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    Beoordeel dit blog
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    The purpose of  this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and  free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category.
    Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
     
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    Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.

    In 2012 verloor ze haar moedige strijd tegen kanker!

    In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.

    BEDANKT!!!

    UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
    UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld
    In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be. Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch... Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels. MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen. MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity... Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com. Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
    25-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.THIS IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST CAVE, AND IT CAN FIT 4 GREAT PYRAMIDS INSIDE IT

    THIS IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST CAVE, AND IT CAN FIT 4 GREAT PYRAMIDS INSIDE IT

    There are truly mysterious places on Earth and this supermassive cave is surely one such place. Seeing the footage from inside the cave will surely give you goosebumps.

    Image Credit: National Geographic.

    One of them is a supermassive cave that can fit four Great Pyramids inside it. Its one of the worlds largest cave chambers, and entering it feels like a journey to the underworld.

    The cave is located in the mountainous region of Ziyoun County in China. The Miao Room cavern measures 380.7 million cubic feet—10.78 million cubic meters—in volume. The cave system can fit up to 22 football fields and is located around 325 feet below the surface.

    via GIPHY

    Furthermore, the 2,795 feet-long cave chambers can also comfortably fit a Boeing 747. 

    The supermassive structure is composed of eight main caverns and more than 200 entrances.

    In fact, the cave is so big that it is considered the largest cave in the world in terms of volume and is the second largest cave in terms of surface area.

    Having approximate dimensions of about nine kilometers, Hang Son Doong has its own underground river and impressive vegetation that forms a dense jungle.

    Studies carried out by the group of scientists of the British Association of Cave Research as well as those of the National Geographic cartography team, who analyzed the measurements of the cave system, found that the largest cavity has more than five kilometers in length, it is 200 meters high and 150 meters wide. While the cave itself was first documented by a Chinese-European geology team in 1989, its true size was not determined until 2013.

    Image Credit: National Geographic: Juan Velasco/Martin Gamache/Lauren James/NGM Staff/Stefan Fichtel/Ixtract Gmbh/Joe Beeching

    During several expeditions, the teams also discovered stalagmites with more than 70 meters in height.

    But not only does this massive cave system features its own underground river and jungle, it is also decorated with a maze of fossils and crystals.

    Source: The ‘supercave’ that can fit four Great Pyramids inside

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    25-05-2018 om 18:34 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.MENES—EGYPT’S FIRST PHARAOH WHO RECEIVED THE THRONE DIRECTLY FROM THE GOD HORUS

    MENES —EGYPT’S FIRST PHARAOH WHO RECEIVED THE THRONE DIRECTLY FROM THE GOD HORUS

    Menes—he who endures—is believed to have been Egypt’s first mortal Pharaoh, who is credited with unifying Lower and Upper Egypt.

    Menes’ predecessors where possibly Horus Ka or Horus Scorpion II.

    It is believed that Menes—aka Narmer—received the throne of Ancient Egypt directly from the God Horus

    According to historical accounts, Menes was the first pharaoh of the first dynasty, with whom the human history of Egypt began; He had been ‘implanted’ directly by the gods, to whom he was supposedly related.

    Along with the unification of upper and lower Egypt, this historical feat also brought writing, art, agriculture and craft techniques to the land of the Pharaohs.

    Obviously, such processes were much slower than that myth tells us; in particular, the political unification was the final result of long struggles to impose a central power on the decentralism of local communities. The last phase was the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, that is, the unification of the valley and the delta of the Nile.

    The latter was the work of Narmer, a pharaoh of Upper Egypt, who has been identified as the legendary mortal pharaoh Menes. Narmer appears represented crushing his enemies in the famous “Narmer Palette” also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, found in Hierakonpolis.

    The date commonly given for the beginning of Menes’ reign is 3100 BC.

    Other major estimates that use both the historical method and radiocarbon dating place it in the range 3273—2320 BC.

    This Palette contains what experts believe are the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found, and it depicts the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer.

    On one side of the Palette, we see the Pharaoh depicted with the bulbed White Crown of Upper Egypt. The other side of the stone depicts the king wearing the level Red Crown of Lower Egypt.

    According to experts, the Narmer Palette provides one of the earliest known depictions of an Egyptian ruler.

    In addition to the Narmer Palette, an ivory plaque excavated at Naqada bears both the names “Aha” and “Men” (Menes).

    But despite the fact that Menes is proven to have existed, his true identity is a subject of debate, although the general Egyptologist consensus identifies Narmer with the pharaoh Menes of the I dynasty, who is also credited with the unification of Egypt as the first pharaoh. This conclusion is solely based on the above-mentioned palette.

    Narmer or Menes?

    History tells us they may have been one the same.

    If we take a look at the work of Manetho, a 3rd-century-BCE Egyptian historian, we will find that he refers to Egypt’s first (mortal) pharaoh as Menes. Furthermore, the 5th-century-BCE Greek historian Herodotus referred to Menes as Min, and two native-king lists of the 19th dynasty (13th century BCE) call him Meni.

    Modern scholars, however, have inconclusively identified the legendary Menes with one or more of the archaic Egyptian kings bearing the names Scorpion, Narmer, and Aha.

    According to the Turin Papyrus and the History of Herodotus, he is also the founding father of Memphis—the capital of ancient Egypt during the Old Kingdom

    Ancient Egyptian priests told the Greek writer Herodotus – who considers himself the founder of history as a scientific discipline – that to build the city, Menes ordered to divert the Nile channel and build a dam.

    One of the most amazing details about Menes’ reign was written down by Herodotus who claimed that Menes was responsible for the draining of the plain of Memphis and founding the Egyptian capital there. According to Manetho, Menes reigned for 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus.

    Menes is also believed to have introduced the worship of Gods and sacrifice to ancient Egypt.

    If we take a look at the work of Pliny, we will see that he credit’s Menes as the bringer of wiring to ancient Egypt.

    Featured Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    25-05-2018 om 17:53 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    20-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Researchers Find Evidence Of Oldest Human Occupation In South America

    Researchers Find Evidence Of Oldest Human Occupation In South America

    40,000 years ago, a mysterious people—possibly explorers—lived in Argentina.

    Archaeologists have uncovered remarkably well-preserved human remains that date back around 40,000 years in Argentina. These skeletal remains are not only the oldest in Argentina, but could be the oldest human remains ever discovered in SouthAmerica.

    Don’t you just love when archeology digs up something like this? It changes everything, yet it changes nothing,

    The more we dig, the more we understand how little we know.

    A team of archaeologists led by professor Carlos Aschero had discovered what is believed to be evidence of the oldest human occupation in Argentina, and possibly in South America.

    The discovery was made in Antofagasta de la Sierra, a province of Catamarca, Argentina.

    Ancient Explorers?

    40,000 years ago a group of people—possibly explorers—lived between the northwest of Catamarca and part of Salta, in the area that integrates the salty Puna.

    It is unknown how long the group remained in the Argentine Northwest, but their traces were very well preserved in the desert lands, at more than 3,500 meters above sea level.

    Antofagasta de la Sierra is almost 600 kilometers north of the capital of Catamarca.

    Its climate is rigorous, cold and dry, with minimum temperatures below 0 ºC.

    It is precisely the above-mentioned conditions that most likely made it possible for the remains to remain as well preserved as frozen over time.

    It was an extensive search.

    In fact, researchers excavated 4 kilometers in the upper section of the Punilla River, in a small ravine known as Cacao.

    More precisely in a cave which houses a huge variety of rock art and various stone structures.

    There, archaeologists recovered two strands of human hair, which had been cut.

    They also found stone tools used for cutting and scraping, copper earrings, as well as bone fragments (complete ribs and tooth remains).

    Previous to this discovery, the scientific community maintained that the oldest human presence in the area could be traced back around 10,000 years.

    However, the discovery offers new insight into the human population in the area, changing everything we thought we knew about South America and its early inhabitants.

    The tests used to determine the age of the skeletal remains were carried out in two specialized laboratories in the USA. (Arizona and CAIS-UGA) using radiocarbon dating.

    Jorge Martinez, an archaeologist at the National University of Tucumán and a researcher at the Higher Institute of Social Studies of CONICET, said that the oldest traces of human presence in Argentina prior to this, were located in the province of Buenos Aires (Pampean region), and  can be traced back to around 14,000 years.

    Meanwhile, in Latin America in general, the oldest alleged human remains are located in Piedra Furada (Brazil), these remains date back between 27,000 and 30,000 years.

    However, Martínez believes that the skeletal remains discovered in Brazil are very controversial, among other things due to the method by which their age was determined.

    According to reports, scientists used Radiometric dating to determine the age of the skeletal remains from Brazil. Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed, reports El Litoral.

    DNA tests will reveal more

    Martinez looks forward to learning more about the skeletal remains discovered in Argentina after DNA tests result are done.

    Experts will then know who these mysterious people were, and to what genetic lineage they belong to.

    “The theory that prevails is that the inhabitants of America came from Asia through the Bering Strait and that they belong to four great lineages. We want to corroborate or refute that origin, perhaps we will find they belong to a different ancestry,” he ventured out saying.

    These discoveries offer a wealth of previously unknown information to experts.

    “It means that the settlement processes were pervasive and diverse. And those records correspond to the Puna, where there is a lot of height and a complicated climate. What can we imagine of the occupation that could have existed in much lower areas, where life is easier! “, Professor Aschero surmised.

    Source: TELAM

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    20-05-2018 om 22:42 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Cave Theopetra—Home To A 23,000-Year-Old Wall

    Cave Theopetra—Home To A 23,000-Year-Old Wall

    Greece is without a doubt a historic gold mine.

    Located in the vicinity of Meteora, we find a striking rock formation that is home to a number of enigmatic caves.

    One such cave is the Theopetra cave, home to a mysterious and unique archaeological site.

    The limestone of the Theopetra cave has been dated to the Upper Cretaceous period, 135–65 million years BP.

    The interior of the cave. Image Credit: Meteora

    Curiously, the cave is home to one of the longest archaeological sequences in Greece, featuring the cultural remains of the Middleand Upper Palaeolithic as well as the Mesolithic and Neolithicperiods.

    In more recent times, it is known that the cave was used by shepherds as a shelter for their flocks.

    Greece—a treasure trove of history

    Numerous archaeological excavations that have been performed over the years have revealed that the cave—located in the central region of Thessaly—has been occupied by humans for as long as 130,000 years.

    Excavations of the cave started in 1987 lasting 20 years, until 2007. The project was led by Dr. Nina Kyparissi-Apostolika, the head of the Ephorate of Palaeoanthropology and Speleography.

    Being the first cave excavated in Thessaly, researchers meticulously studied it, finding evidence of a continuous sequence of deposits that date from the Middle Palaeolithic up to the end of the Neolithic period.

    Among the most significant discoveries, archeologists discovered through micromorphological analysis on the sediment that the region had been exposed to both hot and warm weather through millennia.

    As the weather changed, so did the cave’s population.

    Archaeologists found up to three human footprints that were embedded in the caves soft earthen floor. Studies revealed how the footprints inside the cave most likely belonged to a group of Neanderthal children, who lived inside the cave during the Middle Palaeolithic period.

    But perhaps one of the most significant discoveries made in the Theopetra cave was a structure located at the entrance: a stone wall that closed of the entrance to the cave tens of thousands of years ago.

    The Oldest Wall on Earth?

    Using a method called Optically Stimulated Luminescence, archeologists of the Ministry of Athenian Culture found that the wall at the entrance of the cave was at least 23,000 years old.

    Possibly the oldest wall on Earth.

    Image Credit: Visit Meteora.

    Scientists found that the wall coincided with the last glacial Ice Age, meaning that the cave’s inhabitants most likely erected the wall in order to protect them from the extreme cold from the outside.

    This wall, say, experts, is considered the oldest manmade structure in Greece, and some suggest it may be the oldest wall on the surface of the planet.

    Reference: Ekathimerini

    Featured Image Credit: Visit Meteora / Kartson

    Originally posted on ipetricevic.com

    {

    20-05-2018 om 01:07 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    19-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.A Time Machine For The Gods—Ancient Cosmic Calendar With Over 1,000 Petroglyphs Found In Arizona

    A Time Machine For The Gods—Ancient Cosmic Calendar With Over 1,000 Petroglyphs Found In Arizona

    “It’s a time machine for the gods…”

    An astonishing discovery has been made in Arizona’s Verde Valley.

    Researchers have come across an ancient calendar carved into stone that has remained hidden for nearly one thousand years. The calendar.

    More than 1,000 petroglyphs were most likely created by the ancients as a way to ‘track time’ using the sun, say experts.

    Image result for youtube A Time Machine For The Gods—Ancient Cosmic Calendar With Over 1,000 Petroglyphs Found In Arizona

    According to the Arizona Daily sun, around 1,000 intricate petroglyphs were carved into the rack more than 900 years ago by the Southern Sinagua people.  The Sinagua culture inhabited the region between the seventh and fifteenth centuries, farming the region growing corn, cotton, squash, and beans.

    Photo by Jacob Ufkes on Unsplash

    More than thousands of symbols were etched by ancient man in the distant past on the red rocks of the V-Bar-V Historic Site.

    At first glance, these symbols may appear nearly impossible to decipher as one symbol was etched next to the other one. However, what experts did not know is that they needed the help of the sun.

    Once the sun sits in the right place, every symbol tells a different story.

    V-V Heritage Site.

    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    Now, experts believe that the red rocks in Arizona’s Verde Valley may have been used by ancient cultures as a calendar, or even as a device that helped them track time using the sun.

    “It’s a time machine for the gods to tell you it’s time for a ceremony,” said Scott Newth, an officer with the Arizona Archaeological Society, who tracks rock art across the region.

    The symbols etched in stone were intricately carved to mark the passing seasons and onset of important agricultural periods, using only the position of the sun.

    Researchers found that at the beginning of summer, and the longest day of the year, two specific crocks from Arizona’s Verde Valley cast a shadow onto a corn plant.

    Six months later, the sun instead shines through the space between.

    Petroglyphs at V-Bar-V Ranch, Arizona.

    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    According to the BBC, this ancient calendar remained unnoticed for centuries, until volunteers rediscovered it at the site in 2005.

    Researchers found that as the sun would change position in the sky, it would light and cast shadows on features carved in tock, aligning with specific images that held both an agricultural and ceremonial meaning.

    Some of the petroglyphs highlight solstices, equinox and other important astronomical events throughout the year.

    Kenneth Zoll, Executive Director at the Verde Valley Archaeology Center and Museum, said in an interview with BBC that: ‘This was a way to track time.’

    However, experts note that the calendar created by the Sinagua people isn’t the only one out there.

    Many other calendars exist in the Verde Valley that may have been used by the inhabitants of the region to track time and important astronomical events.

    These calendars and symbols may have been the work of ancient travelers, who taught local tribes in other nearby sites how to follow the sun, the BBC reports.

    However, experts note that much about the ancient sites remains shrouded in mystery.

    Source: Arizona’s mysterious clock of ancient times

    Featured Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    19-05-2018 om 23:58 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    18-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Here’s A Detailed Look Into The Mysterious Osiris Shaft Beneath The Pyramids Of Giza

    Here’s A Detailed Look Into The Mysterious Osiris Shaft Beneath The Pyramids Of Giza

    f you travel to the Giza plateau, you should know that there are many incredible things to explore, in addition to the three main pyramids.

    One such fantastic feature is the so-called Tomb of Osiris, or commonly referred to as the Osiris Shaft.

    Located beneath the stone causeway of the Pyramid of Khafre, this enigmatic tomb is a mysterious structure composed of various intricately carved levels beneath the surface.

    Despite the fact that its existence has been known for a few years, it wasn’t until recently that the structure was adequately excavated and documented.

    In ancient times, the shaft was used by people as a swimming hole since it was filled with water.

    Selim Hassan and his team were one of the first to explore the shaft in the 1930‘s, but it wasn’t until 1999 when the structure was fully excavated by Zahi Hawass. By 1999 the water levels at the Giza plateau had lowered to the point that a detailed excavation was possible.

    Here is Selim Hassan’s description of the Osiris Shaft:

    Selim Hassan’s 1933-34 excavations report for Giza.

    “Upon the surface of the causeway, they first built a platform in the shape of a mastaba, using stones taken from the ruins of the covered corridor of the causeway. In the centre of this superstructure, they sank a shaft, which passed through the roof and floor of the subway running under the causeway to a depth of about 9.00 m. At the bottom of this shaft is a rectangular chamber, in the floor of the eastern side of which is another shaft. This descends about 14.00 m. and terminates in a spacious hall surrounded by seven burial-chambers, in each of which is a sarcophagus. Two of these sarcophagi, which are of basalt and are monolithic, are so enormous that at first, we wondered if they contained the bodies of sacred bulls.”

    It was revealed that the shaft is composed of three different levels.

    The first level was found to be empty.

    The second level is a tunnel that leads into a room with six other chambers carved out of the stone walls. Inside these chambers, researchers have recovered pottery sherds, ceramic beads, and ushabtis (small servant figurines).

    Furthermore, basalt sarcophagi were found in Chambers C, D, and G; badly decomposed skeletal remains were found in the sarcophagi in Chambers C and G. Based on stylistic grounds the artifacts, sarcophagi included, date to Dynasty 26 (ibid386-87).

    An overview of the Osiris Shaft.

    In the lowest chamber of the Osiris shaft, some 30 meters below the surface lies a mystery described by Herodotus, which was written off as a myth by mainstream scholars.

    However, it turned out that Herodotus was right all along, and mainstream scholars were wrong.

    The lowest chamber of the shaft is a sort of subterranean hall, and inside it lies a sarcophagus, perfectly preserved and empty. The third level of the Osiris Shaft is found to be more complex regarding design and architecture.

    The most important discovery made in the third level of the Osiris Shaft was red-polished pottery, containing traces of white paint. Experts managed to date back the pottery remains to the 6thy dynasty, from the end of the Old Kingdom.

    This means that the pottery recovered in the third level is, in fact, the oldest possible datable material in the entire complex.

    Based on research and archeological evidence recovered throughout the years, the Osiris Shaft is believed to date originally from the Old Kingdom, more precisely to the Sixth Dynasty (2355-2195 BCE).

    The Osiris shaft was opened to the public for the first time in 2017.

    Recently, author and researcher Brien Foerster explored the Osiris Shaft.

    The result?

    A magnificent insight into the mysterious shaft proving that despite the fact that we know a lot about ancient Egypt, there are many details we have still not uncovered.

    Check out the video:

    Brien Foerster and his team will return to the Giya plateau in April 2019. For more information check this out.

    Zahi Hawass’s essay about the Osiris Shaft can be downloaded from this link: The Discovery of the Osiris Shaft at Giza.


    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    18-05-2018 om 01:06 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    16-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The History Of The Ancient Roman Empire Written Down In The Arctic

    The History Of The Ancient Roman Empire Written Down In The Arctic

    Without a reason of doubt, the ancient Roman empire left its mark in history.

    “We found that lead pollution in Greenland very closely tracked known plagues, wars, social unrest and imperial expansions during European antiquity.”

    Image result for youtube The History Of The Ancient Roman Empire Written Down In The Arctic

    From majestic roads, sanitation, to education systems, the ancient Roman Empire made sure it would remain forever in the history books.

    Now, researchers exploring Arctic Ice sheets have found traces of the rise and fall of the Roman empire embedded in ice.

    Experts have managed to track the Roman Empire’s economic ups and downs, due to the empire’s increased coin-making production, which experts found preserved for centuries after their collapse, in Greenland’s Ice Sheet.

    Scientists say that most of the lead emissions of the period are linked to the massive production of silver.

    As experts explain, pollution from the lead mines of the ancient Roman empire that boomed during the expansion of the empire drifted all the way to the ice sheets of Greenland. It is believed that lead emissions were preserved thanks to falling snow, which computed in layers and layers of ice.

    Speaking about the discovery Joe McConnell, a hydrologist at the Desert Research Institute said:

    “Our record of sub-annually resolved, accurately dated measurements in the ice core starts in 1100 BC during the late Iron Age and extends through antiquity and late antiquity to the early Middle Ages in Europe – a period that included the rise and fall of the Greek and Roman civilizations.”

    “We found that lead pollution in Greenland very closely tracked known plagues, wars, social unrest and imperial expansions during European antiquity.”
    These ancient traces have now been identified by experts, surviving thousands of years after the fall of the Roman empire.

    Ice Cores extracted by scientists in Greenland have offered an unprecedented and unique vision of the past, allowing experts to go back in time, and understand how pollution left behind by the empire through thousands of years influenced not only Europe but the Arctic ice Sheet as well.

    “We found that lead pollution in Greenland very closely tracked known plagues, wars, social unrest and imperial expansions during European antiquity,” said Professor McConnell.

    Researchers from different fields participated in the study. From experts in hydrology, ice-core specialists, to economic historians, experts gathered to find never-before-seen details about the Roman Empire.

    The new study offers a historical record that includes more than 21,000 lead and other chemical measurements.

    Experts found that lead pollution emissions began rising around 900 BC, as the ancient Phoenicians began expanding their prosperous trading routes into the Mediterranean. Furthermore, lead emissions are believed to have increased due to mining activity by the ancient Carthaginians and Romans, mostly in the Iberian Peninsula, reaching its zenith during the Roman Empire.

    Experts have linked lead emissions to significant historical events.

    Researchers found that lead emissions reached an all-time low during the last 80 years of the Roman Republic, known historically as the Crisis of the Roman Republic.

    “The nearly four-fold higher lead emissions during the first two centuries of the Roman Empire compared to the last decades of the Roman Republic indicate substantial economic growth under Imperial rule,” said coauthor Andrew Wilson, Professor of the Archaeology of the Roman Empire at Oxford.

    As noted by the Independent, “the new study carried out by Dr. McConnell and his team used state-of-the-art simulations of lead pollution’s transport in the atmosphere to work out the scale on which mining and smelting operations in Europe were taking place.”

    Furthermore, scientists also discovered how lead emissions varied during wars and political unrest, particularly during the Roman Republic. Experts also found how lead emissions took sharp dives when two notable plagues struck the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd centuries.

    You can read more about the study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    16-05-2018 om 23:38 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    14-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Lost City of Mardaman Discovered Using Cuneiform Tablets

    Lost City of Mardaman Discovered Using Cuneiform Tablets

     

    The Sumerians and their cuneiform language have done it again. Tablets found in Bassetki, in the Autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq, have been translated by a cuneiform expert and they indicate that the location was once the ancient and lost royal city of Mardaman, which was mentioned in many writings but never found. The tablets date back to around 1250 BCE and give details about this mysterious city and kingdom that once occupied a powerful position on the trade routes between Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria.

    The translation of the 92 tablets, discovered in the summer of 2017, was announced last week by the University of Tübingen’s Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies where the archeologists, led by Professor Peter Pfälzner, are based. The translation was performed by University of Heidelberg philologist Dr. Betina Faist, one of the world’s few experts in cuneiform, who worked both with some of the small, crumbling tablets and with detailed photographs of those too fragile to be handled. The translations give a clear location of the lost city and change some previously-held assumptions. (Photos of the excavation and tablets here.)

    Example of cuneiform – Gilgamesh Flood Tablet

    Some information about Mardaman had been gleaned previously from other sources. It appears to have started between 2800 BCE and 2650 BCE and its history of destruction and rebuilding began around 2250 BC when it was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire led by Naram-Sin. Later Babylonian sources mention Mardaman being rebuilt, only to be destroyed again in 1786 BCE by Shamshi-Adad I and integrated into the Upper Mesopotamian empire. It became an independent kingdom for a time, but was then destroyed by the Turukkaeans from the Zagros Mountains. Most historians defined this as the end of Mardaman and the beginning of its designation as a lost city.

    The cuneiform tablets have changed that. They show Mardaman continuing to exist as a Middle Assyrian trade powerhouse until around 1200 BCE, which was about the time they were written. In fact, it appears the tablets were stored in pottery in the governor’s palace of Assur-nasir and were preserved under its post-destruction rubble … perhaps intentionally, says Pfälzner.

    “[They] may have been hidden this way shortly after the surrounding building had been destroyed. Perhaps the information [the tablets contain] was meant to be protected and preserved for posterity.”

    Example of cuneiform – Tablet V of Epic of Gilgamesh

    Why were they preserved? Cuneiform is the oldest documented language and, because it seems to have simply appeared rather than evolved, it has often been linked to ancient aliens. Without it, we would not have the literary works of Mesopotamia such as Epic of Gilgamesh and would not know that other documents besides the Bible contained stories of a Garden of Eden, a great flood and biblical figures such as Job.

    Why did the last residents of the lost city of Mardaman hide these tablets in hopes that future generations or civilizations would find them?

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    14-05-2018 om 20:27 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    13-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.This Is The Largest And Oldest Wheel Found On Earth

    This Is The Largest And Oldest Wheel Found On Earth

    According to history books, the wheel was ‘invented’ in ancient Mesopotamia, around 3500 BCE and possibly as early as 4000 BCE. However, the oldest and largest wheel on Earth was discovered in 2002 in Slovenia. The wheel dates back around 5,300 years, but could possibly be even older.

    If we take a look at our history books, well find that the invention of the wheel has been credited to the Late Neolithic and may have arisen together with a number of other technological advances that kickstarted the Bronze age.

    However, many civilizations, including the Incas and the Aztecs, did not have wheeled vehicles.

    The oldest graphic representations of the wheel come from ancient depictions in the city of Ur (which date back to around 3500 BC), in present-day Iraq, but no physical remains of the wheels have been found there.

    From there, it is believed that the invention spread quickly across the rest of the world.

    Ancient Sumeria, home place of the wheel?

    It is believed that the ancient Sumerians introduced a number of technologies that had never before been seen in the world.

    The wheel, say experts, was one such technology.

    According to historians the ancient Halaf (Syria) culture of 6500–5100 BCE is sometimes credited with the earliest depiction of a wheeled vehicle, but this is doubtful as there is no evidence of Halafians using either wheeled vehicles or even pottery wheels.

    But have you ever wondered about where the oldest discoveredwheel is located?

    Despite the fact that the Sumerians are credited with the ‘invention’ of the wheel, the oldest wheen on Earth was not found in Mesopotamia, but in Europe.

    The Ljubljana Marshes Wheel, the oldest and largest wheel discovered on Earth

    Ljubljana Marshes Wheel.
    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    In 2002, when archaeological excavations carried out in Sloveniarevealed a wooden wheel whose radiocarbon dating revealed that it was between 5,100 and 5,350 years old, the scientific community was left awestruck.

    This excavation performed near Ljubljana marked the discovery of what is now considered the oldest wheel in history.

    It is believed that the oldest inhabitants settled in the region as early as 9,000 years ago; in the Mesolithic, they built temporary residences on isolated rocks in the marsh and on the fringe and they lived by hunting and gathering.

    The discovery of the Slovenian wheel kickstarted a debate among archaeologists who wondered whether it was possible that the wheel had not been invented by the Sumerians, but by an ancient culture in Europe, or whether the wheel appeared simultaneously, on two locations, separated perhaps by a few hundred years?

    The wheel and its axis.

    Image credit: Mazej Igor

    The Age of the Ljubljana Marshes Wheel was obtained by studies performed by the VERA laboratory (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) in Vienna, which used measurements of the strata in the ground and the rings of trees in the area where it was found, as well as the radiocarbon dating.

    The ancient wheel was discovered by a team of Slovene archeologists from the Ljubljana Institute of Archaeology, as part of the Research Center at the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences, lead by Anton Velušček.

    According to experts, this ancient wheel, discovered in 2002 in a marshy area near the Slovenian capital, is at least a century older than its counterparts found in Switzerland and Germany, which were considered until the discovery of the Slovenian wheel the oldest existing examples.

    But in addition of being the oldest example on Earth, experts say that the importance of the Slovenian wheel resides in the fact that “in addition to its exceptional antiquity, this wheel and axle are incredibly technologically advanced”.

    The wheel has a radius of 72 centimeters (28 in) and was made of ash wood.

    Its 124-c124-centimeter-long) axle is made of oak.

    According to experts, the axle was attached to the wheels with oak wood wedges, which meant that the axle rotated together with the wheels.

    The wheel was made from a tree that grew in the vicinity of the pile dwellings and at the time of the wheel, construction was approximately 80 years old.

    It is believed that this ancient wheel was most likely part of a prehistoric two-wheel cart – a pushcart and this technology shows that there was already a long tradition and experience in the development of wheels and axles in the region.

    Featured Image Credit: Reddit.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    13-05-2018 om 22:35 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Ancient Assyrian Clay Tablets Reveal Location Of 4,800-Year-Old Lost City

    Ancient Assyrian Clay Tablets Reveal Location Of 4,800-Year-Old Lost City

    The remains of the royal city of Mardama.

    Image Credit: Matthias Lang/ Benjamin Glissmann, University of Tübingen eScience-Center

    After researchers recovered around 90 cuneiform tablets from the ancient Assyrian empire, philologists translated them and identified the location of a lost ancient city that existed some 4,800 years ago.

    The 92 clay tablets belonging to the ancient Assyrian empire were discovered at the archeological site of a large Bronze Age settlement which was explored in 2017 by experts from the University of Tübingen.

    The translation of the ancient writings has allowed archaeologists to identify the ruins of the lost Royal City of Mardama.

    The name of the lost city was only revealed when 92 cuneiform tablets found at the site were translated. 

    Image Credit: Matthias Lang/ Benjamin Glissmann, University of Tübingen eScience-Center

    The cache of clay tablets date back to around 1250BC, to the Middle Assyrian empire and have been translated by University of Heidelberg philologist Betina Faist.

    “To our surprise, Dr. Faist was able to identify the site as the ancient city of Mardama,” the archaeologists said.

    “This important northern Mesopotamian city is cited in ancient sources, but we didn’t know where it lay.”

    “It existed between 2200 and 1200 BC, was at times a kingdom or a provincial capital, and was conquered and destroyed several times.”

    One of the clay tablets on the floor of the palace of the Assyrian governor, and a broken ceramic vessel.

    Image Credit: Matthias Lang/ Benjamin Glissmann, University of Tübingen eScience-Center

    The ancient city of Mardama was mentioned in a number of ancient sources, but no one has been able to determine its exact location until now.

    The ancient city is believed to have existed between  2,200 BC and 2,100 BC and reached its peak between 1900 BC and 1700 BC.

    The ancient city is believed to have been conquered by the Akkadian empire but eventually regained its independence under a Hurrian monarch called Tish-Ulme.

    The city then followed a period of prosperity, until it was destroyed by the Turukku from the Zagros mountains, who are sometimes identified as the Sea People.

    However, this was not the end of the city. Mardama continued to exist until the era in which the Assyrians ruled over it, during which the recently discovered clay tablets were written.

    Ancient writings from the Third Dynasty of Ur, between the years 2100 and 2000 BC portray Mardama as an important city on the northern periphery of the Mesopotamian empire.

    “Mardama certainly rose to be an influential city and a regional kingdom, based on its position on the trade routes between Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Syria,” said professor Peter Pfälzner, a professor of ancient near-Eastern archaeology at the University of Tübingen in the statement.

    “At times, it was an adversary of the great Mesopotamian powers.”

    The ancient tablets mentioned the city being part of the powerful Assyria empire, and that it was the home of an Assyrian ruler believed to have been called Assur-Nasir.

    Professor Pfälzner and this team were amazed by the discovery, “all of a sudden it became clear that our excavations had found an Assyrian governor’s palace.”

    In addition, the ancient clay tablets offer unprecedented insight into the history and lives of the people of the ancient city of Mardama, as well as never-before-seen details about its administration, economy, and commerce.

    However, most importantly, the recently-uncovered clay tablets not only show the location of the city which remained lost for thousands of years, but it offers important historical accounts of that time in history.

    Now, thanks to the tablets, experts can understand so much more about the cultures and civilizations that ruled the region.

    In the near future, experts will continue studying ancient clay tablets hoping to discover more ancient cities that may have existed in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Featured Image Credit

    Source: 

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    13-05-2018 om 22:19 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    11-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Artefacts With Extraterrestrial Carvings And Engravings Found In A Mexican Cave

    Artefacts With Extraterrestrial Carvings And Engravings Found In A Mexican Cave

    Mysterious artefacts with engravings of "extraterrestrials" and "Nacelle" unearthed in a Mexican cave  is just mind blowing stuff and is next to incredible if you was to ask my opinion based on the evidence, the story and the actual statues themselves I can't help but get a little excited.

    The prospects that this could literally change our history as we know it, but for the better and for a clean out of the lies, contradictions and other shady recognition from dubious sources?

    Aliens found on ancient artefacts in a Mexican cave.
    A group of explorers discovered in a Mexican cave evidence of what they boast to be the best evidence of extraterrestrial contact on Earth. The group of explorers recently visited the cave and explored it in detail. In two cases, the researchers made unexpected discoveries, including several stones sculpted with images depicting etchings related to extraterrestrials. On the surface of the stones, the group of researchers found evidence of what many people interpret as "extraterrestrial spacecraft" and "humanoid beings"; One of the stones, apparently fractured in the past, evidently shows the top of a spaceship with a being that some people believe is not of this world.
    Mexico has Alien artefacts.
    The painting shown here contains an alleged alien who is next to a former leader of a prehispanic culture who receives a corn seed, as well as some other symbols that have not yet been deciphered; these artifacts have been nicknamed "stones of the first encounter".
    Strange Alien artefacts found in Mexico.
    It is said that local legends speak of a mysterious "ship" that has been hidden somewhere near the caves since time immemorial. This is the main reason why the group of explorers searched the area three months ago.
    His research yielded totally unexpected results. They found what they believe is the ultimate proof that the aliens visited the Earth thousands of years ago and that they had direct contact with the ancient cultures that inhabited Mexico at that time. What the discovery suggests or what implications the group of explorers will have to see. José Aguayo explained how the INAH - National Institute of Anthropology and History - can not say anything about the discovery because it is not a typical archaeology for a main reason; the artifacts describe things that contradict the dominant story and differentiate everything we have been told about our history and origins.

    If, at some point, the National Institute of Anthropology and History decided to collect the artefacts, it would have enormous implications for both parties since INAH, an official government agency, would essentially accept one of the most important "facts": the existence of beings. not earthly, they have directly influenced the ancient cultures of the whole world.
    The story can be found in two places here in Spanish and here in English.
    Here is another bit of research that I found online and guys it get's even more stranger and stranger because of the look of these incredible statues? I must admit that I wasn't them mini statues having the look of an Alien grey? That absolutely threw me for six! The classic look of the big tear shaped eyes and the big head with a small mouth, that is the look these mini sculptures, statues have. I mean, they even have a mini baby Alien grey in the arms of the "mother Alien".
    Here is a quote from the Daily Star.
    Other sculptures appear to show spaceships flying through the air. The mystery objects are reportedly popular among locals who live near the caves in an unspecified area of Mexico.
    Mexican cave has statues and sculptures of the classic looking Alien grey inside of the cave in Mexico.

    Very old statues could be up to 7,000 years old some top researchers have claimed?
    In this next stone is a really, odd looking and very, very bizarre engraving of what can only be described and called a UFO? You just have to look at it in full, take it in and you can see exactly what the person who engraved this stone was trying to tell us? That Aliens are real and we've been contacted by Alien in our ancestors past? It is up for grabs and up for debate but here is a tangible, physical proof of the legend, story so that for me is as good as any evidence which quite literally proves it.
    Mexican cave rewrites history literally.
    UFO MANIA - The Truth Is Out There YouTube Video link can be found here:
    This next stone statue is exactly how I would carve an Alien in stone. This is what it is, if you take it for what it is and don't put any long winded spin on to it, then it is just a statue of an Alien. If you put spin on to it, then it becomes anything you want it to be?
    I've found some amazing images from the actual cave in Mexico and there is overwhelming evidence of Aliens who (at one time) visited Earth and who knows, they may of even influenced the concepts of ships, trade and the exchange of ideas among each other knowing the route humanity would take.
    Alien looking stone engraving from Mexican cave.
    So yeah, everything since the first contact could all of been known in advance because of the Aliens known information that once a species is enlightened to trade, travel and intelligence of inventions and numbers then the route taken is pretty much mapped out already? Who knows, the Roswell crash might of been the time when sophisticated and extremely small technology was introduced to keep us on track and stop us from killing each other in more wars like world war one and world war two?
    It's pure speculation but my opinions could of happened and they might of been slightly different but not a lot because all I need to do is take away the Alien element and the rest of what I said pretty much happened like I said! So don't be quick to shrug it off because just because I said the Alien word that doesn't mean it is all rubbish from then on wards?
    The supposedly ancient sculptures have sparked claims that aliens visited earth thousands of years ago. Maybe they did because if this was to represent a human at that time, this would be rejected as not looking anything like a human? So it begs the question, is this really depicting a real Alien visitor because maybe these people never depicted other humans in their artwork and only their Gods and them being the visiting Aliens.
    This is not a human holding a bowl but an Alien.
    That looks uncannily similar to an Alien as we would say they look in today world? Maybe they look like this and it's an innate thought that we all have inside of what they look like?

    https://www.ufosightingsfootage.uk/ }

    11-05-2018 om 23:11 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.From the pyramids to Stonehenge – were prehistoric people astronomers?

    From the pyramids to Stonehenge – were prehistoric people astronomers?

     BY CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR

    Credit: Pixabay.

    Credit: Pixabay.

    Ever since humans could look up to see the sky, we have been amazed by its beauty and untold mysteries. Naturally then, astronomy is often described as the oldest of the sciences, inspiring people for thousands of years. Celestial phenomena are featured in prehistoric cave paintings. And monuments such as the Great Pyramids of Giza and Stonehenge seem to be aligned with precision to cardinal points or the positions where the moon, sun or stars rise and set on the horizon.

    Today, we seem to struggle to imagine how ancient people could build and orient such structures. This has led to many assumptions. Some suggest prehistoric people must have had some knowledge of mathematics and sciences to do this, whereas others go so far as to speculate that alien visitors showed them how to do it.

    But what do we actually know about how people of the past understood the sky and developed a cosmology? A scientific discipline called “archaeoastronomy” or “cultural astronomy”, developed in the 1970s, is starting to provide insights. This subject combines various specialist areas, such as astronomy, archaeology, anthropology and ethno-astronomy.

    Simplistic methods

    The pyramids of Egypt are some of the most impressive ancient monuments, and several are oriented with high precision. Egyptologist Flinder Petrie carried out the first high-precision survey of the Giza pyramids in the 19th century. He found that each of the four edges of the pyramids’ bases point towards a cardinal direction to within a quarter of a degree.

    But how did the Egyptians know that? Just recently, Glen Dash, an engineer who studies the Giza pyramids, proposed a theory. He draws upon the ancient method of the “Indian circle”, which only requires a shadow casting stick and string to construct an east-west direction. He outlined how this method could have been used for the pyramids based on its simplicity alone.

    So could this have been the case? It’s not impossible, but at this point we are in danger of falling into a popular trap of reflecting our current world views, methods and ideas into the past. Insight into mythology and relevant methods known and used at the time are likely to provide a more reliable answer.

    Stonehenge sun.

    Credit: simonwakefield/Flickr, CC BY-SA.

    This is not the first time scientists have jumped to conclusions about a scientific approach applied to the past. A similar thing happened with Stonehenge. In 1964, the late astronomer Gerald Hawkins developed an intricate method to use pit holes and markers to predict eclipses at the mysterious monument. However, this does not mean that this is how Stonehenge was intended to be used.

    Way forward

    To start understanding the past we need to include various approaches from other disciplines to support an idea. We also have to understand that there will never be only one explanation or answer to how a monument might have been aligned or used.

    So how can cultural astronomy explain the pyramids’ alignment? A study from 2001proposed that two stars, Megrez and Phad, in the stellar constellation known as Ursa Majormay have been the key. These stars are visible through the entire night. Their lowest position in the sky during a night can mark north using the merkhet – an ancient timekeeping instrument composing a bar with a plumb line attached to a wooden handle to track stars’ alignment.

    The benefit of this interpretation is that it links to star mythology drawn from inscriptions in the temple of Horus in Edfu. These elaborate on using the merkhet as a surveying tool – a technique that can also explain the orientation of other Egyptian sites. The inscription includes the hieroglyph “the Bull’s Foreleg” which represents the Big Dipper star constellation and its possible position in the sky.

    The use of the two stars Megrez and Phad of Ursa Major to line up with the cardinal north direction (meridian indicated in orange) as simulated for 2562BC. Credit: Daniel Brown.

    The use of the two stars Megrez and Phad of Ursa Major to line up with the cardinal north direction (meridian indicated in orange) as simulated for 2562BC.

    Credit: Daniel Brown.

    Similarly, better ideas for Stonehenge have been offered. One study identified strange circles of wood near the monument, and suggested these may have represented the livingwhile the rocks at Stonehenge represented the dead. Similar practices are seen in monuments found in Madagascar, suggesting it may have been a common way for prehistoric people to think about the living and the dead. It also offers an exciting new way of understanding Stonehenge in its wider landscape. Others have interpreted Stonehenge and especially its avenue as marking the ritual passage through the underworld with views of the moon on the horizon.

    Cultural astronomy has also helped shed light on 6,000-year-old passage graves – a type of tomb consisting of a chamber of connected stones and a long narrow entrance – in Portugal. Archaeologist Fabio Silva has shown how views from inside the tombs frame the horizon where the star Aldebaran rises above a mountain range. This might mean it was built to give a view of the star from the inside either for the dead or the living, possibly as an initiation ritual.

    Fieldwork at one of the passage graves in Portugal, Dolmen da Orca. Next to the stone structure is a replica tent to simulate the view from inside of the passage grave. Credit: Daniel Brown.

    Fieldwork at one of the passage graves in Portugal, Dolmen da Orca. Next to the stone structure is a replica tent to simulate the view from inside of the passage grave.

    Credit: Daniel Brown.

    But Silva also drew upon wider supporting evidence. The framed mountain range is where the builders of the graves would have migrated with their livestock over summer. The star Aldebaran rises for the first time here in the year – known as a helical rising – during the beginning of this migration. Interestingly, ancient folklore also talks about a shepherd in this area who spotted a star so bright that it lit up the mountain range. Arriving there he decided to name both the mountain range and his dog after the star – both names still exist today.

    Current work carried out by myself in collaboration with Silva has also shown how a view from within the long, narrow entrance passages to the tombs could enhance the star’s visibility by restricting the view through an aperture.

    But while it is easy to assume that prehistoric people were analytic astronomers with great knowledge of science, it’s important to remember that this only reflects our modern views of astronomy. Findings from cultural astronomy show that people of the past were indeed sky watchers and incorporated what they saw in many aspects of their lives. While there are still many mysteries surrounding the meaning and origins of ancient structures, an approach drawing on as many areas as possible, including experiences and engaging in meaning is likely our best bet to work out just what they were once used for.

    https://www.zmescience.com/  }

    11-05-2018 om 22:55 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    10-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.Crop Encounters of the Archaeological Kind!

    Crop Encounters of the Archaeological Kind!

    We mentioned in a previous blog that our drone “Dronita” had picked up some spectacular crop marks, but what creates these marks, and what can we actually determine from them?

    When we mention crop marks most people’s first response is “crop circles? Wow!” But there are no mysterious alien forces at work here! A crop circle is a design pressed into the crop (by whichever process you choose to believe) but a crop mark is an area of land where subsurface archaeology has prevented or limited the growth of the crop. Much less exciting (or more, if you’re an archaeologist)! As a result, when a field is in full crop it can be easy to spot lines or structures as there are sections where nothing has grown.

    But how exactly does the underlying archaeology prevent the crop growing? Obviously we’re not talking about small pieces of pottery here, but much larger structures such as buildings or roads. The bricks and stones below ground prevent roots from growing to their full ability and as a result the crop grows less well and appears more stunted than those surrounding it which can grow without any obstructions.

    Additionally, the presence of stones takes water away from that area and into other sections of the soil, making them more fertile and in these sections the plants will grow more robustly than the others.

    Depending on the crop, the marks can be more or less obvious. Thankfully, M.C. the crop growing in many of the fields we surveyed in 2017, was quite short and completely unable to grow above the subsurface archaeology, which made the crop marks incredibly apparent, which was great for us!

    Crop Marks

    Here you can see some structures and even possible paving stones from the road!

    More difficult to see from the drone is a “positive crop mark” which is essentially the opposite of what we’ve been talking  about above. With a positive crop mark, the area below the plant is likely a depression deeper than the rest of the field. Often, these ditches or holes are filled with much more organic and fertile soil, thus resulting in the plants growing stronger than others in the field.

    You can see in this rough diagram (drawn by yours truly) how all this works.

    Crop marks at work!

    Crop marks at work!

    And that is everything you need to know about crop marks! Any questions? You can always ask on our FacebookTwitter, or Instagram . We’ll be answering some FAQs in a later blog, so if there’s something you’ve always wanted to know about archaeology, Italy, or our field school in general, get in touch! And if you’ve been enjoying our recent updates, don’t forget you can follow our blog by email and get notifications every time we post, so you’ll never miss an update!

    https://libarnaarchproject.org/ }

    10-05-2018 om 22:18 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    09-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Sword Of Goujian, The Weapon That Challenged Time, An Oriental Excalibur

    The Sword Of Goujian, The Weapon That Challenged Time, An Oriental Excalibur

    Despite having been crafted more than 2,000 years ago, the Goujian sword has a sharp blade, as sharp as the day it was crafted, and shows no signs of tarnish. Such resistance to tarnish rarely seen in artifacts so old. 

    In 1965 an archaeological expedition fifty tombs belonging to the period of the Springs and Autumns (722 to 481 BC) in China’s Hubei Province, located around 7 kilometers from the ruins of Jinan, capital of the former state of Chu.

    Sword of Goujian, Hubei Provincial Museum.

    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    In one of those tombs, next to the skeletal remains of a man, researchers discovered an ancient sword whose structure and sharpness had not been altered despite being crafted more than two thousand years ago.

    At the archeological site, experts recovered more than 2,000.

    The sword, which is currently housed in the Hubei Provincial Museum, was carefully sheltered in a virtually airtight lacquered wooden box.

    The sword measures 55.6 cm long and weighs 875 grams.

    The sheet is manufactured with an alloy of copper and tin, decorated with blue and turquoise crystals and covered with millenary ideograms.

    The hilt of the sword is wrapped in silk moorings while the knob is formed by 11 concentric circles.

    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    Experts in traditional Chinese language eventually analyzed the inscriptions of the sword and translated their symbols.

    The researchers concluded that the sword was forged by King Goujian (496 – 465 BC), and called it the Goujian Sword, the ancient weapon that defied time.

    The ancient sword was unlike anything experts had seen.

    The weapon did not have a single trace of rust, something that experts found hard to believe.

    Incredibly, the sword’s blade, despite the time that had gone by, managed to cut the archaeologist’s finger as he tested the sharpness of the sword, upon finding it.

    However, in addition to being a weapon that seemed to have been crafted recently, with unprecedented quality, its extremely intricate decoration features turned it into one of the most unique swords ever discovered in China.

    The ancient sword is a treasure of ancient Chinese history.

    In fact, some scholars even compare the Goujian Sword to the legendary Excalibur, believed to have been the sword of King Arthur.

    The Goujian Sword

    Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    After careful studies, experts quickly noted that the enigmatic sword belongs to a class of swords known as Jian: straight, double-edged swords, used in China for the last 2,500 years.

    These weapons are considered as the oldest swords in China and are closely associated with their rich and plentiful mythology.

    In Chinese folklore, this weapon is called the “Knight of the Arms” and is one of the four primary weapons, along with the stick, the spear, and the saber.

    Why the sword remains sharp despite the fact that it had been forged more than 2,000 years ago remains a mystery, but experts point to the weapons composition, claiming that it remained in such an impeccable state thanks to the metals with which it was made, which allowed it to stay so well preserved.

    Studies have revealed that a high proportion of sulfur and copper sulfide have allowed the sword to remain stainless.

    The weapon is made according to a millenarian tradition of Chinese blacksmiths.

    Its owner, King Goujian was the ruler of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day northern Zhejiang) near the end of the Spring and Autumn period. Goujian’s reign coincided with arguably the last major conflict of the Spring and Autumn period, the struggle between Wu and Yue, wherein he eventually led his state to victory, annexing the rival. As such, King Goujian is sometimes considered the last of the Five Hegemons.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    09-05-2018 om 23:37 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    08-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.UNDERGROUND CITY IN THE GRAND CANYON WAS DOCUMENTED IN 1909

    UNDERGROUND CITY IN THE GRAND CANYON WAS DOCUMENTED IN 1909

    The latest news of the progress of the explorations of what is now regarded by scientists as not only the oldest archaeological discovery in the United States, but one of the most valuable in the world, which was mentioned some time ago in the Gazette, was brought to the city yesterday by G.E. Kinkaid, the explorer who found the great underground citadel of the Grand Canyon during a trip from Green River, Wyoming, down the Colorado in a wooden boat, to Yuma, several months ago.

    According to the story in the Gazette by Mr. Kinkaid, the archaeologist of the Smithsonian Institute, which is financing the explorations, have made discoveries which almost conclusively prove that the race which inhabited this mysterious cavern, hewn in solid rock by human hands, was of Oriental origin or possibly from Egypt tracing back to Ramses.

    If their theories are borne out of the translation of the tablets engraved with hieroglyphics, the mystery of the prehistoric peoples of North America, their ancient arts, who they were and whence they came, will be solved. Egypt and the Nile and Arizona and the Colorado will be linked by a historical chain running back to ages which staggers the wildest fancy of the fictionist.

    A Thorough Investigation

    Under the direction of professor S.A. Jordan, the Smithsonian Institute is now prosecuting the most thorough explorations, which will be continued until the last link in the chain has been forged. Nearly a mile underground, about 1480 feet below the surface, the long main passage has been delved into, to find another mammoth chamber from which radiates scores of passageways, like the spokes of a wheel. Several hundred rooms have been discovered, reached by passageways running from the main passage, one of them having been explored for 854 feet and another 634 feet.


    The recent finds include articles which have never been known as native to this country and doubtless they had their origin in the Orient. War weapons, copper instruments sharp edged and hard as steel, indicate the high state of civilization reached by these strange people.

    So interested have the scientists become that preparations are being made to equip the camp for extensive studies and the force will be increased to thirty or forty persons. Before going further into the cavern, better facilities for lighting have to be installed, for the darkness is dense and impenetrable for the average flashlight.

    In order to avoid being lost, wires are being strung from the entrance to all passageways leading directly to large chambers. How far this cavern extends no one can guess, but it is now the belief of many that what has already been explored is merely the “Barracks”, to use an American term, for the soldiers, and that far into the underworld will be found the main communal dwellings of the families and possibly other shrines. The ventilation that blows through indicates another outlet to the surface.

    Mr. Kinkaids Report

    Mr. Kinkaid was the first white child born in Idaho and has been an explorer and hunter all his life. Thirty years having been in the service of the Smithsonian Institute. Even briefly recounted, his history sounds fabulous, almost grotesque.

    “First, I would impress that the cavern is almost inaccessible. The entrance isalmost 1486 feet down a shear canyon wall. It is located on government land and no visitor will be allowed there under penalty of trespass. The scientists wish to work unmolested, without fear of the archaeological discoveries being disturbed by curio or relic hunters. A trip there would be fruitless and the visitor would be sent on his way.

    The story of how I found the cavern: I was journeying down the Colorado river in a boat, alone, looking for mineral. Some forty two miles up the river from El Tovar Crystal canyon, I saw on the east wall, stains in the sedimentary formation about 2000 feet above the river bed. There was no trail to this point, but I finally reached it with great difficulty.

    Above a shelf, which hid it from view of the river, was the mouth of the cave. There are steps leading from this entrance some thirty yards from what was at the time the cavern was inhabited, the level of the river. When I saw the chisel marks on the wall inside the entrance, I became interested, secured my gun and went in. During that trip I went back several hundred feet along the main passage, till I came to the main crypt in which I discovered the mummies.

    One of these I stood up and photographed by flashlight. I gathered a number of relics, which I carried down the Colorado to Yuma, from whence I shipped them to Washington with details of the discovery. Following this, the explorations were undertaken”.

    The Passages

    “The main passageway is about 12 feet wide, narrowing to 9 feet toward the farther end. About 57 feet from the entrance, the first passages branch off to the right and left, along which, on both sides, are a number of rooms about the size of ordinary living rooms of today, though some are 30 to 40 feet square.

    These are entered by oval shaped doors and are ventilated by round air spaces through the walls into the passages. The walls are about 3 feet 6 inches in thickness. The passages are chiseled or hewn as straight as could be laid out by any engineer. The ceilings of many of the rooms converge to a center. The side passages near the entrance run at a sharp angle from the main hall, but toward the rear they gradually reach a right angle in direction”.

    The Shrine

    “Over a hundred feet from the entrance is a cross-hall, several hundred feet long, in which was found the idol, or image, of the peoples god, sitting cross-legged, with a Lotus flower or Lily in each hand. The cast of the face and the carving shows a skillful hand, and the entire is remarkably well preserved, as is everything in this cavern. The idol most resembles Buddha, though the scientists are not certain as to what religious worship it represents.

    Taking into consideration everything found thus far, it is possible that the worship most resembles the ancient people of Thibet. Surrounding this idol are smaller images, some beautiful in form, other crooked necked and distorted shapes, symbolical, probably, of good and evil. There are two large cacti with protruding arms, one on each side of the dais on which the god squats. All this is carved out of hard rock resembling marble.

    In the opposite corner of this cross-hall were found tools of all descriptions, made of copper. This people undoubtedly knew the lost art of hardening this metal, which has been sought by chemists for centuries without result. On a bench running around the workroom was some charcoal and other material probably used in the process.

    There is also slag and stuff similar to matte, showing that these ancient peoples smelted ores, but so far, no trace of where of how this was done has been discovered, nor the origin of the ore. Among other finds are vases or urns and cups of copper and gold made very artistic in design. The pottery work includes enameled ware and glazed vessels.

    Another passageway leads to granaries such as are found in the Oriental temples. They contain seeds of various kinds. One very large storehouse has not been entered, as it is twelve feet high and can be reached only from above. Two copper hooks extend on the edge, (continued on page 7) which indicates that some sort of ladder was attached.

    These granaries are rounded and the materials of which they are constructed, I think, is a very hard cement. A grey metal is also found in this cavern which puzzles the scientists, for it’s identity has not been established. It resembles platinum. Strewn promiscuously over the floor everywhere are what people call “Cats eyes” or “Tiger eyes”, a yellow stone of no great value. Each one is engraved with a head of a Malay type.”

    The Hieroglyphics

    “On all the urns, on the walls over the doorways and tablets of stone which were found by the image are mysterious hieroglyphics, the key to which the Smithsonian Institution hopes yet to discover. These writings resemble those found on the rocks about this valley. The engraving on the tablets probably has something to do with the religion of the people, Similar hieroglyphics have been found in the peninsula of Yucatan, but these are not found in the Orient. Some believe that these cave dwellers built the old canals in the Salt River valley. Among the pictorial writings only two animals are found. One is of prehistoric type”.

    The Crypt

    “The tomb or crypt in which the mummies are found is one of the largest of the chambers, the walls slanting back at an angle of about 35 degrees. One these are tiers of mummies, each one occupying a separate hewn shelf. At the head of each is a small bench on which is found copper cups and pieces of broken swords.

    Some of the mummies are covered with clay and all are wrapped in a bark fabric. The urns or cups on the lower tiers are crude, while as the higher shelves are reached, the urns are finer in design showing an inter-stage of civilization. It is worthy of note that all the mummies examined so far have proved to be male, no children or females being buried here. This leads to the belief that this interior section was the warriors barracks.

    Among the discoveries no bones of animals have been found, no skins, no clothing nor bedding. Many of the rooms are bare but for the water vessels. One room, about 400 by 700 feet, was probably the main dining hall for cooking utensils are found here. What these people lived on is a problem, though it is presumed that they came south for the winter and farmed in the valleys, going back north in the summer. Upwards of 50,000 people could have lived in the cavern comfortably.

    One theory is that the present Indian tribe found in Arizona are descendants of the serfs or slaves of the people which inhabited the cave. Undoubtedly a good many thousands of years before the Christian era a people lived here which reached a high state of civilization. The chronology of human history is full of gaps. Prof. Jordan is much enthused over the discoveries and believes that the find will prove of incalculable value in archaeological work.

    One thing I have spoken of may be of interest. There is one chamber the passageways to which is not ventilated and when we approach it a deadly, snaky smell struck us. Our lights would not penetrate the gloom and until stronger ones are available, we will not know what the chamber contains. Some say snakes, but others boo-hoo this idea and think that it may contain a deadly gas or chemicals used by the ancients. No sounds are heard, but it smells just the same.

    The whole underground institution gives one of shaky nerves the creeps. The gloom is like a weight on ones shoulders and our flashlights and candles only make the darkness blacker. Imagination can revel in conjectures and ungodly day-dreams back through the ages that have elapsed till the mind reels dizzily in space.

    An Indian Legend

    In connection with this story, it is notable that among the Hopis the tradition is told that their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the Grand Canyon till dissension arose between the good and the bad, the people of one heart, the people of two hearts. (Manchoto) who was their chief, counselled them to leave the underworld, but there was no way out. The chief then caused a tree to grow up and pierce the roof of the underworld and then the people of one heart climbed out.

    They tarried by Palsiaval (Red River), which is the Colorado, and grew grain and corn. They sent out a message to the temple of the sun, asking the blessing of peace, good will and rain for the people of one heart. That messenger never returned but, today at the Hopi village, at sundown can be seen the old men of the tribe out on the housetops gazing towards the sun, looking for the messenger. When he returns, their land and ancient dwelling place will be restored to them. That is the tradition.

    Among the engravings of animals in the cave is seen a image of a heart over the spot where it is located. The legend was learned by W.E. Rollins, the artist, during a year spent with the Hopi Indians. There are two theories of the origin of the Egyptians. One is that they came from Asia: another is that the racial cradle was in the upper Nile region. Heeren, an Egyptologist, believed in the Indian origin of the Egyptians. The discoveries in the Grand Canyon may throw further light on human evolution and prehistoric ages.”

    The Smithsonian Says they have no record of this happening and stories of a massive cover up have be around since the story made print in 1909. I guess one must pose the question as to why this finding must be suppressed for over 100 years. Perhaps solid proof of things that proved lies in the history of our word, or a alien base kept hidden for who knows how long before it’s discovery in 1909. In a world that fears solid proof more each day, we man never know.

    http://www.mysterious-times.com/ }

    08-05-2018 om 23:17 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.No Nefertiti in Tut’s Tomb

    No Nefertiti in Tut’s Tomb

    Spoiler alert! Stop the scary theme music! Forget about being a Nefertiti mummy on Halloween. Science has killed hopes for any new movies based on the mummy of Queen Nefertiti being released from her secret burial chamber in the tomb of Tutankhamun. A comprehensive series of ground-penetrating radar scans found no hidden chambers, hallways or secret passages that could contain the remains of King Tut’s stepmother. So, where is her mummy? What’s that behind you?

    The announcement was made at the fourth annual International Tutankhamun GEM Conference, held at the Grand Egyptian Museum in Giza, and reported by National Geographic. It ended a debate that has been going on for decades but which increased in earnest in 2015 when radar specialist Hirokatsu Watanabe attempted to prove a theory by Egyptologist Nicholas Reeves that Queen Nefertiti’s tomb was secretly located behind the walls of King Tutankhamun’s burial chamber. Watanabe’s ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data appeared to find hidden doors and two empty areas behind the north and west walls of the chamber.

    What about the curse?

    Since you can’t just knock out a wall in Tut’s tomb, even if you’re an excited Egyptian antiquities minister who felt “90 percent sure” of the discovery, a second GPR scan was performed by National Geographic engineers in 2016. Over 40 individual scans were performed on the walls at five different heights and two different radar frequencies — one for depth perception the other for feature perception. Those scans showed no evidence of doors, rooms or Nefertiti. When those results were presented at the 2016 International Tutankhamen GEM Conference, Minister El Enany called for a tie-breaker.

    Three GPR scans were conducted in February 2018 by three independent teams (from the Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy, and two private companies, Geostudi Astier and 3DGeoimaging) using three different frequencies. Yes, these people are serious about their Tut tomb theories. After seven days of scanning, the data was analyzed by a team led by Franco Porcelli of the Polytechnic University, who presented the results to Mostafa Waziri, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and Khaled El Enany, Egypt’s Minister of Antiquities.

    After all bets were placed, the results were announced:

    “We conclude, with a very high level of confidence, that the hypothesis concerning the existence of hidden chambers adjacent [to] Tutankhamun’s tomb is not supported by the GPR data.”

    While the results are disappointing to many, the good news is that the search for the mummy of the mysterious Nefertiti can continue, spawning new theories and potential movie plots. She could still be buried somewhere nearby, she could be one of the many unidentified mummies in museums or her remains could have been destroyed in the attempt to rewrite history after her death.

    Is that you, mummy?

    Should fans of Nicholas Reeves’ theory of hidden chambers demand a best-of-seven GPR series?

    http://mysteriousuniverse.org/ }

    08-05-2018 om 20:15 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    07-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.The Shigir Idol Was Crafted By Survivors Of Last Ice Age, And Is Twice As Old As The Pyramids

    The Shigir Idol Was Crafted By Survivors Of Last Ice Age, And Is Twice As Old As The Pyramids

    The results of a recent study performed on the Shigir Idol—considered the OLDEST monumental art in history—and published in the scientific journal Antiquity has determined that this incredible ancient statue was carved around 11,600 years ago, by the survivors of the last Ice Age.

    This makes this enigmatic idol twice as old as Egypt’s pyramids — and 6000 years older than Stonehenge.

    When it was crafted, nearly twelve thousand years ago, the enigmatic Shigir Idol is believed to have stood 16 feet tall and was covered in countless ancient symbols.

    Many experts around the world refer to it as the oldest piece on monumental art, and it was crafted by a mysterious people who survived the last ice age, some 12,000 years ago.

    The idol was crafted from a single trunk of Larchwood and was carved into a smooth plank. Covered with intricately engraved patterns, the Shigir idol was topped with a stylized, human-like head.

    The statue may have been crafted by the survivors of the last Ice Age, some 11,600 years ago.

    Image Credit: Antiquity.

    The enigmatic idol was discovered in Russia in 1894 in Russia and survived a number of natural disasters including several fires.

    It’s actually a miracle it was found.

    Experts referred to the idol as the oldest evidence of monumental art, but experts weren’t one hundred percent sure as to exactly how old it was.

    According to scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences and the University of Göttingen, a new analysis calculated that the idol is around 11,600 years ago.

    What does this mean? Well, the last Ice Age ended some 11,700 years ago, which means that it was most likely crafted by people who survived the last ice age.

    “Recent application of new analytical techniques has led to the discovery of new imagery on its surface and has pushed the date of the piece back to the earliest Holocene. The results of these recent analyses are placed here in the context of local and extra-local traditions of comparable prehistoric art. This discussion highlights the unique nature of the find and its significance for appreciating the complex symbolic world of Early Holocene hunter-gatherers.”

    “We have to conclude hunter-gatherers had complex ritual and expression of ideas. Ritual doesn’t start with farming, but with hunter-gatherers,” Thomas Terberger said, via Science magazine, an archaeologist at the University of Göttingen in Germany and a co-author of the study.

    It was reported initially that the first radiocarbon tests of the Shigir Idol revealed it was around 9,800 years old. This age caused quite a debate in the scientific community because experts refused to acknowledge that ‘hunter-gatherers’ at that time were able to create such a complex piece of art.

    But the more experts dig into the matter, to more mysterious and fascinating it gets.

    “The further you go inside, the older [the date] becomes—it’s very indicative some sort of preservative or glue was used” Olaf Jöris, an archaeologist at the Monrepos Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution—who wasn’t involved with the study—told Science magazine.

    The statue is evidence that “Early Holocene hunter-gatherers clearly inhabited a symbolic world with richer and more complex forms of artistic expression than was previously believed,” the study’s authors wrote.

    [Antiquity]

    Featured Image Credit: D. Lobanov.

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    07-05-2018 om 22:09 geschreven door peter

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    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.18 Mysterious Satellite Images Spark Debate About Alien Symbols And Bases In Chinese Desert

    18 Mysterious Satellite Images Spark Debate About Alien Symbols And Bases In Chinese Desert

    They say the truth is out there.

    The surface of our planet is plagued by mysterious ancient structures which date back thousands—and some even tens of thousands—of years back.

    They are proof of incredibly complex ancient societies that build and erected fascinating structures without the use of modern technology.

    The Nazca lines in Peru, for example, are a set of hundreds of mysterious symbols and animal figures, carved on the dry floor of the Nazca desert. No one knows for sure that they mean.

    Halfway around the world, we find similar markings in Kazakhstan.

    And while these ancient marvels were created thousands of years ago, satellite images have revealed modern counterparts located around the world.

    This time we take a look at a remote desert in China, and wonder what on Earth do these mysterious structures and marks represent?

    Some UFO experts and UFOhunters claim the mysterious marks are in fact traces of secret alien bases and secret alien symbols on Earth.

    Recently, people took on Reddit to discuss 18 peculiar satellite images obtained from Google Maps.

    People rushed to the topic asking what on Earth the mysterious alien-looking marks represent in the middle of China.

    The images kick-started a hot debate, and several users wondered whether the Chinese Government, together with other world powers could be communicating with extraterrestrial entities, or even making use of technology not from Earth.

    The topic on Reddit accumulated a wealth of comments:

    There’s no doubt governments are aware of this if it’s that easy to find…but damn if that’s not interesting as hell.”

    “Whatever is happening behind the scenes it’s mostly just the masses that are being kept in the dark, the major governments and key players (especially in high military circles and intelligence agencies – possibly also some political players) all know what’s up.”

    “Nowadays I’m kinda’ doubting that we ever made ET contact. IMO they just made some crazy discovery in quantum mechanics post WWII and kept it covered up. Or maybe the Nazis knew how to make UFO’s, then made them for us when we got their scientists.”

    “I’d say if extraterrestrial contact has been made or their tech has been salvaged and reverse engineered, it’s likely that at least all major players (US, Russia, China, possibly Germany, France, UK…) and likely various minor players, have access to that tech and have had ET contact.”

    And most commentators agreed on Reddit that there’s something going on behind the scenes. Something that society isn’t aware of. Something that is not only present in China but other parts of the world.

    Another user wrote on Reddit: “I’d say if extraterrestrial contact has been made or their tech has been salvaged and reverse engineered, it’s likely that at least all major players (US, Russia, China, possibly Germany, France, UK…..) and likely various minor players, have access to that tech and have had ET contact. Whatever is happening behind the scenes it’s mostly just the masses that are being kept in the dark, the major governments and key players (especially in high military circles and intelligence agencies – possibly also some political players) all know what’s up.”

    Check out the images:

    So, what’s your pick?

    Are these mysterious symbols some sort of alien code? Are the satellite images evidence of secret bases?

    Secret Alien bases perhaps?

    Or are we looking at just another military installation, constructed in a remote area to hide from curious eyes?

    Some users on Reddit argue that the curious ‘alien’ mars are nothing more than markings for calibration and testing of spy satellites.

    Seems like a plausible explanation, what do you think?

    Source: 

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    07-05-2018 om 20:50 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.700,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Point To A Mystery Human Ancestor In The Philippines

    700,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Point To A Mystery Human Ancestor In The Philippines

    A mysterious human ancestor existed in the Philippines some 700,000 years ago, and used relatively advanced tools to butcher rhinos, experts have found.

    The discovery of a new set of tools and other pieces of evidence has revealed that ancient human relatives lived in parts of South East Asia hundreds of thousands of years earlier than experts believed possible.

    Researchers uncovered traces of more than 50 stone tools and a nearly complete rhino skeleton bearing clear marks of having been butchered in the distant past.

    According to experts, the rhinoceros skeleton dates back 709,000 years.

    The butchered rhino.

    Image Credit: University of Wollongong,

    The discovery comes as a surprise as previously, the earliest evidence of human habitation in the region—to the north of Luzon Island—had been a small foot bone found in a cave, dating back around 70,000 years.

    Finding evidence of human occupation 700,000 years ago is a history-changer.

    The tools discovered by experts consist of 49 sharp-edged stone flakes, six cores, and two pieces which are believed to be hammer stones.

    Furthermore, scientists also discovered a number of skeletons at the site, including that of a Stegodon, brown deer, freshwater turtle, and monitor lizard.

    However, the rhino skeleton was the most interesting.

    Experts say that many of the rhino’s bones had clear traces of cuts consistent with butchering, and various bones had marks as if they were hit with a hammerstone.

    This is very interesting.

    However, even or fascinating is the fact that experts say that humans didn’t make the tools—and no, they weren’t made by aliens either.

    According to experts, the oldest evidence of Homo sapiens is from about 300,000 years ago.

    Part of the stone tools discovered by experts in the Philippines.

    So if it wasn’t humans, who created the tools?

    Scientists say that a close human ancestor crafted the tools, and the fact that they existed in the Philippines some 700,000 years ago means that we need to reconsider how and when humans and other hominins spread through the vast territories of South East Asia.

    As noted by archaeologists Gerrit van den Bergh from the University of Wollongong in Australia, these mysterious hominins most likely spread across the area in a number of different migratory waves throughout various millennia.

    Van den Bergh also believes that these mystery humans most likely traveled from north to south, from China and Taiwan, and not from West to East, from Borneo or Palawan through Indonesia, using ocean currents and settling as they went.

    The rhino’s bones (pictured) have cut marks showing evidence the animal was butchered in the distant past.

    Image Credit: Thomas Ingicco, Mission Marche aux Philippines.

    Interestingly, van den Bergh believes that this curious migration may have taken human ancestors on the Indonesian Island of Flores, giving rise to the mysterious Homo floresiensis species, akathe “Hobbit,” because of their relatively small stature.

    Previously experts have found traces of ancient humans dating back 700,000 years on the Indonesian island of Java. Furthermore, Homo floresiensis ancestors have been found on Flores from around the same time.

    Previous theories proposed by experts suggested that early hominids did not have the ability to craft boats, meaning that they could not have traveled by water in order to reach Luzon and the other islands separated from the mainland by deep oceans.

    However, discoveries are changing what we thought about early humans and their capabilities.

    “If you look at the fossil and recent faunas you see that there is an impoverishment as you go from north to south. On Luzon, you find fossils of stegodons, elephants, giant rats, rhino, deer, large reptiles and a type of water buffalo.

    “On Sulawesi, the fossil fauna is already impoverished; there’s no evidence of rhinos or deer ever entering there. Then on Flores, you only had stegodons, Komodo dragons, humans and giant rats, that’s all,” van den Bergh said.

    “If animals did reach these islands by chance, by entering the sea and following the currents south, then you would expect the further south you go the fewer species you would find – and that’s what we see.”

    Who exactly these hominins were, remains a profound mystery, and we will probably never know unless we discover remains of the species in order to study them.

    Some experts hint, they may have been the mysterious Denisovans.

    “There’s a lot of focus again in the islands of South East Asia because they are places where you find natural experiments in hominin evolution. That’s what makes Flores unique, and now Luzon is another place we can start looking for fossil evidence,” van den Bergh said.

    [Nature]

    https://www.ancient-code.com/ }

    07-05-2018 om 16:18 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )
    06-05-2018
    Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.THIRD SNOWY PYRAMID RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN ANTARCTICA COULD REWRITE HISTORY

    Image result for THIRD SNOWY PYRAMID RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN ANTARCTICA COULD REWRITE HISTORY

    THIRD SNOWY PYRAMID RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN ANTARCTICA COULD REWRITE HISTORY

    Though not everyone is willing to admit it, our planet is full of relics and monuments that prove Earth was once populated by extremely advanced civilizations. Point in case: the third ice-covered pyramid discovered in Antarctica!


    Ever since the service was released, Google Earth been a boon not just for conspiracy theorists but also for anyone looking to uncover clues about what lies hidden beyond sight. If you need a good vantage point, you need good eyes and altitude. Satellites have both.

    The latest in a group of three snow-covered pyramids was recently discovered through Google Earth satellite imagery and in a few days, the finding has taken the alternative history communities by storm. Two of the pyramids can be found approximately 10 miles inland while the third rests near the coastline.

    pyramid antarctica

    The implications of this discovery are complex and if accepted, it could turn the scientific world on its head. No history book ever mentioned an Antarctic civilization with the skills and technology necessary to erect enormous pyramids. There is one apparent reason behind this situation and by the looks of it, it would suggest tech-savvy civilizations existed on Earth a long time before our own emerged.

    Antarctica is now a frozen wasteland but it wasn’t always like this. It got to its current position through plate tectonics, inching closer to the geographic South Pole year after year. Millions of years ago, Antarctica’s climate was much warmer because its position was closer to the equator. This is established fact backed up by several accepted discoveries, not some wild speculation.

    Some years ago, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) uncovered evidence that the antarctic climate was much different in the distant past.

    Go back 100 million years ago,” BAS’s Dr. Vanessa Bowman said “and Antarctica was covered in lush rainforests similar to those that exist in New Zealand today.”

    Another expedition –led by NASA and involving 11 other scientific organizations– discovered out-of-place microbial life forms in the depths of Antarctica’s Lake Vida, trapped under a sheet of ice 65 feet thick. The microbial colonies had been prospering in isolation for millions of years and scientists believe they are the descendants of microorganisms that lived in a much warmer climate. Who knows what other enigmas lay buried in ice, hopelessly waiting to be revealed.

    antarctica pyramid

    The resemblance is unsettling.

    Even with today’s technology, building structures as massive as the pyramids of Antarctica would be nearly impossible. There are simply too many problems relating to manpower and the logistics required for such a project. If building these mysterious monuments were to be a viable venture, it must have taken place in the past, when Antarctica was a favorable place for human life.

    And this opens up a king-sized can of worms. The continent was habitable only in the very distant past, but mainstream science says the wheel wasn’t invented until some 6,000 years ago. At the same time, anatomically-modern humans are said to have mastered fire only 125,000 years ago. So where do these controversial pyramids fit in? Are they evidence of an ancient advanced civilization or do we need to stretch our imagination even further and regard them as proof of time travel? The mind boggles when we remain attached to our outdated beliefs.

    Proponents of alternative history and fans of the ancient aliens hypothesis have no problem in accepting the parallel reality generated by such discoveries. It’s not hard to see and accept that we aren’t the first and though it may seem this way, we probably won’t be the last.

    Thousands of years after they were built, we are still fascinated by the Egyptian pyramids. The monuments left behind by their society have stood the test of time and in more than one way, they’ve granted their builders immortality. Keeping that in mind, what could be said about pyramids that are millions of years old? Does that put our own lives into perspective and make us see the bigger picture?

    Or do we recoil in egotistic dismissal?

    http://alien-ufo-sightings.com/ }

    06-05-2018 om 22:10 geschreven door peter

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    Categorie:ARCHEOLOGIE ( E, Nl, Fr )



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    Ik ben Pieter, en gebruik soms ook wel de schuilnaam Peter2011.
    Ik ben een man en woon in Linter (België) en mijn beroep is Ik ben op rust..
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  • www.wszechocean.blogspot.com.
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