı in Turkey to see if they can find the ark's final resting place.

    'My purpose is to visit the sites around the mountain to find clues about catastrophic events in the past', said Professor Raul Esperante from the Geoscience Research Institute. 

    The Geoscience Research Institute is sponsored by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

    On their website it states their mission is to 'discover and share an understanding of nature and its relationship with the Biblical revelation of the Creator God'.

    In 2010, a group of Chinese and Turkish evangelical explorers set out on an expedition to explore the region and find the vessel's remains.

    After a few weeks, they claimed to have found wooden specimens from an ark-like structure 4,000m (13,000 ft) up the mountain.

    The mountain is the highest peak in Turkey, standing more than 5,100 metres (16,500 ft) tall. 

    The team claimed they carried out carbon dating on the wood, which proved it was 4,800 years old, around the time the Ark is said to have been afloat.

    The vessel was said to measure '300 cubits, by 50 cubits, by 30 cubits', which translates to up to 515ft long, 86ft wide and 52ft high. 

    Professor Esperante is convinced this is true and requires more 'rigorous, serious scientific work' in the area, writes the Express.

    He has urged for international investment into a full investigation. 

    'The result of my findings will be published in books, publications and journals, but at this point it is too early to know what we are going to find', said Professor Esperante. 

    'Once the scientific community knows about the existence of Noah's Ark in Mount Ararat, we can make it available to the general public.' 

    Nicholas Purcell, a lecturer in ancient history at Oxford University told MailOnline the claims were the 'usual nonsense'.

    'If floodwaters covered Eurasia 12,000ft [3,700 metres] deep in 2,800BC, how did the complex societies of Egypt and Mesopotamia, already many centuries old, keep right on regardless?'

    Another expert says that Mount Ararat can't be the location of the ark because the mountain did not form until after the flood waters receded

    In the Bible, God commands Noah to build a vast ship, the ark - capable of saving himself, his family and a representation of the world's animals. 

    God was spurred by the wickedness and corruption of man, vows to send a great cleansing flood.

    Deeming Noah to be the only righteous man worth saving, God commands him to build a vast ship. 

    According to the Bible, when Noah has completed his task, and God has sent 'two of every sort' of animal to the Ark, the flood waters rise until all mountains are covered and life (except fish) is destroyed.

    In 2010, a group of Chinese and Turkish evangelical explorers set out on an expedition to explore the region and find the vessel's remains. They claimed to have found wooden specimens (pictured) from an ark-like structure 4,000m (13,000 ft) up the mountain

    In 2010, a group of Chinese and Turkish evangelical explorers set out on an expedition to explore the region and find the vessel's remains. They claimed to have found wooden specimens (pictured) from an ark-like structure 4,000m (13,000 ft) up the mountain

    Researchers claim that Noah's Ark could finally be uncovered on Mount Ararat (file photo). The mountain  is the highest peak in Turkey, standing more than 5,100 metres (16,500 ft) tall

    Researchers claim that Noah's Ark could finally be uncovered on Mount Ararat (file photo). The mountain is the highest peak in Turkey, standing more than 5,100 metres (16,500 ft) tall

    'Noah's Ark, the Flood is not a myth but a real incident mentioned in all holy books', said Dr Oktay Belli from Istanbul University.

    However, Dr Andrew Snelling young-Earth creationist with a Phd from the University of Sydney says that Mount Ararat can't be the location of the ark because the mountain did not form until after the flood waters receded.

    Although considered a historical event, most scholars and archaeologists do not believe in a literal interpretation of the Ark story.  

    Talking after the initial claims in 2010, Mike Pitt, a British archaeologist, said the evangelical explorers had yet to produce compelling evidence.

    He said: 'If there had been a flood capable of lifting a huge ship 2.5 miles [4km] up the side of a mountain 4,800 years ago, I think there would be substantial geological evidence for this flood around the world. And there isn't.'

    THE STORY OF NOAH'S ARK 

    In the Bible, the story of Noah's Ark appears in chapters six to nine of the Book of Genesis.

    It tells how God, spurred by the wickedness and corruption of man, vows to send a great cleansing flood.

    Deeming Noah to be the only righteous man worth saving, God commands him to build a vast ship, the ark - capable of saving himself, his family and two of each of the world's animals.

    When Noah completes his build, God sends 'two of every sort' of animal to the Ark before flood waters rise until all mountains are covered.

    In the Bible, the story of Noah's Ark appears in chapters six to nine of the Book of Genesis. It tells how God, spurred by the wickedness and corruption of man, vows to send a great cleansing flood

    The vessel is said to measure '300 cubits, by 50 cubits, by 30 cubits', which translates to up to 515ft (155m) long, 86ft (26m) wide and 52ft (16m) high. 

    All life non-aquatic life is destroyed in the ensuing global disaster.

    When the flood subsides, the animals leave the Ark and God vows to never again send a flood to destroy man.

    Many believe that Turkey's Mount Ararat, the highest point in the region, is where the ark and its inhabitants came aground.

    Although considered a historical event, most scholars and archaeologists do not believe in a literal interpretation of the Ark story. 

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk }

    27-12-2017 om 19:35 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    26-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Ancient astronomical observatory discovered in Peru

    Ancient astronomical observatory discovered in Peru

    Image result for Excavation efforts at the archaeological site of Espiritu Pampa, in the Cusco region in Peru, resulted in the discovery of huge stone walls, an astronomical observatory

    500 years before the Egyptians, an ancient civilization in Peru built incredible Pyramids · 

    Excavation efforts at the archaeological site of Espiritu Pampa, in the Cusco region in Peru, resulted in the discovery of huge stone walls, an astronomical observatory, and spaces with animal teeth, silver objects, ceramic vessels, tupus, and other evidence of the Wari and Inca cultures.

    Specialists of the Decentralized Directorate of Culture of Cusco (DDCC) who maintain meticulous work in Espíritu Pampa, located in the jungle of Vilcabamba district, La Convención province, confirmed the recent findings.

    Illustrated here are some of the recently excavated artifacts belonging to the ancient Wari Culture, Peru.

    Images credit: ANDINA/Difusión

    Javier Fonseca, an archaeologist who heads the multidisciplinary team, explained that the walls of a huge temple form a letter D, a characteristic feature which makes it clear that this architecture is typical of the Wari culture that originated in Ayacucho and extended all the way to Cusco.

    In the center of the building, archaeologists discovered another small structure that also has the shape of the letter D, which because of its symbolic and expressive location, is considered to have served as an astronomical observatory or a place where the ancient Wari performed magical and religious rituals.

    Inside the interior of the large structure archaeologists also discovered two spaces built with small stone slabs.

    Images credit: ANDINA/Difusión

    Fragments of animal remains were discovered inside, together with two ceramic bottles of notable Wari style, a silver pectoral and a crown or silver headdress.

    One of the bottles of the ancient Wari depicts the face of a human being characterized by enormous eyes, nose, and mouth.

    However, the most striking detail say researchers, is the crown that is painted on the head, which indicates that Espiritu Pampa was occupied by characters of the ruling elite during the peak of the Wari culture.

    On the side of the large enclosure in the shape of the letter D, an Inca signature structure was discovered by experts, with quadrangular and rectangular design, inside which were pins (called tupus), silver needles and ceremonial ceramics.

    All these artifacts belonging to pre-Hispanic cultures will be submitted to the conservation process at DDCC’s Physical Chemistry Unit for subsequent investigation.

    Source: http://www.andina.com.pe/

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    26-12-2017 om 22:28 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    24-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Scientists make surprising discovery after studying DNA of ancient Egyptian Mummies

    Scientists make surprising discovery after studying DNA of ancient Egyptian Mummies

    Long story short? The first ever full-genome analysis of Ancient Egyptian mummies has shown they were closely related to populations from the Mediterranean. Some would say this is a history changer.

    Even though scientists believed that Ancient Egyptian mummies were all our of DNA, they were wrong. A new study has revealed fascainting—and totally unexpected—results.

    According to reports, the first ever full-genome analysis of Ancient Egyptian mummies has shown that they were more Turkish and European than Africa.

    Experts studied ancient DNA from Egyptian mummies from around 1400 BC to around 400 AD finding that they shared genes with people who originate from the Mediterranean.

    Experts discovered that ancient Egyptian mummies were closely related to ancient people in the Levant, modern-day Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon.

    The discovery has come as a surprise to many experts.

    The sequencing success, reported in Nature Communications, “finally proves to everyone that there’s DNA preserved in ancient Egyptian mummies,” says Albert Zink, a biological anthropologist at the Institute for Mummy Studies in Bolzano, Italy.

    According to sciencemag.org, he participated in a 2010 study that identified DNA sequences from 16 ancient Egyptian royal mummies, including Tutankhamun. But that study used polymerase chain reaction, a method that efficiently finds and extracts targeted DNA fragments but cannot always reliably distinguish between ancient DNA and modern contamination.

    The researcher’s goals were to establish a comprehensive genetic database to study the ancient past of Egypt for the first time ever.

    The ‘history-changing’ study was performed by Johannes Krause, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, using state-of-the-art sequencing methods to read stretches of any DNA present in a sample and fish out those that resembled human DNA.

    Speaking to Mail Online, Johannes Krause said: “The population history of Egypt is complex because it is found at the ispus of Africa, the gateway to a continent, and has seen much historical turnover, Ancient Egypt in the 1millenium BC had been dominated by many foreign powers.”

    “It has been much debated whether foreign dominations such as Assyrians, Nubians, Greeks or Romans changed the gene pool of ancient Europe, making them more or less African. “We wanted to test that and found that there is genetic continuity between the old kingdom and Roman period. However in the last 1,500 years, Egypt became more genetically African, whereas the ancient Egyptians showed almost no sub-Saharan African ancestry and high affinity to ancient Near Eastern and European populations,” Professor Krause added.

    http://mysteriousthing.com/ }

    24-12-2017 om 22:06 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    A lot of unexplained metal artifacts found all over the world, without being able to explain their origin the modern scientists feel thoroughly baffled.

    Are these unknown metal objects proof that we have been visited by otherworldly beings? Or may be extraterrestrials teach our ancestors secrets of metallurgy that we are just now beginning to develop and reproduce?
    Perhaps by examining these strange metal objects, we may begin to understand our past, let’s have a look at 5 of the most bizarre metal artifacts ever discovered.

    1 – 250,000-Year-Old Piece of Aluminum

    chunk of aluminum is on display at the National Museum of Transylvanian History in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    Lab tests concluded it is an old UFO fragment given that the substances it comprises cannot be combined with technology available on Earth.

    The piece measures 20 cm (7.8 in) by 12.5 cm (4.9 in) by 7 cm (2.8 in) and looks like something one might dig up while excavating to put in a foundation for a building. The details of the discovery were never made public at the time because it was pulled out of the earth in communist Romania in 1973.

    According to tests, the object is made of 12 metals, 90% aluminium, and it was dated by Romanian officials as being 250,000 years old. The initial results were later confirmed by a lab in Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Conspiracy theorists suggest object is actually part of a UFO and proof of visitation by an alien civilisation in the past.

    2  – Ulfberht Sword

    Dozens of these swords—made with metal so strong and pure it’s baffling how any sword maker of that time could have accomplished it—have been found in Europe, along with some knock-offs. They are all marked with the Ulfberht name and two crosses, though some of the imitations are missing a letter here or there.

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    One of three Ulfberht swords found in the territory of the Volga Bulgars. Its hilt (classified as Petersen type T-2) is decorated with three lines of round holes inlaid with twisted silver wire

    The Ulfberht sword was made of steel which has a carbon content of up to 3 times more than the average medieval steel. Today, it is the same material used years ago, that is called crucible steel. According the age of the sword the making of crucible steel has started in the medieval era. It is indeed surprising that how this happened. Crucible steel was not around in Europe until the Industrial revolution which took place in the 18th century.

    3 – The Mythical Lost Metal of Atlantis

    In 2015, 39 roughly-cast lumps of an unusual red-gold metal were recovered from the sea floor 300m off the coast of Gela in southern Sicily. The metal was identified as  orichalcum, which was said by Ancient Greeks to be found in Atlantis.

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    A stack of orichalcum ingots as they were found on the sea floor amid the wreck of a ship off Sicily.
    Picture: Sebastiano Tusa, Superintendent of the Sea-Sicily Region
    Source:Supplied

    Divers uncovered another 47 ingots from the mud which present unique finding. Scientists claim nothing similar has ever been found yet, orichalcum was mentioned only in some ancient texts and ornamental objects. Indeed orichalcum has long been considered a mysterious metal, its composition and origin widely debated.

    Today most scholars agree orichalcum is a brass-like alloy, which was made in antiquity by cementation. This process was achieved with the reaction of zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal in a crucible, which requires modern technology and advance knowledge.

    4 – The Betz Mystery Sphere

    This bizarre, allegedly self propelled, seamless metallic orb was discovered by members of the Betz family in 1974, and rapidly became the object of fascination, controversy and alarm for scientists, military officials, ufologists and the general public as the story of this mystery sphere spread like wildfire through the international media.

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    Decades after its discovery, the Betz Sphere remains a scientific mystery

    During inspecting the damage caused by a brush fire that had raged across an 88-acre swathe of woodland Betz family stumbled across a peculiar highly polished, metal orb that was just under 8-inches in diameter. The only delineating mark that the three could find on the eerily unblemished object was an elongated triangular shape stamped into its surface.  Terry Betz decided to heft the 22 lbs., bowling ball sized sphere into their car and take it back home.

    And that’s when the Betzes’ lives changed.

    It began when Terry was playing guitar. The family reported that the ball strangely resonated the music. And then it began to move around, all on its own. The Betzes experimented with it, placed it on their table, and watched it navigate its own way around the perimeter without falling off. Doors began slamming themselves around the house. Mysterious organ music filled the residence, even though there was no organ. This seemingly impossible defiance of the laws of Newtonian gravity left the Betz tribe thoroughly baffled.

    Puzzled by the bizarre sphere, the US military examined it and found it was made of high-grade steel and X-rays revealed there were three smaller balls inside, the object’s origin remains a mystery.

    5 – Kera UFO

    During the summer of 1972, a similar to Betz metal sphere (though not spherical) anomalous object plagued a group of teens who repeatedly managed to capture and lose a small, self propelled, evidently intelligently guided device over a vexing 4-weeks period in the Kera area of Kōchi City, Japan.

    Top 5 Unexplained Metal Objects: Alien Artifacts?

    The airborne object resembled a dull, silver hat with a flat bottom and a narrow lip.

    The silver, hat-shaped object weighed 1.3 kilograms (3 lbs) and measured roughly 7 centimeters (3 in) tall and 15 centimeters (6 in) in diameter. The bottom surface was perforated with an array of tiny holes and imprinted with designs depicting what appeared to be a bird, some waves, and another flying object. Something rattled around inside the object when shaken.

    The strange device came to be known as the Kera UFO. This object’s movements also defied logic and appeared to be motivated by self preservation “instincts.”

    http://www.look4ward.co.uk/ }

    24-12-2017 om 20:44 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    23-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Mystery of Göbekli Tepe and Its Message to Us

    The Mystery of Göbekli Tepe and Its Message to Us

    Schoch07_EnclosureA

    By ROBERT M. SCHOCH, PH.D.—

    What were our ancestors like 10,000 or more years ago? The most common image is one of small nomadic bands endlessly in pursuit of the next meal. Men hunted game while women and children gathered fruits, seeds, roots, shoots, insects, and other edibles.

    The height of technology was a finely worked stone knife blade or spear point; nets, baskets, and cordage were also put to good use. Permanent structures were superfluous, for the group never stayed in one place very long. Material goods were sparse as possessions had to be limited to those easily carried. Jewellery (perhaps beads, animal teeth, or shells strung on a cord) and personal decoration (body paint, tattoos) were prized. In colder climates appropriate clothing was fashioned from animal skins. Social institutions were minimal. Not until the Neolithic Revolution, beginning about 10,000 years ago, did agriculture and domestication appear. This in turn allowed permanent settlement, leading to specialisation of labour, the development of crafts (including pottery and metalworking), the building of substantial structures, long-distance trade, and the slow and gradual evolution of complex societies.

    None of this happened overnight. It took thousands of years, and it was not until around 4000 to 3000 BCE that true signs of high culture first appeared, such as fine artistry in decorative crafts, written records, scientific observations of the heavens, complex political organisations, and megalithic building projects. This level of achievement was reached in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, and the Indus Valley by the beginning of the third millennium BCE. A well-known example is the rise of dynastic Egypt about 3200 to 3100 BCE and the building of the Djoser pyramid circa 2630 BCE. Stonehenge in England dates from the same period.

    Although accepted as dogma by many, this nice neat scenario may be completely wrong.

    Questioning Accepted History

    Back in 1991, I had the temerity to announce that the Great Sphinx of Egypt, conventionally dated to 2500 BCE (the reign of Pharaoh Khafre), actually has its origins in the 7000 to 5000 BCE range, or possibly earlier.

    My announcement was done via a presentation at the October 1991 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America (this was allowed only after a formal abstract, submitted with my colleague John Anthony West, was accepted based on positive professional peer review).1 I made my case utilising scientific analyses, comparing erosion and weathering profiles around the Sphinx to the ancient climatic history of Egypt.

    In brief, the Sphinx sits on the edge of the Sahara Desert, a hyper-arid region for the past 5,000 years; yet the statue shows substantial rain-induced erosion. The original structure must date back thousands of years prior to 3000 BCE (the head was re-carved in dynastic times).

    I had pushed the Great Sphinx, arguably the grandest and most recognisable statue in the world, back into a period when humanity was supposedly just transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to a sedentary life. People 7,000 or more years ago were still brutish and unsavoury, at least by modern civilised standards. Certainly they were not carving giant statues (the Sphinx is about 20 meters tall by over 70 meters long) out of solid limestone bedrock. Immediately after my announcement of an older Sphinx, I was under attack. Archaeologist Carol Redmount (University of California, Berkeley) was quoted in the media, “There’s just no way that could be true.” The article continued, “The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafre’s reign, she said.”2

    The initial hoopla peaked in February 1992 at a “debate” on the age of the Great Sphinx held at the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.3 As the New York Timesput it, “The exchange was to last an hour, but it spilled over to a news conference and then a hallway confrontation in which voices were raised and words skated on the icy edge of scientific politeness.” Egyptologist Mark Lehner could not accept the notion of an older Sphinx, personally attacking me by labelling my research “pseudoscience.” Lehner argued, “If the Sphinx was built by an earlier culture, where is the evidence of that civilisation? Where are the pottery shards? People during that age were hunters and gatherers. They didn’t build cities.”4 

    At the time I lacked any pottery shards. But I was sure of my science, and I persisted. Two decades later, we have something better than pottery shards, and even earlier than my conservative Sphinx date of circa 5000 BCE to 7000 BCE (I now currently favour the older end of this range, or an even earlier date for the original Sphinx). Göbekli Tepe dates from over 10,000 years ago.

    Pages from ndmain122
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    Better than Pot Shards

    A short drive from Urfa (alternatively Sanlıurfa), southeastern Turkey, atop a mountain north of the Harran Plain, sits Göbekli Tepe. Since 1995 Prof. Dr. Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute has been excavating the site.5 Recently I visited it for myself. I was amazed.

    At Göbekli Tepe immense finely carved and decorated T-shaped limestone pillars, many in the range of two to five and a half meters tall and weighing up to an estimated 10 to 15 tons, stand in Stonehenge-like circles. The workmanship is extraordinary, with clear sharp edges that would do any modern mason proud. It may be a cliché, but I cannot help but think of the opening scene of the classic 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. A group of ape-like proto-humans discovers a giant monolith; influenced by it, they learn to use tools, leading to civilisation.6 

    Various pillars at Göbekli Tepe are decorated with bas-reliefs of animals, including foxes, boars, snakes, aurochs (wild cattle), Asiatic wild asses, wild sheep, birds (cranes, a vulture), a gazelle, and arthropods (scorpion, ants). The carvings are refined, sophisticated, and beautifully executed. Not only are there bas-reliefs, but also carvings in the round, including a carnivorous beast, possibly a lion or other feline, working its way down a column, apparently in pursuit of a boar carved in relief below. In the round, carvings of lions and boars have been uncovered, now housed in the Museum of Sanlıurfa, as is a life-sized statue of a man, which, though from Urfa, apparently dates to the Göbekli Tepe era.

    Also from Göbekli Tepe are perfectly drilled stone beads. And, according to Prof. Schmidt, while some of the stone pillars were set in the local bedrock, others were set into a concrete- or terrazzo-like floor. Looking only at style and quality of workmanship, one might easily suggest that Göbekli Tepe dates between 3000 and 1000 BCE. How wrong one would be. Based on radiocarbon analyses, the site goes back to the period of 9000 to 10,000 BCE, and was intentionally buried circa 8000 BCE.7 That is, the site dates back an astounding 10,000 to 12,000 years ago!

    This was supposedly the time of the brutish, nomadic, hunters and gatherers who, according to many academics, did not have the technology, governing institutions, or will to build structures such as those found at Göbekli Tepe. Clearly there is a disconnect between what conventional historians and archaeologists have been teaching all these years and the clear evidence on the ground.

    As Stanford University archaeologist Ian Hodder commented, Göbekli Tepe is “unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date… huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art… Many people think that it changes everything… It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong.”8 Like my redating of the Great Sphinx, Göbekli Tepe forces us to reconsider our antiquity.

    And like my work on the Sphinx, the specialists are perplexed by Göbekli Tepe. Patrick Symmes wrote in Newsweek, “But the real reason the ruins at Göbekli remain almost unknown, not yet incorporated in textbooks, is that the evidence is too strong, not too weak. ‘The problem with this discovery’, as [Glenn] Schwartz of Johns Hopkins puts it, ‘is that it is unique’. No other monumental sites from the era have been found. Before Göbekli, humans drew stick figures on cave walls, shaped clay into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for shelter or worship. Even after Göbekli, there is little evidence of sophisticated building.”9

    In a nutshell, we have evidence of high culture and civilisation circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE, but then an apparent decline or hiatus for thousands of years, until the “rise” of civilisation once again in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and elsewhere. What happened?

    A Record of Precession at Göbekli Tepe

    A hallmark of civilisation is precise scientific observation. Astronomy is often considered the earliest yet most sophisticated of the sciences. A particularly subtle astronomical phenomenon, the discovery of which is generally credited to Hipparchus of Rhodes in the second century BCE,10 is the slow movement of the stars relative to the equatorial coordinate system. This is commonly referred to as the precession of the equinoxes. The entire cycle, with stars returning to their “starting points,” takes somewhat under 26,000 years. Some researchers suggest that precession was known to the ancient Egyptians and other early civilisations, and is reflected in myths worldwide.11 Others dispute such assertions. I found evidence of precession at Göbekli Tepe, adding another layer of sophistication to this remarkable site.

    The excavated portions of Göbekli Tepe lie on the southern slope of a hill looking out to the southern skies. Thus far, the better part of four stone circles (enclosures) has been excavated in an area measuring about 40 by 40 meters square. Additional, later and smaller, pillars and structures have been partially uncovered both 20 to 30 meters north and about 80 meters west of the major area of circles,12 and eighteen or more stone circles still under the earth have been identified. Enclosure D is located furthest north. To the southeast lies Enclosure C, and to the south of Enclosure D lies Enclosure B and finally A. The enclosures are very close to each other, almost abutting. Each enclosure possesses a pair of tall central parallel pillars ringed by a circle of shorter pillars with later stonewalls between the pillars. If at some point the enclosures were covered over, they may have been entered from above; indeed, possible carved stone “portals” have been found that may have been set in a roof.

    The central pairs of pillars are oriented generally toward the southeast, as if forming sighting tubes toward the sky. The central pillars of Enclosure D include arms and hands, with the hands holding the belly or navel area, and it is clear that the anthropomorphic pillars are facing south. The orientations vary from enclosure to enclosure, however. For Enclosure D the central pillars are oriented approximately 7º east of south. Those for Enclosures C, B, and A are approximately 13º east of south, 20º east of south, and 35º east of south respectively.13 These varying angles suggest the builders were observing stars and building new enclosures oriented progressively toward the east as they followed particular stars or star clusters over hundreds of years.

    What were the builders observing? This is a difficult question to answer, but we can hypothesise. On the morning of the Vernal Equinox of circa 10,000 BCE, before the Sun rose due east at Göbekli Tepe, the Pleiades, Taurus, and the top of Orion were in view in the direction indicated by the central stones of Enclosure D, with Orion’s belt not far above the horizon (as seen from the best vantage points in the area) as dawn broke.14 A similar scenario played out for the orientation of the central stones of Enclosure C in circa 9500 BCE and for Enclosure B in circa 9000 BCE. Enclosure A is oriented toward the Pleiades, Taurus, and Orion on the morning of the Vernal Equinox circa 8500 BCE, but due to precessional changes, the entire belt of Orion no longer rose above the horizon before dawn broke. By about 8150 BCE the belt of Orion remained below the horizon at dawn on the morning of the Vernal Equinox. These dates fit well the timeframe established for Göbekli Tepe on the basis of radiocarbon dating.

    The Vernal Equinox is easily observed and noted, and since the beginning of recorded history has been an important marker, celebrated with festivities. It marks the first day of the year in numerous calendars, and is tied to cosmological creation stories. I suspect that these traditions go back to Göbekli Tepe times, and even earlier.

    The Orion-Taurus region of the sky has been a focus of ancient humans for tens of thousands of years in Europe and the Middle East. Here are located the asterisms of Orion’s belt and the Hyades, as well as the Pleiades. Researchers such as Michael Rappenglueck, Frank Edge, and Luz Antequera Congregado have identified the constellation Taurus and the Pleiades among the paintings of Lascaux cave, France, dating back 16,500 years ago.15 Additionally, Rappenglueck asserts that a tiny tablet from Germany, carved of mammoth ivory and dating back at least 32,500 years, depicts the constellation Orion in the familiar guise of a narrow-waist male with outstretched arms and legs.16 

    Given such evidence, it is reasonable that the Göbekli Tepe people recognised Orion as a human figure, even as a hunter. The mammal remains found while excavating Göbekli Tepe (including numerous gazelle, aurochs or wild cattle, wild ass, fox, wild sheep/goat species, and boars), as well as the reliefs on the pillars, can be taken to indicate a hunting society. Indeed, studying the anthropomorphic pillars of Enclosure D, they may represent, in stylised form, Orion. Not only do they have arms (which could be interpreted as the arms of Orion brought down to the body), but also prominent belts (the belt stars of Orion) and fox pelt loincloths that may represent the Orion Nebula and associated features.

    My suggestion that the Göbekli Tepe people were observing the Orion-Taurus-Pleiades region of the sky on the morning of the Vernal Equinox is simply a hypothesis. If they were observing stars (versus the Sun, for instance), then they needed to readjust their observations over the centuries due to precessional changes. And maybe they were observing something more than just the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars.

    Göbekli Tepe, Easter Island, and the Plasma Connection

    Having returned from Easter Island (January 2010) not long before visiting Göbekli Tepe (May 2010), I was surprised to see numerous iconographic similarities between the two. I believe these similarities are real, but I might have missed them if I had not been to both sites in succession. Furthermore, both Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe may relate to powerful plasma events in the skies at the end of the last ice age.

    The outstanding feature of Easter Island is the moai, those huge stone heads and torsos that dot the island. In the case of Göbekli Tepe, stone pillars dominate the scene. Amazingly, both the moai and the anthropomorphic central pillars of Enclosure D at Göbekli Tepe have arms and hands positioned similarly against the body, with hands and fingers extended over the belly and navel region. The moai are looking up at the skies, and I believe the Göbekli Tepe pillars are also looking towards the skies. Are they looking to identical phenomena?

    As I have discussed elsewhere,17 the indigenous Easter Island rongorongo script may record a major plasma event in the skies thousands of years ago, at the end of the last ice age. Plasma consists of electrically charged particles. Familiar plasma phenomena on Earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights. In the past, much more powerful plasma events may have taken place, perhaps due to coronal mass ejections from the Sun or emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena could cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and incinerating materials on the planet’s surface.

    Los Alamos plasma physicist Anthony L. Peratt and his associates have established that petroglyphs found worldwide record an intense plasma event (or events) in prehistory.18 Peratt has determined that powerful plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic shapes resembling humanoid figures, humans with bird heads, sets of rings or donut shapes, and writhing snakes or serpents – shapes reflected in the ancient petroglyphs. Plasma events may be a dominant theme found among the ancient remains of Easter Island. Likewise, plasma may be important to understanding Göbekli Tepe.

    One of the strange and perplexing aspects of Göbekli Tepe is that it was not simply abandoned and left to oblivion, but intentionally buried around 8000 BCE. Furthermore, before its final burial, stonewalls were built between the finely wrought pillars. These walls are, in my opinion, clearly secondary as in many cases they cover over the fine relief carvings on the pillars. They are also much cruder than the pillars. Additionally, some pillars appear to have fallen over and broken, and were subsequently repaired or re-erected when the walls were built. In several cases the bases of the broken pillars are missing or lying horizontally under the tops of the broken pillars that were set to the correct height on a pile of stones. At this late stage the walls and pillars may have been roofed over.

    Among the oddities of Easter Island are the low-lying, solid, thick-walled stone buildings with narrow entrances that look like bunkers or fallout shelters. These stone “houses” of Easter Island are similar to the structures formed by the walls and pillars of Göbekli Tepe. Could they, in both cases, have been protection from some type of phenomena emanating from the skies, such as plasma strikes?

    Some might criticise comparisons between Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe not only on the basis that they are on opposite sides of the globe, but are also ostensibly separated by thousands of years (Göbekli Tepe dating from 8000 BCE and before, whereas according to standard chronologies Easter Island was not inhabited until a mere millennium and a half ago). In counterargument, I question whether we really know when Easter Island was first colonised. Even if surviving Easter Island antiquities and structures are from a relatively late period, they may reflect earlier traditions and styles, perhaps brought by settlers from elsewhere, that date back to a time of intense plasma outbursts. The rongorongo tablets may carefully preserve ancient texts that were copied over and over.

    Just as I have argued that the Easter Island rongorongo script records plasma events in the ancient skies, so too might certain carved motifs found at Göbekli Tepe. Peratt has made the connection between birdman petroglyphs and plasma phenomena around the world. On Easter Island we find birdman petroglyphs as well as birdmen and bird symbols among the rongorongo hieroglyphs. At Göbekli Tepe a very similar bird form was carved into one of the pillars. Peratt records many plasma phenomena that can be interpreted as having the appearance of snakes. An abundance of snakes are found on the pillars of Göbekli Tepe, slithering vertically up and down the ends of some of the columns. Could these represent huge bolts of plasma?

    Buried for Posterity

    Based on the evidence slowly being pieced together, it appears there may have been a major plasma event, or events, in antiquity. In a previous article (see New Dawn 121)19 I posited that a major plasma event, circa 9700 BCE, helped bring about the end of the last ice age. If the radiocarbon dating of Göbekli Tepe, to circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE is correct, perhaps the first-built stone circle was initiated in response to this plasma event of circa 9700 BCE.

    The plasma phenomena were observed originating from the south, the direction toward which the Göbekli Tepe complex is oriented. Plasma events may have continued for centuries, and they may correlate with the additions and elaborations – stonewalls and more stone circles – seen at Göbekli Tepe. Perhaps ultimately the plasma was too much for the Göbekli Tepe people to bear, and they abandoned the site, but not before carefully covering it over. Whether their intention was to return once the skies calmed down, or to preserve their work for posterity, we do not know.

    What happened at Göbekli Tepe? What were the people of that time doing? What were they experiencing? Why did they bury their creation and leave? Where did they go? These may be more than simple academic questions.  I suspect that the Göbekli Tepe people experienced something dramatic, something so important they felt compelled to memorialise it in a record of stone that could last for over ten thousand years. They expended enormous resources to leave a message, possibly a warning, for us. Now it is time to fully uncover it and decipher what they had to say.

    For more on this subject, please check out New Dawn Special Issue Vol 7 No 1.

    Footnotes

    1. Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, vol. 23, no. 5, A253 (1991). For further discussion of the date of the Great Sphinx, see: Robert M. Schoch. “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza”, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, no. 2, 52-59, 66-70 (Summer 1992); Robert M. Schoch, “Geological Evidence Pertaining to the Age of the Great Sphinx”, in New Scenarios on the Evolution of the Solar System and Consequences on History of Earth and Man (Eds. Emilio Spedicato and Adalberto Notarpietro), Proceedings of the Conference, Milano and Bergamo, June 7-9th, 1999, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea, Anno 2002, N. 3, 171-203 (2002); Robert M. Schoch, “Life with the Great Sphinx: Some Personal Reflections”, Darklore, vol. 1, 38-55, 291 (2007); Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations, New York: Harmony Books, 1999; Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2003; Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally, Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Further Evidence Supporting a Pre-2500 B.C. Date for the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, v. 32, no. 7, A276 (2000); T. L. Dobecki and R. M. Schoch, “Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geoarchaeology, vol. 7, no. 6, 527-544 (1992).

    2. Lee Dye, “Sphinx’s New Riddle–Is It Older Than Experts Say? Archeology: Geologists cite study of weathering patterns. But Egyptologists say findings can’t be right”, Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1991. Posted at: http://articles.latimes.com/1991-10-23/news/mn-183_1_great-sphinx (Accessed 14 June 2010).

    3. Robert M. Schoch, “How old is the Sphinx?”, Abstracts for the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 202 (1992).

    4. Anonymous, “Scholars Dispute Claim That Sphinx Is Much Older”, New York Times, February 9, 1992. Posted at: www.nytimes.com/1992/02/09/us/scholars-dispute-claim-that-sphinx-is-much-older.html(Accessed 14 June 2010).

    5. Klaus Schmidt, Sie bauten die ersten Tempel: Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeijäger, Die archäologische Entdeckung am Göbekli Tepe, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2006/2008; Klaus Schmidt, Tas Çagi Avcılarının Gizemli Kutsal Alanı Göbekli Tepe En Eski Tapınagı Yapanlar, Istanbul: Arkeolojí ve Sanat Yayınları, 2007; K. Schmidt, “Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey: A Preliminary Report on the 1995-1999 Excavations,” Paléorient, vol. 26, no. 1, 45-54 (2001); Joris Peters and Klaus Schmidt, “Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment”, Anthropozoologica, vol. 39, no. 1, 179-218 (2004). For popular discussions of Göbekli Tepe, see: Graham Chandler (photographs by Ergun Çagatay), “The Beginning of the End for Hunter-Gatherers”,Saudi ARAMCO World, vol. 60, no. 2, 2-9 (March/April 2009); Andrew Curry (photographs by Berthold Steinhilber), “The World’s First Temple? Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkey’s Stunning Gobekli Tepe Upends the Conventional View of the Rise of Civilization”, Smithsonian, vol. 39, no. 8, 54-58, 60 (November 2008); Patrick Symmes, “History in the Remaking: A temple complex in Turkey that predates even the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution”, Newsweek, 1 March 2010, article published online 19 February 2010 at: www.newsweek.com/id/233844 (Accessed 29 April 2010).

    6. Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, directed by Stanley Kubrick, 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1968.

    7. I briefly discussed the dating of Göbekli Tepe on site with Prof. Schmidt. It is based not only on calibrated radiocarbon dates of circa 9000 BCE or earlier on organic remains found in the material used to fill the site (these dates would be later than the actual occupation of the site), but also dates of circa 8000-7500 BCE on pedogenic carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites on wall stones (see Peters and Schmidt, 2004, 182 [note 5.]). These carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites would have formed only after the burial of the site and after soil formation began, thus indicating that the site itself was buried by circa 8000 BCE. Taken together, I am convinced that the evidence indicates that the site was actively used in the tenth and ninth millennia BCE and intentionally buried (as indicated by the systematic layers of the fill material and the material the fill contains, including flint tools and waste, animal and plant remains) circa 8000 BCE. The older Enclosures (A, B, C, and D) belong to Schmidt’s “Layer III.” Overlying Layer III is the younger Layer II, which contains smaller pillars and structures, and may date to the same period as the Neolithic site of Nevali Çori, an area northwest of Göbekli Tepe and similar in many respects to the Layer II period at Göbekli Tepe. Nevali Çori was excavated in the 1990s, but has since been flooded as a result of the Atatürk Dam built on the Euphrates River. Nevali Çori and Layer II of Göbekli Tepe may date to the second half of the ninth millennium BCE. In the catalog to accompany a 2007 exhibit at the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien, Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss, 2007), the earlier material at Göbekli Tepe, that of Layer III, is referred to 9500-8800 BCE whereas the material from Layer II is referred to 8800-8000 BCE and material from Nevali Çori is dated to circa 8500-7900 BCE. Prof. Schmidt suggested that some of the carved depressions and gouges, for instance on the tops of pillars, may date to a time when the site was buried but still remembered as an important or holy site, and people came to partake of the energy of the site. As Veysí Yildiz, son of the local landowner, explained, even before the archaeological remains were discovered at Göbekli Tepe, the area was held in reverence (stone-covered graves are found on the top of the mound to this day).

    8. Quoted by Patrick Symmes in Newsweek [see note 5.].

    9. Patrick Symmes [see note 5.]

    10. Giulio Magli, “On the possible discovery of precessional effects in ancient astronomy,” article from 2004 posted at: http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0407/0407108.pdf (Accessed 17 June 2010); Giulio Magli, Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy: From Giza to Easter Island, New York: Copernicus Books, 2009.

    11. See for instance, J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, New York: Macmillan, 1894 (reprinted, with a preface by Giorgio de Santillana, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964); Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time, Boston: Gambit, 1969.

    12. The main, and older, portion of Göbekli Tepe under discussion in this article belongs to Schmidt’s Layer III; the younger and smaller pillars and structures belong to Schmidt’s Layer II [see note 7.].

    13. These measurements are only approximate, and are based on the plan of Göbekli Tepe on page 186 of Peters and Schmidt, 2004 [note 5.].

    14. Alignments discussed here were determined using the computer program “Starry Night Pro 4.5” (Toronto: Space Holding Company, 2003).

    15. Christopher Seddon, “Ice Age Star Maps?” article dated 1 January 2008, posted at www.christopherseddon.com/2008/01/ice-age-star-maps.html (Accessed 5 June 2010); Gary D. Thompson, “Paleolithic European Constellations – star maps in Lascaux cave in France 16,500-13,000 B.C.”, article dated 2001-2007, posted at: www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterOne/LascauxCave.htm (Accessed 5 June 2010); David Whitehouse, “Ice Age star map discovered”, article dated 9 August 2000, posted at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/871930.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

    16. David Whitehouse, “ ‘Oldest star chart’ found”, article dated 21 January 2003, posted at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2679675.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

    17. Robert M. Schoch, “An Ancient Warning, A Global Message, From the End of the Last Ice Age”, New Dawn 121, 15-22 (July-August 2010).

    18. Anthony L. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 31, no. 6, 1192-1214 (December 2003); Anthony L. Peratt, John McGovern, Alfred H. Qöyawayma, Marinus Anthony Van der Sluijs, and Mathias G. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity Part II: Directionality and Source”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 35, no. 4, 778-807 (August 2007); A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, “Evidence for an Intense Solar Outburst in Prehistory”, Physica Scripta (The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), 13 pages (December 2008).

    19. See note 17.

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Sphinx Of Balochistan: Is It A Man-made, Rock-cut, Architectural Marvel?

    The Sphinx Of Balochistan: Is It A Man-made, Rock-cut, Architectural Marvel?

    The Balochistan Sphinx Temple Platform with steps, pillars, niches and a symmetric pattern.

    Concealed within the desolate, rocky landscape of the Makran coastline of Southern Balochistan, Pakistan, is an architectural gem that has gone unnoticed and unexplored for centuries. The ‘Balochistan Sphinx’, as it is popularly called, came into the public eye only after the Makran Coastal Highway opened in 2004, linking Karachi with the port town of Gwadar on the Makran coast.1 A four-hour, 240-kilometer-long drive through meandering mountain passes and arid valleys from Karachi brings travellers to Hingol National Park, where the Balochistan Sphinx is located.

    It is a four-hour drive from Karachi to the Hingol National Park, along the Makran Coastal Highway. The Balochistan Sphinx is located inside Hingol National Park.

    The Makran Coastal Highway.

    Source: www.tresbohemes.com

    The Balochistan Sphinx

    The Balochistan Sphinx is routinely passed off by journalists as a natural formation, although no archaeological survey appears to have been conducted on the site.2 If we explore the features of the structure, as well as its surrounding complex, it becomes difficult to accept the oft-repeated premise that it has been shaped by natural forces. Rather, the site looks like a gigantic, rock-cut, architectural complex.

    A cursory glance at the impressive sculpture shows the Sphinx to have a well-defined jawline, and clearly discernible facial features such as eyes, nose, and mouth, which are placed in seemingly perfect proportion to each other.

    (a) The Balochistan Sphinx of Hingol National Park, ©Bilal Mirza CC BY 2.0.

    (b) Face of the Great Sphinx of Giza, ©Hamerani CC BY-SA 4.0. Striking similarities can be drawn between its face, and that of (a), the Balochistan Sphinx.

    The Sphinx appears to be decked up in a head-dress that closely resembles the Nemes head-dress of the Egyptian pharaoh. The Nemes headdress is a striped head-cloth that covers the crown and back of the head. It has two large, conspicuous, flaps which hang down behind the ears and in front of the shoulders. The ear-flaps can be discerned on the Balochistan Sphinx, as well as some stripe marks. The Sphinx has a horizontal groove across its forehead, which corresponds to the pharaonic headband that holds the Nemes headdress in place.

    One can easily make out the contours of the reclining forelegs of the Sphinx, which terminate in very well-defined paws. It is difficult to see how nature could have carved out a statue that resembles a well-known mythical animal to such an astonishingly accurate degree.

    The Balochistan Sphinx resembles the Egyptian sphinxes in many respects.

    The Sphinx-Temple

    In close proximity to the Balochistan Sphinx is another important structure. From a distance, it looks like a Hindu Temple (like those of South India), with a Mandapa(entrance hall) and a Vimana (temple spire). The top part of the Vimana appears to be missing. The Sphinx is reclining in front of the temple, acting as protector of the sacred site.

    The Balochistan Sphinx reclines in front of a temple-like structure.

    Source: www.pakistanpaedia.com

    In ancient, sacred architecture, the sphinx performed a protective function, and was generally placed in a pair on either side of entrances to temples, tombs, and sacred monuments. In ancient Egypt, the sphinx had the body of a lion, but its head could be that of a man (Androsphinx), a ram (Criosphinx) or a falcon (Hierocosphinx).3 The Great Sphinx of Giza, for instance, acts as guardian of the Pyramid Complex.

    In Greece, the sphinx had the head of a woman, the wings of an eagle, the body of a lioness, and according to some, the tail of a serpent.4 The colossal statue of the Sphinx of Naxos stood on a towering ionic column, at the sacred Oracle of Delphi, acting as a protector of the site.

    In Indian art and sculpture, the sphinx is known as purusha-mriga (‘man-beast’ in Sanskrit), and its primary position was near the temple gateway, acting as a guardian of the sanctuary.5 However, sphinxes were sculpted all over the temple premises including the entrance gates (gopuram), halls (mandapa) and near the central shrine (garbagriha). Raja Deekshithar identified 3 basic forms of the Indian sphinx:

    A crouching sphinx with a human face, but with certain lion characteristics like mane and elongated ears

    A striding or jumping sphinx with a fully human face

    A half-upright or fully-upright sphinx, sometimes with moustaches and long beards, often in an act of worshipping a Shiva-linga.6

    Sphinxes also feature in Buddhist architecture of Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, they are called Manusiha (from the Sanskrit manu-simha, meaning man-lion). They are depicted in a cat-like crouching posture at the corners of Buddhist stupas. They wear a tapering crown and ornamental ear-flaps, and have feathered wings attached to their front limbs.7

    So, throughout the ancient world, the sphinx acted as a protector of sacred places. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Sphinx of Balochistan also appears to be guarding the temple-like structure adjacent to it. This suggests that the site was laid out in accordance with the principles of sacred architecture.

    A closer look at the Balochistan Sphinx-Temple reveals clear evidence of pillars carved on a boundary wall. The temple entrance is visible behind a large pile-up of sediment or termite mounds. An elevated, sculpted, structure to the left of the entrance could be a subsidiary shrine. Overall, there can be little doubt that this a massive, man-made, rock-cut monument of great antiquity.

    The Balochistan Sphinx-Temple shows clear signs of being a man-made, rock-cut temple.

    Interestingly, there seems to be two monumental sculptures carved on the façade of the Sphinx-Temple, right above the entrance, on either side.

    The carvings are heavily eroded, making their identification difficult; but it looks as if the figure on the left could be Kartikeya (Skanda/Murugan) holding his spear (vel); and the figure on the right, a striding Ganesha. Incidentally, both Kartikeya and Ganesha are sons of Shiva, meaning that the temple complex could have been dedicated to Shiva.

    While identification at this stage is speculative, the presence of sculpted figures on the façade gives greater weight to this being a man-made structure.

    The façade carvings on the Balochistan Sphinx-Temple could be that of Kartikeya and Ganesha.

    The structure of the Sphinx-Temple suggests that it may actually be a Gopuram, i.e. the entrance tower of a temple. Like the Sphinx-Temple, gopurams are generally flat-topped. Gopurams have a row of ornamental kalasams (stone or metal pots) arranged on top. From careful study of the flat-topped Sphinx-Temple, one can discern a number of ‘spikes’ on top, which could be a row of kalasams, covered with sediment or termite mounds.

    Gopurams are attached to the boundary wall of a temple, and the Sphinx-Temple appears to be contiguous with the outer boundary. Gopurams also feature giant sculpted figures of dvarapalas, i.e. door guardians; and as we have noted, the Sphinx-Temple appears to have two monumental figures carved on its façade, just above the entrance, which serve as the dvarapalas.

    The Balochistan Sphinx-Temple could be a gopuram, i.e. an entrance tower of a temple.

    An elevated structure to the left of the Sphinx-Temple could be another gopuram. This implies that there could be four gopurams in the cardinal directions leading to a central courtyard, where the main shrine of the temple complex was built (which cannot be seen in the photograph). This kind of temple architecture is quite common in South Indian Temples.

    The Arunachaleshwar Temple in Tamil Nadu, India, has four gopurams i.e. entrance towers, in the cardinal directions. The temple complex houses numerous shrines. ©Adam Jones CC BY-SA 3.0.

    The Sphinx-Temple Platform

    The elevated platform on which the Sphinx and Temple are situated appears to have been elaborately carved with pillars, niches, and a symmetrical pattern that extends across the entire upper part of the platform. Some of the niches may well be doors that lead to chambers and halls under the Sphinx-Temple. It is believed by many, including mainstream Egyptologists like Mark Lehner, that there could be chambers and passages under the Great Sphinx of Giza as well. It is also interesting to note that the Balochistan Sphinx and the Sphinx-Temple are situated on an elevated platform, just as the Sphinx and the Pyramids of Egypt are built on the Giza plateau overlooking the city of Cairo.

    Another conspicuous feature of this site is a series of steps leading to the elevated platform. The steps appear to be evenly spaced, and of uniform height. The entire site gives the impression of a grand, rock-cut, architectural complex, which has been eroded by the elements, and covered by layers of sediment, masking the more intricate details of the sculptures.

    The Balochistan Sphinx-Temple Platform can be made out to have been carved with steps, pillars, niches and a symmetrical pattern.

    Site Sedimentation

    What could have deposited so much sediment on the site? The Makran coast of Balochistan is a seismically active zone, which frequently produces enormous tsunamis that obliterate entire villages. It has been reported that the earthquake of November 28 1945, with its epicentre off the coast of Makran, caused a tsunami with waves reaching as high as 13m in some places.8

    Additionally, a number of mud volcanoes are strewn along the Makran coastline, some of which are located in the Hingol National Park, near the Hingol river delta.9Intense earthquake activity triggers the volcanoes to erupt, spewing staggering amounts of mud, and drowning the surrounding landscape. Sometimes, mud volcano islands appear off the coast of Makran, in the Arabian Sea, which are dissipated by wave action within a year.10 The combined action of tsunamis, mud volcanoes and termite mounds may, therefore, be responsible for the build-up of sediment on the site.

    View of Chandragup I Mud Volcano, Balochistan, from the base. ©Ahsan Mansoor Khan CC BY-SA 4.0.

    Crater of a Hangol mud volcano. CC BY-SA 3.0.

    Historical Context

    An elaborate Indian temple complex on the Makran coast should not come as a surprise, for Makran had always been regarded by the Arab chroniclers as ‘the frontier of al-Hind.11 A-Biruni wrote that, “the coast of al-Hind begins with Tiz, the capital of Makran, and from there extends in a south-eastern direction….”12 Though the sovereignty of parts of the region alternated between Indian and Persian kings from very early times, it retained “an Indianised identity all along”.13 In the decades preceding the Muslim raids, Makran was under the dominion of a dynasty of Hindu kings, who had their capital at Alor in Sind.14

    The term ‘Makran’ is sometimes taken to be a corruption of the Persian Maki-Khoran, meaning ‘fish-eaters’. But it is also thought that the name derives from a Dravidian toponymic ‘Makara’.15 When the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Makran in the 7th century AD, he noted the script that was in use in Makran to be “much the same as that of India,” but the spoken language to have “differed a little from that of India”.16 Historian Andre Wink writes:

    The same chiefdom of Armadil is referred to by Hiuen Tsang as ‘O-tien-p’o-chi-lo’, located at the high road running through Makran. He also describes it as predominantly Buddhist; thinly populated though it was, it had no less than 80 Buddhist convents with about 5000 monks. In effect at eighteen kilometres northwest of Las Bela at Gandakahar, near the ruins of an ancient town are the caves of Gondrani, and as their constructions show these caves were undoubtedly Buddhist. Traveling through the Kij valley further west (then under the government of Persia) Hiuen Tsang saw some 100 Buddhist monasteries and 6000 priests. He also saw several hundred Deva temples in this part of Makran, and in the town of Su-nu li-chi-shi-fa-lo – which is probably Qasrqand- he saw a temple of Maheshvara Deva, richly adorned and sculptured. There is thus very wide extension of Indian cultural forms in Makran in the seventh century, even in the period when it fell under Persian sovereignty. By comparison, in more recent times the last place of Hindu pilgrimage in Makran was Hinglaj, 256 km west of present day Karachi, in Las Bela.17

    Thus, according to the accounts of Hiuen Tsang, the Makran coast was – even in the 7th century AD – dotted with hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and caves, as well as several hundred Hindu Temples, including a richly sculpted temple of Lord Shiva.

    What happened to these caves, temples, and monasteries of the Makran coast? Why have they not been restored and brought into the public eye? Are they suffering the same fate as the Sphinx-Temple Complex? Probably so. Eroded by the elements and covered with sediment, these ancient monuments have either been entirely forgotten or are being passed off as natural formations.

    Indeed, close to the Balochistan Sphinx, on top of an elevated platform, are the remnants of what appears to be another ancient Hindu-like temple, complete with the MandapaShikhara (Vimana), pillars and niches.

    An ancient Temple of Makran, with VimanaMandapa, pillars and niches.

    How Old Are These Temples?

    The Indus Valley Civilisation extended along the Makran coastline, and its westernmost archaeological site is known as the Sutkagen Dor, near the Iranian border. Some of the temples and rock-cut sculptures of the region, including the Sphinx-Temple Complex, could, therefore, have been built thousands of years ago, during the Indus Period (c. 3000 BCE), or earlier. It is possible that the site was built in phases, and that some of the structures are extremely old, and others comparatively recent. Dating rock-cut monuments is, however, difficult in the absence of inscriptions. If the site contains readable inscriptions that can be interpreted (another tricky proposition, since the Indus script has not yet yielded its secrets), then it may be possible to put a date on some of the monuments. In the absence of inscriptions, scientists will have to rely on datable artefacts/human remains, architectural styles, geological erosion patterns, and other clues, however.

    One of the persistent mysteries of the Indian Civilisation is the profusion of exquisite rock-cut temples and monuments that were built from the 3rd century BCE onwards. How did the skills and techniques for building these sacred places of worship appear without a corresponding period of evolution? The rock-cut monuments of the Makran coastline may provide much-needed continuity between the architectural forms and techniques of the Indus period and the later-day Indian civilisation. It may have been on the mountains of the Makran coast that the Indus artisans honed and perfected their skills, which were later transported to the Indian civilisation.

    The Indus Valley Civilisation included sites located along the Makran coast.

    Source: http://www.waa.ox.ac.uk

    Undoubtedly, there is a virtual treasure trove of archaeological wonders waiting to be discovered on the Makran coast of Balochistan. Unfortunately, these magnificent monuments, whose origins go back to unknown antiquity, continue to languish in isolation, thanks to the appalling level of apathy towards them. It appears that little attempt has been made to acknowledge or restore them, and the journalists routinely pass them off as ‘natural formations’. The situation can only be salvaged if international attention is drawn to these structures, and teams of archaeologists (as well as independent enthusiasts) from around the globe visit these enigmatic monuments to research, restore, and promote them.

    The importance of these ancient monuments of the Makran coast can hardly be overstated. They could be of great antiquity, and provide us with important clues to uncover humanity’s mysterious past.


    References

    1 This is the general impression gained from reading blogs written by visitors. The first reports and images of the Balochistan Sphinx begun appearing after 2004, when people started visiting the Hingol National Park on day trips from Karachi.

    2 See for example: A. Nelson, ‘13 natural rock formations that look man-made’, 19 Jul. 2016.

    S. Malik, ‘Natural Featured Sphinx of Pakistan‘, 18 Dec. 2014.

    3 New World Encyclopedia, ‘Sphinx’.

    4 Theoi Project: Greek Mythology, ‘Sphinx‘.

    5 R Deekshithar, ‘Sphinx of India, the Living Tradition‘.

    Also see the YouTube Video: ‘Sphinxes of India’.

    6 Raja Deekshithat, ‘Sphinx in Indian Art‘.

    9 All Things Pakistan, ‘Mud Volcanoes of Balochistan‘.

    11 Wink & Al-Hind, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, (BRILL, 1991) p. 132.

    12 ibid.

    13 ibid. p. 136

    14 ibid. p. 133

    15 ibid. p. 137

    16 ibid.

    17 ibid. 135.

    http://grahamhancock.com/ }

    22-12-2017 om 21:24 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    20-12-2017
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Technology of the Gods: Ancient Flying Machines of India, the powerful Vimana

    Technology of the Gods: Ancient Flying Machines of India, the powerful Vimana

    One of my favorite subjects in history are the countless accounts we find of Gods flying around in mighty vehicles.

    Accounts of beings, coming down from the heavens in what are described as powerful technological machines, that produce fear-inducing sound, while making the ground shake like a million Earthquake and spitting fire are descriptions that many of us would attribute to rocket or space shuttle launches and/or landings.

    To us, this is nothing unusual, as we live in a modern-era where rocketry is a well-known subject.

    Every once in a while, we witness a new launch taking place, and we see how mighty spaceships take off from Earth, “spitting fire, producing fear-inducing sounds, making the ground tremble.” We know that these machines are not the vehicle of the Gods, they are just some of the many vehicles created by mankind.

    However, if we were to travel back in time 2,000 or 3,000 years and witness the same thing, how would we react?

    Imagine yourself seeing a reusable rocket land for the first time ever 3,000 years ago. What would you say? What would you do?

    Image witnessing, for the first time ever, a MASSIVE machine, spitting fire, producing smoke and terrible noise, while making the ground beneath your feet shake. Would you not say it must be the Gods? Because until that moment, you’ve never seen anything like that. You were unaware of technology beyond sticks and stones. Such an event must have been life-changing for anyone witnessing it.

    Were the ancient vimana really powerful ancient alien spaceships?

    Well curiously, similar accounts can be found all across the planet where ancient civilizations witnessed how the Gods came down from heaven, riding ‘dragons’ which spit fire and smoke or mighty chariots, that could sail across the sky.

    Thousands of years ago, people faced forces beyond their control and understanding: hence, mankind produced a mythology based different gods.

    In ancient times, it was universally accepted that human civilization was a gift from the gods.

    Whether you look in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Israel, Greece, Scandinavia, Great Britain, India, China, Africa, America or elsewhere, most ancient cultures believed that the gods brought them the necessary technology to develop as a civilization. They brought them agriculture, writing, medicine – everything worth having.

    When the monotheistic religions became dominant, the gods became one God, but the same social rhythm continued.

    The mythology of the Eskimos says that the first tribes were brought north by “gods” who flew them onboard machines with bronze wings.

    The oldest sagas of the Native Americans mention a Thunderbird that introduced fire and fruit to them.

    What if ancient civilizations misinterpreted alien visitors as ‘Gods’?

    The Mayan legend, the Popol Vuh, tells us that the “gods” were able to recognize everything; the universe, the four cardinal points of the compass, and even the round shape of the Earth.

    So, does it not make you wonder what were the Eskimos talking about when they were referring to metal birds?

    Why do the Indians mention a Thunderbird?

    How were the ancestors of the ancient Maya able to deduce that the Earth was round?

    When we mention the ancient Vimana, we come across a topic that has been widely spread across the internet.

    The word Vimana is Sanskrit and has multiple meanings. Nowadays, the word is usually translated to ancient aircraft. The word “Vimana” originates from the Sanskrit words Vi-Mana, ‘Vi’ meaning ‘Bird’ and ‘Mana’ meaning ‘like’. The interpretation will be ‘like bird’.

    The mechanical birds of ancient history

    If we look at the Ramayana,  a Vedic epic dating back to the 4th / 5th century BC, we will find one passage that describes a Vimana as a “chariot that resembles the sun, and how this aerial chariot had the ability to travel anywhere at will, it resembles a cloud of light in the sky…“

    Vimanas… ancient flying machines of the gods?

    Image by B. Petry

    This was the pushpaka, the vimana of Ravana, who is the hero of the great Hindu epic The Ramayana, which describes the pushpaka as follows:

    The Pushpaka chariot that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravana; that aerial and excellent chariot going everywhere at will …. that chariot resembling a bright cloud in the sky … and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent chariot at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere.

    The Vimanas are also described in the Mahabharata, another ancient text. In this case, measurements are given for one of the Vimanas. It is described as having twelve cubits in circumference with four strong wheels that are approximately 20 to 25 feet in circumference; about seven feet in diameter.

    According to many ancient texts, these Vimanas were used to transport the gods through the heavens.

    These flying machines, according to Erich Von Daniken, sailed at high altitudes with the help of mercury (mercury vortex engine). The Vimanas could cover great distances and could travel forward, up and down.

    They were enviable and maneuverable space vehicles.

    The predecessors of the flying vimanas of the Sanskrit epics are the flying chariots employed by various gods in the Vedas: The Sun (see Sun chariot) and Indra and several other Vedic deities are transported by flying wheeled chariots pulled by animals, usually horses.

    In the Mahabharata, we find: “Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and fire, as brilliant as ten thousand suns, rose in all its splendor. It was the unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and Andhakas.”

    In the Sanskrit Samarangana Sutradhara we find details about Vimana: “Strong and durable must the body of the Vimana be made, like a great flying bird of light material. Inside one must put the mercury engine with its iron heating apparatus underneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury which sets the driving whirlwind in motion, a man sitting inside may travel a great distance in the sky. The movements of the Vimana are such that it can vertically ascend, vertically descend, move slanting forwards and backward. With the help of the machines, human beings can fly in the air and heavenly beings can come down to earth.”

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    20-12-2017 om 23:51 geschreven door peter

    0 1 2 3 4 5 - Gemiddelde waardering: 0/5 - (0 Stemmen)
    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Technology of the Gods: Ancient Flying Machines of India, the powerful Vimana

    Technology of the Gods: Ancient Flying Machines of India, the powerful Vimana

    One of my favorite subjects in history are the countless accounts we find of Gods flying around in mighty vehicles.

    Accounts of beings, coming down from the heavens in what are described as powerful technological machines, that produce fear-inducing sound, while making the ground shake like a million Earthquake and spitting fire are descriptions that many of us would attribute to rocket or space shuttle launches and/or landings.

    To us, this is nothing unusual, as we live in a modern-era where rocketry is a well-known subject.

    Every once in a while, we witness a new launch taking place, and we see how mighty spaceships take off from Earth, “spitting fire, producing fear-inducing sounds, making the ground tremble.” We know that these machines are not the vehicle of the Gods, they are just some of the many vehicles created by mankind.

    However, if we were to travel back in time 2,000 or 3,000 years and witness the same thing, how would we react?

    Imagine yourself seeing a reusable rocket land for the first time ever 3,000 years ago. What would you say? What would you do?

    Image witnessing, for the first time ever, a MASSIVE machine, spitting fire, producing smoke and terrible noise, while making the ground beneath your feet shake. Would you not say it must be the Gods? Because until that moment, you’ve never seen anything like that. You were unaware of technology beyond sticks and stones. Such an event must have been life-changing for anyone witnessing it.

    Were the ancient vimana really powerful ancient alien spaceships?

    Well curiously, similar accounts can be found all across the planet where ancient civilizations witnessed how the Gods came down from heaven, riding ‘dragons’ which spit fire and smoke or mighty chariots, that could sail across the sky.

    Thousands of years ago, people faced forces beyond their control and understanding: hence, mankind produced a mythology based different gods.

    In ancient times, it was universally accepted that human civilization was a gift from the gods.

    Whether you look in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Israel, Greece, Scandinavia, Great Britain, India, China, Africa, America or elsewhere, most ancient cultures believed that the gods brought them the necessary technology to develop as a civilization. They brought them agriculture, writing, medicine – everything worth having.

    When the monotheistic religions became dominant, the gods became one God, but the same social rhythm continued.

    The mythology of the Eskimos says that the first tribes were brought north by “gods” who flew them onboard machines with bronze wings.

    The oldest sagas of the Native Americans mention a Thunderbird that introduced fire and fruit to them.

    What if ancient civilizations misinterpreted alien visitors as ‘Gods’?

    The Mayan legend, the Popol Vuh, tells us that the “gods” were able to recognize everything; the universe, the four cardinal points of the compass, and even the round shape of the Earth.

    So, does it not make you wonder what were the Eskimos talking about when they were referring to metal birds?

    Why do the Indians mention a Thunderbird?

    How were the ancestors of the ancient Maya able to deduce that the Earth was round?

    When we mention the ancient Vimana, we come across a topic that has been widely spread across the internet.

    The word Vimana is Sanskrit and has multiple meanings. Nowadays, the word is usually translated to ancient aircraft. The word “Vimana” originates from the Sanskrit words Vi-Mana, ‘Vi’ meaning ‘Bird’ and ‘Mana’ meaning ‘like’. The interpretation will be ‘like bird’.

    The mechanical birds of ancient history

    If we look at the Ramayana,  a Vedic epic dating back to the 4th / 5th century BC, we will find one passage that describes a Vimana as a “chariot that resembles the sun, and how this aerial chariot had the ability to travel anywhere at will, it resembles a cloud of light in the sky…“

    Vimanas… ancient flying machines of the gods?

    Image by B. Petry

    This was the pushpaka, the vimana of Ravana, who is the hero of the great Hindu epic The Ramayana, which describes the pushpaka as follows:

    The Pushpaka chariot that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravana; that aerial and excellent chariot going everywhere at will …. that chariot resembling a bright cloud in the sky … and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent chariot at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere.

    The Vimanas are also described in the Mahabharata, another ancient text. In this case, measurements are given for one of the Vimanas. It is described as having twelve cubits in circumference with four strong wheels that are approximately 20 to 25 feet in circumference; about seven feet in diameter.

    According to many ancient texts, these Vimanas were used to transport the gods through the heavens.

    These flying machines, according to Erich Von Daniken, sailed at high altitudes with the help of mercury (mercury vortex engine). The Vimanas could cover great distances and could travel forward, up and down.

    They were enviable and maneuverable space vehicles.

    The predecessors of the flying vimanas of the Sanskrit epics are the flying chariots employed by various gods in the Vedas: The Sun (see Sun chariot) and Indra and several other Vedic deities are transported by flying wheeled chariots pulled by animals, usually horses.

    In the Mahabharata, we find: “Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and fire, as brilliant as ten thousand suns, rose in all its splendor. It was the unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and Andhakas.”

    In the Sanskrit Samarangana Sutradhara we find details about Vimana: “Strong and durable must the body of the Vimana be made, like a great flying bird of light material. Inside one must put the mercury engine with its iron heating apparatus underneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury which sets the driving whirlwind in motion, a man sitting inside may travel a great distance in the sky. The movements of the Vimana are such that it can vertically ascend, vertically descend, move slanting forwards and backward. With the help of the machines, human beings can fly in the air and heavenly beings can come down to earth.”

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    20-12-2017 om 23:51 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )



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