Wil je een videoclip bekijken en stoort het X-files-deuntje jou daarbij. Schakel het deuntje gewoon uit door in deze kolon, helemaal beneden op de 2 witte balkjes in het blauwe cirkeltje te klikken, tot een pijltje verschijnt. Veel kijk- en luisterplezier en bedankt voor jouw bezoek.
The purpose of this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category. Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be.
Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch...
Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels.
MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen.
MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity...
Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com.
Ze geven een maandeliiks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal. Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
Calling all aliens: What's the best way to contact our galactic neighbors? - PART II
Calling all aliens: What's the best way to contact our galactic neighbors? -PART II
This is followed by a solar location map; mathematical and physical unit definitions; a tutorial in human biochemistry, anatomy, and reproduction; information about the planet Earth and its structure; images of terrestrial geology, climatic regions, animal life, and plant life. There's also a large compendium on human life, activities, architecture, eating, technology, and music, as well as printed messages from US President James Carter and UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim.
It will be a good 40,000 years before any of these probes comes within two light years of any other star systems and odds are that none will be found for millions or even billions of years.
But what does this slowpoke approach for sending messages have over light-speed radio signals? Not much at the moment, but while we're at the physical limits of what radio can do, interstellar travel still has a long way to go. At the moment, we're limited to using primitive chemical rockets or ion drives that aren't really suited to the task of jumping between the stars, but that could well change one day, if we're patient enough.
In 1964, Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev came up with a way of classifying civilizations based on how much energy they are able to harness. A Type I civilization is limited to the power available on a single planet – about 4 X 1012 joules. A Type II would be able to use the output of an entire star, which comes out to 4 X 1026 joules. Meanwhile, a Type III civilization would have the output of a galaxy at 4 X 1037 joules.
The more power a civilization has at its disposal, the more efficient it becomes. One interesting point that SETI scientists have found is that when a culture reaches the point beyond a Type I civilization, the difference in efficiency between sending radio messages and sending unmanned probes becomes negligible.
In 1960, Ronald N Bracewell of Stanford University put forward a proposal for using robotic probes rather than sending radio messages as our way of opening contact with other beings. Let's look an updated version of his idea.
Imagine it's a few centuries from now when the energy problems of today seem as quaint as a flint or deer antler shortage in Neolithic Britain. Humanity now has so much surplus energy at its command that sending an interstellar probe seems no more farfetched than sending a probe to Pluto does in our day.
But these are far more advanced spacecraft than any we have today. They are larger and more powerful. They are self-refueling, self-repairing, and can even duplicate themselves as required using advanced 3D printing techniques. They are also fully autonomous with computers that have an almost organic level of artificial intelligence.
These probes aren't very fast, reaching only 10 percent of the speed of light, but they don't have to be. With no passengers or crew, they can afford to spend a few decades or even centuries getting to their destination. As they approach the candidate star selected by mission control, each probe has the ability to study the system in detail, identify the planets most likely to possess intelligent life, and make an assessment of whether to proceed or carry on to a more promising system.
If a planet does turn out to have a civilization advanced enough to make contact with, the probe would be programmed to discretely stand off and listen to radio, television, and data transmissions. Unlike trying to pick up signals from light years away, the probe could do so from only millions of miles or might even send in scouts to orbit the planet for a closer look and listen.
The Golden Record (Credit: NASA)
Already the advantages of sending out such a system become obvious. The Bracewell probe would be intelligent enough and programmed with enough precautionary algorithms to determine if the civilization in question is safe to contact or whether it could be more in Earth's interests to stay silent. It could even remain on station for decades or even centuries as it sends back reports to Earth.
The same watching brief might even apply if it finds a civilization that hasn't reached a high enough level of technology to communicate with. It could patiently wait and watch as it evolves, then decide whether to communicate as soon as it starts receiving radio transmissions. Or it could leave behind an artifact, as in 2001: a Space Odyssey, that would inform Earth if it was ever disturbed, while the probe itself moves on to more productive targets. Or it might duplicate itself and send the new one on.
If the probe did decide to make contact, it would be in a far better position than someone trying to start a conversation across 100 light years of space. For one thing, the probe would have no trouble making its presence known by blasting a powerful signal at the planet, perhaps re-broadcasting television programs with a six hour delay on the same frequency as the original broadcasts to make clear that this isn't some kind of an echo.
When contact is established, communications would be clear with a minimum of interference and responses would be received in real time. In addition, a probe orbiting the planet would have huge bandwidth at its disposal to send and receive a very large amount of data – much of it in the form of video.
It would also be a simple task for the probe to instruct the natives on how to build compatible transceivers for the most efficient exchanges or to speak directly to Earth. On the other hand, the probe could act as a gatekeeper by relaying messages to Earth and censoring information, like our location, if the indigenes prove untrustworthy.
Because the probe has artificial intelligence, it can adapt its communications to suit the recipient. It could indulge in true conversations with the natives, asking questions and being asked questions in turn as an exercise in both teaching and learning. It could even provide language lessons with suitable feedback. It might even be able to connect directly to the planet's version of the internet and use deep learning to better understand the culture or even to communicate directly with individuals.
Indeed, these exchanges could make such a probe, in the broad sense, profitable. Instead of blasting energy into space from Earth with no known return on the investment, the probe could send its findings to Earth much more economically. In fact, unlike radio signals, an autonomous probe program would continue operate long after it had been abandoned back on Earth.
It might even act as an insurance policy for our civilization. If Earth is destroyed, then at least our culture might live on – if only as a record, albeit an intelligent record. Or the probe could be programmed with a wide sampling of the human genome and supplied with information on how to construct a biological printer that would allow it to build human cells and clone them. Scientists are already doing this with simple viruses, so it may one day be possible with Homo sapiens. It may even be possible to bioengineer the ova at code level to adapt the colonists to their new environment.
Taking things a step further, there's no reason why the probe must be mechanical. Today, scientists are able to encode images and even videos on bacterial DNA. Perhaps, in time, some sort of microorganism could be developed with complex messages encoded on it as a form of self-replicating courier placed in small probes or turned into spores and carried on the solar winds into the galaxy. Maybe one day our first message won't be heard over the radio, but seen through a microscope.
Today, we have a lot more experience beaming messages into deep space as our unmanned missions probe the edges of the Solar System and beyond. We know more about how to send and receive data with a minimum of wattage, how to use tight-beam radio, and how to carry out precise tracking of space objects. We're even experimenting with laser communications in deep space and looking at new ways to send spacecraft to the nearest stars.
But whatever methods we may adopt in the future, our first messages are already on their way and we're waiting for the reply. The odds are long, however, and we won't hear much for about 50,000 years, so there's time to put the kettle on.
Voyager scientists on the Jupiter encounter, Pluto's planet status and whether we'll find extraterrestrial life
Voyager scientists on the Jupiter encounter, Pluto's planet status and whether we'll find extraterrestrial life
A collage of Jupiter and its four planet-size moons, photographed in early March 1979 by Voyager 1. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
There was an advance screening of the film at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia on Aug. 10, complete with a panel featuring Voyager mission scientists Fran Bagenal (Co-Investigator Plasma Science) and Rich Terrile (Imaging Science), as well as Nick Sagan, the son of scientist Carl Sagan. Nick Sagan gave one of the greetings on the Golden Record when he was six years old.
We spoke with Bagenal and Terrile before the screening on Facebook Live. You can watch the full interview in the video below, or just scroll past the video to read highlights.
What is the most interesting thing we've learned from Voyager?
Terrile: "I think the most interesting thing was that the solar system is far more surprising than our imaginations had led us to believe. The eye-opening thing about Voyager is we discovered that the real solar system was more like science fiction than science fact up until that point."
Bagenal: "The moons of the giant planets were all so different. We thought it'd be like our moon, very boring, kind of dull. But no... each one has a character, a special geology, a whole special formation, all sorts of different things we learnt. Everytime we went to a new place it was totally different."
When did you feel like Voyager had been successful?
Terrile: "The very first encounter with Jupiter. We knew the most about Jupiter than any other objects we've been to. We've been there before with other spacecrafts. It's closer so telescopes can see it more clearly. But at Jupiter there were just so many surprises. And as Fran said, the moons were just this incredible variety of places with erupting volcanoes, moons that the geology changes at the same timeframe the weather changes on our planet. That was just so mind blowing. That just set the stage for one incredible encounter after another."
Bagenal: "One of the most exciting images I remember seeing was in the New York Times and it was above the fold and it was a picture of Jupiter with a great red spot with the moons in front. Famous picture and I'll always have it in my mind. Going into the news agents, as they had back then, and looking in and seeing this picture was fantastic."
The Great American Solar Eclipse will move across the U.S., from northwest to southeast, on Monday, August 21.
What do you hope is the future of space exploration?
Terrile: "The future was always supposed to be something more exciting than the reality that has happened. I grew up in the '60s at the start of the space program, Apollo. If you extrapolated from what the beginnings of our space program were in 1961... by '69 we got to the moon. We had cars on the moon. We developed rendezvous docking, ability to get into orbit, space suits, all the technology we use today. It's hard to believe we're in 2017 and we don't even have the capability to go into Earth orbit with humans."
Bagenal: "I'm going to disagree with you...there's nothing that humans can do in space that robots can't do better, faster, cheaper and more effectively except tourism. I would argue that the answer is robots and the future is robots. We're going to send a whole batch of robots out there to go to all sorts of places. The next place is Europa where we're going to go look at the ice and we're going to find out whether or not there could possibly be organisms underneath, potentially life-related organisms, and whether or not there's any communication between the ocean that's underneath and the surface. That will be very exciting and we'll send robots to go do it."
Researchers at Temple University, Drexel University and University of Pennsylvania are working hard to change the world for the better. Here's how they plan to do it.
It's interesting that you mentioned tourism. I feel like that's a lot of what we hear about today when it comes to new innovations is people wanting to go and tour space and go on luxury trips. Do you feel like that's part of the future then?
Terrile: "One of the things, I worked for Jim Cameron for awhile. And we talk about what makes something dramatic. Clearly a human in space is a dramatic thing. And he put it a little differently, he said what makes it dramatic is when the protagonist is in the picture. What technology allows us to do today is to take those images and the data we get from planetary encounters and not just make that available to one person who is walking on a planetary surface, but make that available to everybody through virtual reality and the kinds of things we're going to see in the next few years.
"We're going to have that absolute visceral experience. Today, at JPL, we can put on these glasses and walk on the surface of Mars, bend down, look at the rocks and even cast shadows and leave footprints. It's an astonishing technology... that's really the future of exploring. Not just one person exploring, but all of us exploring."
Bagenal: "The example I like to give is the Juno mission I'm involved in right now, which is a spacecraft that's in orbit around Jupiter. We have a camera on that spacecraft which is a citizen's science camera. We just took a bunch of pictures of the great red spot a couple weeks ago... all of those pictures are immediately made available to the public and the public takes those pictures, they explore, play with them and then they put them back up and share them... I think this is a new world. It isn't just those of us who are lucky to be professional scientists involved in this, it's everybody."
What is one thing that you hope people learn from "The Farthest -- Voyager in Space?"
Terrile: "For one thing, the breadth and depth and impact that mission had on science, technology and everything else. It's really astonishing. It's been 40 years since we launched Voyager and it's still going and it gave us our first view of the solar system. It changed our perspective. We learned not only how to explore planets but how to explore our own ability to command spacecraft.
"Voyager was made with technology that was basically -- it was 1972 technology that was flown. I don't know if anybody remembers what it was like in 1972, but the magic that we carry around in our pockets -- cell phones -- would have been magic in those days. And computers and everything else have increased in capability in factors of several billions of time. Yet the technology that was frozen in 1972 has provided us with this incredible look."
Bagenal: "The other thing is there was a strong team of people who worked very hard and did a lot of work and were creative and came up with ways to solve problems along the way. There was a lot more human activity needed with the technology, so the teams were quite large and they worked hard together to make this all work."
The Voyager is famous for having the Golden Record. If you could put anything on it, what would you put on it today?
Terrile: "A lot more data. To think about how little data there is on a phonograph record in those days. Very clearly it's hard to condense everything about ourselves and our planet and our society to what could fit on the phonograph."
Pluto, will it ever be a planet again?
Bagenal: "It is a planet! Hey! Dwarf people are people, dwarf planets are planets... actually what was very interesting was it got everybody debating, discussing and thinking what is a planet? Everybody got discussing stuff. Actually, despite the fact I've had big arguments with Mike Brown (the professor whose discovery of Eris led to the demotion of Pluto to dwarf planet status), we're still good friends, it was all good actually because it got people discussing, debating and talking and so on and so forth."
Gallery: Close-up images of Pluto and its moons
Will we ever find evidence of life or the possibility of living organisms on other planets?
Terrile: "I think we will. If we don't find it in our solar system, which I think it is a very very good probability that it exists in our solar system, if we don't, we'll find evidence on other planets. We've found thousands of other planets and we're going to get to the point where we can look for signatures of life."
Bagenal: "It's tough. Looking for life isn't easy. It's not going to be the first mission to Europa (one of Jupiter's moons) that will find it, probably. It may be two or three later down the road. But it's a good chance. Enceladus (the sixth moon of Saturn) is another place, perhaps Titan (another one of Saturn's moons). I think Mars is overrated, personally."
Terrile: "Mars may have had life... and certainly, if Mars had a viable environment. And we know Mars and Earth exchanged material."
Bagenal: "Right. It's probably just slime, nothing very exciting."
Terrile: "A habitable environment early on could have had at least Earth life on it."
Bagenal: "Yeah, but it probably didn't wiggle."
Terrile: "And if life started on Mars, then maybe that life showed up on our planet. Maybe we're Martians. These are the kind of questions that are actually valid in astrobiology."
Bagenal: "It is true. The exchange of material between the planets, we're just beginning to explore the possibilities and ideas."
The exoplanet system TRAPPIST-1 is about 40 light years (235 trillion miles) from Earth
Do you feel the fact we've haven't gone to space in a while is a challenge for the next generation?
Bagenal: "We have via robots. I see people excited by seeing what's happening on all the many robots we have on many planets around our solar system and what we're seeing with telescopes out further and beyond. I think what's exciting about the next generation is to go look at all these other places we've not been to yet and to use these robotic explorers to develop and find out more about these places.
"It's a challenge, because the technology is difficult and you have to make it work -- but it's a good challenge."
Terrile: "I also think we're seeing an erosion of science where people try to politicize it for their own needs, with things like climate change. They'll say 'oh those scientists, they have their own agenda. They're like the pharmaceutical industry or these other groups' but we're not. We're out to find the truth. We're out to explore. And whatever answer comes out, that's the answer. That's the truth. We're very careful about that. When the truth hurts, when the truth is not something that is politically viable, I'm afraid that people cash out on us for that."
What is a question you always wish people ask you about your work, but never do?
Bagenal: "I think some of the motivation, our own insight and drive. We sort-of talked a little bit about how we got into the science, but now what motivates me is seeing the excitement in the public arena. They're excited by what they see and what they learn... That gives me a lot of pleasure now, in seeing that people are excited by science, thinking about how to communicate science and how to show people the excitement of working in science and not having them frightened about science and that they can be involved in science and do these things too."
Terrile: "A lot of us are very, very lucky. Most people work jobs and it's their jobs, it's something they do. For most of us in this arena, we would do this work if we weren't being paid for it. It's an absolutely pleasure. It's an honor to do the work we do. It's really, really fun."
"The Farthest -- Voyager in Space" airs at 9 p.m. on Aug. 23 on your local PBS station. For more information visit pbs.org.
This story has been updated to correct the spelling of Rich Terrile's name.
Intelligent life goes extinct shortly after becoming technologically advanced and that’s why we haven’t been able to connect with any alien species, one scientist is arguing.
At the center of his assertion is the mediocrity principle, which is popular among astronomers and dictates that there is nothing special about our species, our planet or our solar system — that everything that went into the evolution of human life on Earth could have happened in other places as well. It thus also dictates that the state in which we find ourselves is completely typical and can be generally applied to the rest of the universe.
University of Arkansas professor Daniel Whitmire is suggesting that if we go by this principle, it stands to reason that any technological species would find themselves in a similar situation to humans on Earth: “that they are both the first such species to evolve on their planet and also that they are early in their potential technological evolution,” according to his paper in the International Journal of Astrobiology. He argues that this implies intelligent species do not exist further along in technological evolution because they have gone “extinct soon after attaining a modern technology and that this event results in the extinction of the planet’s global biosphere.”
The exact details of how technologically advanced life on another planet evolved, like how long it took for it to emerge, are not relevant, Whitmire says. All that matter is that this life has developed electronic devices as well as technology that can affect the environment.
“A technological dinosaur species that evolved in 100 [million years] on a Mars-sized planet could still be first and early in their technological evolution,” the study says. “If we are typical of this reference class, then other members would, like us, observe that their technological species is the first to evolve on their planet and also that they are early in their potential technological evolution.”
Kepler-186f is the first exoplanet scientists discovered in a star’s habitable zone that is comparable to the size of Earth.
Those species very well could have been the first on their planets to become advanced, rather than rising from the ashes of another technologically advanced group of beings, based on how it happened on Earth — the study notes that the timeline for how humans emerged and created technology leaves enough room for there to have been another similar species before us on Earth, but that didn’t happen.
The point at which humans became technological, according to this study, was about 100 years ago, after the industrial revolution and the radio burst onto the scene.
“According to the principle of mediocrity, a bell curve of the ages of all extant technological civilizations in the universe would put us in the middle 95 percent,” the University of Arkansas explains. “In other words, technological civilizations that last millions of years, or longer, would be highly atypical.”
That leads to the questions of why there should be only civilizations in which the inhabitants are new to technology and are the first on their planet to get that far.
If we assume the evolution and development of humans is typical, it follows that alien species like us were also the first on their planet — and thus “once species become technological, they flame out and take the biosphere with them,” the university says. The latter part, about the demise of the rest of the biosphere, is crucial to preventing other technologically advanced species cropping up on the same planet.
The other option is that humans and Earth are among the outliers, in which case Whitmire asserts that “by statistics, we have to be the dumbest guys in the galaxy. After all we have only been technological for about 100 years while other civilizations could be more technologically advanced than us by millions or billions of years.”
5 UFO Reports by Pilots and Astronauts That Will Have You Convinced
5 UFO Reports by Pilots and Astronauts That Will Have You Convinced
UFO encounters are often dismissed by skeptics as the product of attention-seekers, hoaxes, or simply overactive imaginations. But what happens when the UFO is seen by some of the most trained and trustworthy professionals around? Compared to encounters by ground-dwelling civilians, cases of UFOs seen by pilots and astronauts are some of the most credible UFO stories around.
These UFO sightings are, perhaps, the most convincing because these witnesses are highly respected professionals whom we trust with our lives. These individuals have nothing to gain by putting their careers and reputations on the line reporting bizarre happenings in the skies.
More shocking is the sheer volume of these reported incidents that happen every year. Here’s a list of some of the more notable sightings of alien spacecraft by pilots and astronauts.
1. Astronaut Leroy Chiao Reported a UFO While on a Space Walk with the ISS
In 2005, astronaut Leroy Chiao, commander of the International Space Station, reported a UFO encounter during a space walk. He and a colleague were installing navigation antennas when something unusual caught Chiao’s eye. Below him in the Earth’s atmosphere he saw a line of lights that looked like “an upside-down question mark.”
One non-UFO explanation for Chiao’s sighting offered by skeptics is that Chiao simply saw the bright lights of a fishing boat hundreds of miles below him. Of course, those would have to be some pretty insanely powerful fishing lights to be seen all the way in outer space – and why Chiao didn’t see the lights of other boats all over the ocean has never been explained.
2. Turkish Pilots Saw a Mysterious Object – And So Did Citizens Below
Pilots from Turkish Airlines were flying from the Turkish resort town of Bodrum to the country’s largest city, Istanbul. Suddenly, a mysterious green light appeared over the plane. As the pilot later testified,“An unidentified object with green lights passed 2- to 3,000 feet above us. Then it disappeared all of a sudden. We are guessing that it was a UFO.”
The UFO was also reported to be seen around Istanbul’s Silivri district.
The General Directorate of State Airports Authority denied spotting any image that fitted the description of the pilot. Doubters claim that the pilots saw a green laser pointer that was reflecting off a cloud. However, it seems pretty hard to believe pilots would never have seen a laser pointer before – plus, that would have had to be a pretty huge laser pointer to create an effect such as they described.
For the record, pilots do not generally report fleeting flashes of light as UFOs.
3. Reports Claim UFOs Met Astronauts During the Moon Landing
According to unconfirmed reports, both Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin saw UFOs shortly after that historic landing on the moon in Apollo 11 on July 21, 1969. Viewers listening to the broadcast heard Armstrong refer to lights above a crater before his audio feed went dead for a few minutes.
According to former NASA employee Otto Binder, unnamed radio hams with their own VHF-receiving equipment (that bypassed NASA’s broadcasting) picked up the following exchange:
NASA: What’s there?
Apollo 11: These babies are huge, sir! Enormous! OH MY GOD! You wouldn’t believe it! I’m telling you there are other spacecraft out there, Lined up on the far side of the crater edge! They’re on the moon watching us!
Armstrong and Aldrin have denied the exchange took place, but other have insisted that off the record, the astronauts have admitted to many scientists that they did indeed see something.
4. Mercury Astronaut Slayton Tracked a Flying Saucer
Gordon Cooper wasn’t the only Mercury astronaut to report strange encounters. Deke Slayton revealed in an interview he had seen UFOs in 1951:
I was testing a P-51 fighter in Minneapolis when I spotted this object. I was at about 10,000 feet on a nice, bright, sunny afternoon. I thought the object was a kite, then I realized that no kite is gonna fly that high. As I got closer, it looked like a weather balloon, grey and about three feet in diameter. But as soon as I got behind the darn thing, it didn’t look like a balloon anymore. It looked like a saucer, a disk. About the same time, I realized that it was suddenly going away from me – and there I was, running at about 300 miles per hour. I tracked it for a little way, and then all of a sudden the damn thing just took off. It pulled about a 45-degree climbing turn and accelerated and just flat disappeared.
5. Pilots Reported a Flying Saucer Over Bariloche Airport During a Mysterious Blackout
In 1995, an Aerolineas Argentinas flight landing at Bariloche airport in Argentina reported that it was “buzzed” by a luminous disk moving in a way that defied the laws of physics. According to reports, the pilot was forced to take evasive maneuvers to avoid a collision. Strangely, at the same time, there was also a mysterious power shortage in Bariloche.
There was also a power outage at the airport. One Argentine newspaper reported the air traffic control personnel as saying, “The control instruments went crazy.”
The UFO was also seen by personnel on the ground, as well as the crew of a police plane flying 600 meters (2,000 ft) above.
Paralyzed Monkeys Able to Walk Again With Brain Implant. Human Trials Are Next
Paralyzed Monkeys Able to Walk Again With Brain Implant. Human Trials Are Next
Using a system of electrodes, transmitters, receivers, scientists were able to restore leg function in a primate, completely bypassing damaged nerves.
While this remarkable feat may be decades away from human use, it is a promising development for the hundreds of thousands of people in the U.S. with spinal cord injuries
Electrodes implanted in the brain and spine have helped paralyzed monkeys walk. The neurologists behind the study reported that the implants restored function in the primates’ legs almost instantaneously. The findings are detailed in Nature.
The spinal cord of the subject monkey was partially cut, so the legs had no way of communicating with the brain. To mend the brain-spine interface, electrodes were placed on key parts of the monkey’s body. Implants were placed inside the monkey’s brain at the part that controls leg movement, together with a wireless transmitter sitting outside the skull. Electrodes were also placed along the spinal cord, below the injury.
A computer program decoded brain signals indicative of leg movement and transmitted the signals to the electrodes in the spine. Within just a few seconds, the monkey was moving its leg. In a few days, it was walking on a treadmill.
“The primate was able to walk immediately once the brain-spine interface was activated. No physiotherapy or training was necessary,” said Erwan Bezard, one of the authors of the study.
This study is a massive breakthrough—it’s the first time implants have helped a primate walk. There has been much research to develop tech for paralyzed patients, but most lab trials were done on rodents. “It seems the principles learned in rats are now translating into primates,” said Jen Collinger, a University of Pittsburgh bioengineer.
The results were astoundingly positive, but the researchers say that it will take at least a decade to fine-tune the technology for use in humans. Still, our bodies are greatly similar to that of monkeys, and the researchers believe transition could be quick.
Exciting news about the study is that the components that the researchers used are legal for human use in Switzerland. The Swiss group of the study have started clinical trial with eight people with partial leg paralysis.
The Moon's liquid core spun acting like dynamo to produce a magnetic field ...
Illustration by Hernán Cañellas
Scientists studying prehistoric lunar rocks have found evidence of a lava-lamp-like dynamo at the heart of our Moon’s metallic core that generated a long-lasting magnetic field.
The Moon samples were collected in 1971 by astronauts, David Scott and James Irwin, during NASA’s Apollo 15 space mission.
Now, a paper published in Science Advances this Friday reveals that one particular sample was formed one to 2.5 billion years ago in a relatively weak magnetic field of about five microteslas. Older rocks, said to be about four billion years old, showed signs that they were formed when the Moon’s magnetic field was 100 microteslas.
In other words, the Moon's magnetic field weakened from 100 microteslas roughly four billion years ago to five microteslas around two billion years ago. That's a billion years longer than previously thought – it was generally thought the Moon's field strength sharply nosedived about three billion years ago.
The paper's authors believe the Moon may once have had a molten metallic core. The slow churn of the liquid acted as a dynamo that powered the magnetic field around Earth's natural satellite. Benjamin Weiss, coauthor of the study and professor of planetary sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, said this week the concept of a planetary magnetic field being produced by a moving liquid core “is only a few decades old.”
"What powers this motion on Earth and other bodies, particularly on the Moon, is not well-understood," he said.
How the field strength was detected
Tiny grains of material in the lunar rocks point in a certain direction under the influence of a magnetic field, just like a compass needle. The researchers built an oxygen-free oven to heat the samples close to the temperatures they formed in, and measured how the magnetization changed as the temperature increased.
"You see how magnetized it gets from getting heated in that known magnetic field, then you compare that field to the natural magnetic field you measured beforehand, and from that you can figure out what the ancient field strength was," Weiss explained.
The researchers have proposed the dynamo is a result of the gravitational pull between the Earth and the Moon. At one point, the Moon was much closer to the Earth, and the gravitational forces present may have been strong enough to rotate the Moon’s exterior, dragging its liquid metallic center into a swirling motion, thus creating a powerful magnetic field.
But as the Moon moved further away, the gravitational pull weakened and the Moon’s magnetic field started to drop. "As the Moon cools, its core acts like a lava lamp – low-density stuff rises because it's hot or because its composition is different from that of the surrounding fluid," Weiss said. "That's how we think the Earth's dynamo works, and that's what we suggest the late lunar dynamo was doing as well."
Sonia Tikoo, lead author of the paper and an assistant professor at Rutgers University in the US, told The Register on Thursday she hopes more lunar samples will be collected in future to help pinpoint when the Moon’s dynamo faded away.
“It would be great to obtain more lunar rocks, particularly from locations that were not sampled during the Apollo missions," she said. "There are several missions under development around the world – most in the proposal stage, but some beyond – that could involve a robotic sample return from the Moon in the next decade or so.
“It would be even more awesome if NASA could send more humans to the Moon but that doesn't seem to be in the cards for the near future. China is aiming to send a crewed mission to the Moon by the mid-2030s. In the meantime, scientists will continue working with the Apollo samples we already have as well as with lunar meteorites that have landed on Earth.”
The rocks have, essentially, helped scientists narrow down the timeline of the Moon’s dynamo. "Today the moon's field is essentially zero," Weiss said. "And we now know it turned off somewhere between the formation of this rock and today." ®
The things you see on Indiegogo never cease to amaze me.
While Laser SETI will still need hi-res cameras and optics designed for astronomy if this thing is going to take off, it’s still exponentially more cost effective than sending satellites to every known corner of the universe. We are just microbes in a universe so vast that just about anything could be hiding in places so far away that they haven’t even been reached by satellites or seen by even the most powerful telescopic eyes from Earth or space. It’s also hard to believe that there isn’t anything else crawling around when our universe is 14 billion years old, which is more than enough time for just about anything, intelligent or otherwise, to evolve.
“It's very difficult to imagine that we are alone,” said SETI CEO Bill Diamond for these reasons. “Yet extraterrestrial life still eludes our efforts to find it. Now you have a chance to be a part of the technology that can change that forever."
SETI assumes that aliens are always on air. Whether they are trying to reach us with superpowered lasers, monster radio transmitters or anything else our Earthling brains might have not even dreamed up yet remains to be seen. There have been previous doubts about extraterrestrial beings anywhere from hundreds to billions of light-years away trying to target a planet they don’t even know exists. The idea may strike you as a kind of reverse X-Files.
Laser SETI is the first endeavor to defy this thinking "because it's designed to find a very short ping that doesn't stay on all the time — it can detect a laser flash as short as a microsecond, and one that might not repeat for days, weeks, or even longer," as Diamond explained.
Now watch the video, then take off to the campaign and donate. For science.
A new study explains how alien planets might skip straight from being too cold to support life to being too hot, without ever becoming habitable. That could trim the number of planets we should investigate for life.
This chart shows, on the top row, artist concepts of the seven planets of TRAPPIST-1 with their orbital periods, distances from their star, radii and masses as compared to those of Earth. On the bottom row, the same numbers are displayed for the bodies of our inner solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The TRAPPIST-1 planets orbit their star extremely closely, with periods ranging from 1.5 to only about 20 days. This is much shorter than the period of Mercury, which orbits our sun in about 88 days.
TRAPPIST-1 Comparison to Solar System and Jovian Moons
IN THE ZONE
Earth’s location in space is perfect: not too close to but not too far from the Sun, it gives our planet the balmy temperature that helps supports life. However, a new study suggests that it might be even more difficult than previously expected to find a celestial body that falls within this ‘Goldilocks zone.’
The habitable zone of any given star is the area where planets can maintain a temperature that allows liquid water to be found on its surface. Too close to the star, and that water will turn to vapor — too far away, and it’ll turn to ice.
However, stars like our sun gradually get more luminous over time, which changes the parameters of their habitable zone. This means that icy planets can feasibly reach a point where their conditions are warm enough to support life — but according to a recent study in Nature Geoscience, that’s not always the way the situation will pan out.
TOO HOT TO HANDLE
A planet’s ability to support life-sustaining temperatures hinges on at least two factors: the amount of ice on the surface, and the amount of greenhouse gases being released into its atmosphere. Yet many icy planets don’t have the volcanic activity needed to contain any greenhouse gases besides water vapor.
So this study’s team, led by Jun Yang of Peking University, developed a model that could simulate how the climate of an ice-covered planet with only water vapor in the atmosphere would change over time. The results suggested it would take 10 to 40 percent more energy than the Earth receives from the sun before they began to melt.
Without ice to reflect incoming heat, this heat-intensive process was often followed by a speedy uptick in temperature that caused the planet’s oceans to boil off. And without water, these worlds wouldn’t be able to support life after all.
This isn’t necessarily bad news. Thanks to increasingly sharp-eyed instruments, the number of known exoplanets has skyrocketed in the past two decades, from a mere handful in the mid-90s to nearly 2000 today. In February 2014 alone, NASA announced a “planet bonanza” discovery of 715 new planets, found by the Kepler satellite. But identifying which of these distant worlds might be friendly to life is still tricky.
Scientists are able to infer the atmospheric content of a planet based on the way light passes through it, a process that’s already been used to detect water on a distant Earth-sized planet. However, this method doesn’t tell scientists what else is happening on the planet — such as whether it’s in the runaway, ocean-boiling cycle Yang’s team identified.
If we’re on the search for a planet that humans can live on, having this information at hand gives us more insight into which worlds are in contention.
Magnetisch veld van de maan hield langer stand dan gedacht
Magnetisch veld van de maan hield langer stand dan gedacht
Het voor de leefbaarheid van manen en planeten zo belangrijke magnetische veld ging tot wel 2,5 miljard jaar langer mee dan aangenomen.
Die conclusie trekken onderzoekers nadat ze maangesteente dat astronauten tijdens de Apollo 15-missie naar de aarde brachten, bestudeerden. Het gaat om een kleine, jonge steen die waarschijnlijk ontstond tijdens een meteorietinslag die zo’n 1 tot 2,5 miljard jaar geleden plaatsvond.
Elektronen We weten dat de maan in het verleden een magnetisch veld heeft gehad. En dat magnetisch veld laat zijn sporen na in vloeibare gesteenten die aan het magnetisch veld zijn blootgesteld. In die vloeibare gesteenten zitten namelijk elektronen wiens richting bepaald wordt door het magnetisch veld. Wanneer het vloeibare gesteente vervolgens afkoelt, getuigen de elektronen in het gesteente voor altijd van het magnetisch veld dat tijdens het ontstaan van het gesteente heer en meester was.
Apollo-15 Grote vraag was natuurlijk of het magnetisch veld van de maan nog een rol speelde in de tijd dat de maansteen die tijdens de Apollo 15-missie was gevonden, ontstond. Dat is nog niet zo heel gemakkelijk vast te stellen. Om de oorspronkelijke magnetisatie van de steen te achterhalen, moest deze in een ruimte met een gecontroleerde atmosfeer verhit worden. Iets wat nog niet eerder met succes was gedaan. Tot nu. Onderzoeker Sonia Tikoo slaagde erin om middels verhitting het magnetisch veld waar de steen tijdens zijn oorsprong aan is blootgesteld, te meten. En de resultaten zijn verrassend. Toen deze steen 1 tot 2,5 miljard jaar geleden ontstond, had het magnetisch veld van de maan nog een sterkte van zo’n 5 microtesla (ongeveer 10 procent van de kracht van het huidige aardmagnetisch veld).
Magnetisch veld ging langer mee Eerder onderzoek had aangetoond dat de maan in een ver verleden (meer dan 3,5 miljard jaar terug) een krachtig magnetisch veld had. Maar de ondergang van het magnetisch veld zou zo’n 3,5 miljard jaar geleden zijn ingezet, toen de intensiteit rap afnam. Dit onderzoek laat echter zien dat het magnetisch veld van de maan 1 tot 2,5 miljard jaar geleden nog tamelijk krachtig was en dat het magnetisch veld dus tot wel 2,5 miljard jaar langer meeging dan gedacht.
De kern van de maan De bevindingen hebben tal van implicaties. Zo kan het onze kijk op de kern van de maan veranderen. “We dachten dat kleine planetaire lichamen niet heel lang een magnetisch veld konden genereren, omdat ze kleine kernen hebben die snel afkoelen en al vroeg kristalliseren,” stelt Tikoo. De ideeën die we nu hebben over de samenstelling van de kern van de maan kunnen door dit onderzoek dan wel eens op losse schroeven komen te staan, aangezien de snelheid waarmee een kern kristalliseert afhankelijk is van diens samenstelling. “Het (de kern van de maan, red.) bestaat voornamelijk uit ijzer, maar er moet nog meer in zitten: zwavel, koolstof of een ander element.”
Daarnaast heeft het onderzoek ook implicaties voor de leefbaarheid van andere manen en planeten. Wanneer een hemellichaam zijn magnetisch veld kwijtraakt, kunnen ioniserende deeltjes van de zon het hemellichaam rap van zijn water ontdoen. En dat heeft weer gevolgen voor de leefbaarheid van zo’n planeet of maan. Zoiets overkwam bijvoorbeeld Mars dat veel water bezat, maar het kwijtraakte toen het magnetisch veld zo’n 4 miljard jaar geleden verdween. “Wanneer we kijken naar exoplaneten of de manen van exoplaneten die zich mogelijk in een leefbare zone bevinden, moeten we bij het beoordelen van de leefbaarheid ook rekening houden met het magnetisch veld,” vindt Tikoo. “De vraag is dan hoe groot planeten en manen moeten zijn om ze als potentieel leefbaar te kunnen bestempelen.”
Omdat de afstand tot 2012 TC4 in oktober slechts 44.000 kilometer is, hopen astronomen meer te weten te komen over het object. Wellicht lukt het om informatie te verzamelen over de samenstelling van de planetoïde.
Stel dat 2012 TC4 in de toekomst in botsing komt met de aarde, dan vormt dit gelukkig geen groot gevaar voor de mensheid. In 2013 verbrandde er een twintig meter grote planetoïde boven het Russische Tsjeljabinsk. Wetenschappers vermoeden dat 4000 tot 6000 kilo puin van de meteoriet het aardoppervlak haalde. Wanneer planetoïde 2012 TC4 ooit in de atmosfeer terechtkomt, dan is het effect ongeveer gelijk.
Cassini begint aan zijn laatste vijf baantjes rond Saturnus
Cassini begint aan zijn laatste vijf baantjes rond Saturnus
En tijdens die baantjes komt Cassini wel heel dicht bij de gasreus in de buurt: de sonde tikt zelfs Saturnus’ atmosfeer aan.
Tijdens de vijf laatste rondjes rond Saturnus zal Cassini herhaaldelijk dwars door de bovenste laag van Saturnus’ atmosfeer duiken. De eerste van de vijf duikvluchten staat gepland voor komende maandag.
Onontgonnen gebied En het wordt spannend. Want opnieuw begeeft Cassini zich in onontgonnen gebied. Maar NASA heeft er alle vertrouwen in dat het goed gaat komen. Onderzoekers verwachten dat de omstandigheden waar Cassini tijdens de duikvluchten mee te maken krijgt, vergelijkbaar zullen zijn met die tijdens scheervluchten langs Titan: een maan van Saturnus die eveneens gezegend is met een dikke atmosfeer. “Cassini’s scheervluchten langs Titan hebben ons voorbereid op deze snelle vluchten door het bovenste deel van Saturnus’ atmosfeer,” stelt onderzoeker Earl Maize. “Dankzij onze ervaringen denken we wel te weten hoe het ruimtevaartuig gaat reageren op de atmosferische dichtheden die onze modellen voorspellen.”
Dieper of hoger? Op 14 augustus zal Cassini het dichte wolkendek van Saturnus tot zo’n 1630 kilometer naderen. En dan zal ook moeten blijken of de atmosfeer van Saturnus werkelijk zo dicht is als onderzoekers denken. Mocht de atmosfeer een grotere dichtheid hebben, dan zullen de volgende duikvluchten niet meer zo diep gaan. Mocht de dichtheid alles meevallen, dan kan Cassini tijdens de laatste twee duikvluchten nog zo’n 200 kilometer dieper gaan en data verzamelen over de atmosfeer die zich nog dichter bij de toppen van Saturnus’ wolken bevindt.
Tijdens de duikvluchten zal Cassini Saturnus’ poollichten, temperatuur en de stormen op de polen van de gasreus bestuderen. Tevens zal de sonde met zijn radar proberen om diep in de atmosfeer te gluren. Het worden Cassini’s laatste verrichtingen. Op 15 september zal de sonde zich in de atmosfeer van Saturnus boren. Tijdens die laatste duik hopen onderzoekers dat Cassini nog enige data kan verzamelen en naar de aarde stuurt. Maar op een gegeven moment zal Cassini te maken krijgen met een atmosfeer die zo dicht is dat de sonde niet langer in staat is om de antenne op de aarde gericht te houden en op dat moment zal het contact met Cassini voorgoed verloren gaan. Enkele momenten later zal Cassini uiteenvallen.
Wetenschappers hebben de Marsrover Curiosity gebruikt om foto’s te maken van wolken op Mars. Deze foto’s zijn achter elkaar geplakt, waardoor je zelf ziet hoe wolken voorbij drijven boven het oppervlak van de rode planeet.
Mars heeft een elliptische baan om de zon. Dit betekent dat de afstand tot de zon varieert. Wanneer Mars het verst verwijderd is van de zon, dan ontstaan er wolken nabij de evenaar. Curiosity heeft vorige maand foto’s gemaakt van de wolken, terwijl Mars pas volgende maand het verste punt tot de zon bereikt. De wolken zijn dus al opvallend vroeg te zien.
“Waarschijnlijk ontstaan de wolken door waterijskristallen die op stofdeeltjes condenseren”, zegt wetenschapper John Moores van de universiteit van York. Hij is lid van het Curiosity-onderzoeksteam. “De slierten ontstaan doordat de ijskristallen vallen en verdampen. Curiosity heeft geen hoogtemeter om de hoogte van de wolken te bepalen, maar op aarde ontstaan deze vormen op hoog boven het aardoppervlak.” Daarmee wijst Moores op zogenoemde hoge wolken, die in Nederland en België zo’n vijf tot dertien kilometer boven het oppervlak ontstaan.
De beelden van Curiosity zijn flink bewerkt, want anders zouden de wolken amper te zien zijn. De foto’s zijn ’s ochtends vroeg gemaakt. Toen Curiosity in de middag opnieuw de lucht fotografeerde, waren de wolken verdwenen.
Ook de sterren rond het superzware gat in de Melkweg doen wat Einstein wil
Ook de sterren rond het superzware gat in de Melkweg doen wat Einstein wil
Voor het eerst is er een aanwijzing gevonden dat de sterren de subtiele effecten die Einstein voorspelde in zijn algemene relativiteitstheorie, vertonen.
In het hart van de Melkweg bevindt zich een superzwaar zwart gat. Het zwarte gat heeft een massa die vier miljoen keer groter is dan de massa van de zon. Rond het zwarte gat cirkelt een klein groepje sterren. Het sterke zwaartekrachtsveld van het zwarte gat is een perfecte omgeving om de algemene relativiteitstheorie waar Einstein meer dan honderd jaar geleden met op de proppen kwam, te toetsen.
DE VERY LARGE TELESCOPE
De onderzoekers bestudeerden de sterren rond het superzware zwarte gat met behulp van verschillende telescopen, waaronder ESO’s Very Large Telescope. Het onderzoek vereiste heel nauwkeurige bepalingen van de positie van de ster en daarbij kwam met name ESO’s VLT goed van pas. “In de loop van onze analyse realiseerden we ons dat om de relativistische effecten voor S2 te kunnen bepalen, je de volledige omloopbaan heel precies moet kennen,” vertelt onderzoeker Andreas Eckart.
Hoe dan? De onderzoekers bestudeerden de banen van de sterren die rond het zwarte gat cirkelen en vergeleken die vervolgens met voorspellingen die op basis van onder meer de algemene relativiteitstheorie zijn gedaan. Zo stuitten ze op een kleine verandering in de beweging van één van de sterren – aangeduid als S2 – die overeenkomt met de voorspellingen van de algemene relativiteitstheorie. Die verandering – die maar klein is – is het gevolg van relativistische effecten.
Bijzonder onderzoek Het onderzoek is bijzonder. Het is namelijk voor het eerst dat astronomen een meting van de sterkte van algemeen-relativistische effecten hebben verkregen voor sterren die om een superzwaar zwart gat draaien. En de onderzoekers willen daar duidelijk over zijn: dat is echt nog niet zo gemakkelijk. “Ik was verbaasd hoe goed we de methoden die we met gesimuleerde sterren hebben ontwikkeld konden toepassen op de nauwkeurige gegevens van de binnenste, snel bewegende sterren nabij het superzware zwarte gat,” vertelt onderzoeker Marzieh Parsa.
Een artistieke impressie van het effect van de algemene relativiteit op de omloopbaan van de ster S2 in het galactisch centrum. Je ziet dat de baan die de ster volgt ietsje afwijkt ten opzichte van de vorige omloop (15 jaar eerder). En dat is het gevolg van algemeen-relativistische effecten.
Afbeelding: ESO / M. Parsa / L. Calçada.
Geruststellend Onderzoeker Vladimir Karas noemt de resultaten “geruststellend”. “Het is heel geruststellend dat S2 relativistische effecten vertoont zoals die worden verwacht op basis van zijn nabijheid tot de extreme massaconcentratie in het centrum van de Melkweg. Dit opent nieuwe wegen voor theoretisch en experimenteel onderzoek in deze tak van wetenschap.”
Want wetenschappers zijn nog lang niet klaar met de sterren rond het superzware zwarte gat in het hart van onze Melkweg. Sterker nog: de spannendste waarnemingen moeten nog komen. Volgend jaar zal de ster S2 het zwarte gat zeer dicht naderen en onderzoekers gaan dat op de voet volgen en proberen om de omloopbaan nog nauwkeuriger dan op dit moment mogelijk is, te meten. En men verwacht dat de relativistische effecten dan nog duidelijker zichtbaar zullen zijn. Net als eventuele effecten die niet in het straatje van Einstein passen.
Vier aardachtige planeten ontdekt rond nabije ster Tau Ceti
Vier aardachtige planeten ontdekt rond nabije ster Tau Ceti
Twee van de planeten bevinden zich in de leefbare zone en kunnen in theorie dus vloeibaar water herbergen.
De vier planeten bevinden zich rond Tau Ceti. Deze zonachtige ster staat op zo’n 12 lichtjaar afstand en is vanaf het aardoppervlak met het blote oog te zien. Het bestaan van de vier planeten leiden onderzoekers af uit kleine schommelingen in de beweging van Tau Ceti. Deze schommelingen worden veroorzaakt door de zwaartekracht van de vier planeten.
Hierboven zie je Tau Ceti en de vier planeten afgebeeld. Daaronder zie je onze zon en de binnenste vier planeten.
Afbeelding: Fabo Feng.
Klein De vier planeten zijn rotsachtig en qua grootte vergelijkbaar met de aarde. De kleinste planeet heeft een massa die ongeveer 1,7 keer groter is dan de massa van de aarde. Volgens de onderzoekers behoren de pas ontdekte planeten tot de kleinste planeten die ooit rond nabijgelegen zonachtige sterren zijn ontdekt.
Leefbare zone Twee van de vier planeten kunnen tot de superaardes gerekend worden. Dit zijn rotsachtige planeten die groter zijn dan de aarde, maar kleiner dan Neptunus. De twee superaardes staan het verst van Tau Ceti af en bevinden zich in de leefbare zone. Dit is een denkbeeldige zone rond de ster die niet zo ver van de ster verwijderd is dat eventueel vloeibaar water op het oppervlak van de planeten bevriest, maar zich ook niet zo dicht bij de ster bevindt dat eventueel vloeibaar water op het oppervlak van de planeten verdampt. In andere woorden: op het oppervlak van de planeten kan in theorie vloeibaar water – een belangrijke vereiste voor het ontstaan en in standhouden van leven zoals wij dat kennen – te vinden zijn.
Of er op de twee superaardes leven te vinden is, is overigens twijfelachtig. Rond de ster bevindt zich namelijk eveneens een enorme puinschijf. Onderzoekers denken dan ook dat de leefbaarheid van de planeten flink wordt aangetast door een intensief bombardement van planetoïden en kometen.
Brein van vrouwen blijkt veel actiever te zijn dan dat van mannen
Brein van vrouwen blijkt veel actiever te zijn dan dat van mannen
Het onderzoek kan bijvoorbeeld helpen verklaren waarom vrouwen een grotere kans op Alzheimer hebben dan mannen.
Wetenschappers bestudeerden meer dan 46.000 SPECT-scans die in negen verschillende klinieken waren gemaakt. Met behulp van deze scans werd de bloedstroom in het brein van 119 gezonde mensen en 26.683 mensen met psychiatrische problemen (van ADHD tot stemmingswisselingen en van bipolaire stoornissen tot schizofrenie) inzichtelijk gemaakt. En die bloedstroom vertelt weer meer over de activiteit in specifieke delen van de hersenen. De scans waren gemaakt terwijl proefpersonen rustten of verschillende cognitieve taken uitvoerden.
Actiever brein Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de meeste hersengebieden van vrouwen significant actiever zijn dan die van mannen. Dat gold met name voor de prefrontale cortex – een deel van het brein dat van belang is voor de concentratie en impulsbeheersing – en het limbisch systeem – een deel van het brein dat betrokken is bij emoties en angst. De visuele en coördinerende hersengebieden waren bij de mannen weer meer actief.
Belangrijk onderzoek “Dit is een heel belangrijk onderzoek,” stelt onderzoeker DAniel G. Amen. De studie geeft meer inzicht in de verschillen die er zijn tussen de hersenen van mannen en de hersenen van vrouwen. “De kwantificeerbare verschillen die we tussen mannen en vrouwen geïdentificeerd hebben, zijn belangrijk voor het begrijpen van het op geslacht gebaseerde risico op hersenstoornissen zoals de ziekte van Alzheimer.” Onderzoek wijst bijvoorbeeld uit dat Alzheimer vaker voorkomt onder vrouwen. Bovendien blijken vrouwen vatbaarder te zijn voor depressies en angststoornissen, terwijl ADHD en antisociale gedragsstoornissen bijvoorbeeld weer veel vaker onder mannen voorkomen.
Verklaringen Het onderzoek kan bovendien een aantal verschillen tussen het gedrag van mannen en vrouwen helpen verklaren. Zo is op basis van de hersenactiviteit goed te verklaren waarom vrouwen empathischer zijn en meer zelfcontrole hebben. De verhoogde bloedstroom in het limbische systeem kan weer deels verklaren waarom vrouwen vatbaarder zijn voor angst, depressie, slapeloosheid en eetstoornissen, zo stellen de onderzoekers in het blad Journal of Alzheimer Disease. Het onderzoek opent de deur naar een beter begrip van de verschillen die er tussen het brein van mannen en vrouwen zijn. En kan uiteindelijk leiden tot behandelingen op maat, waarbij het brein van mannen net iets anders wordt aangepakt dan dat van vrouwen.
Government secrecy is running rampant in an age where more and more people are demanding transparency. Did you know that the U.S. Government classifies over 500 million pages of documents each year? Justification for the mass classification of information is (apparently) done for the sake of “national security,” but as we know:
“The dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts, far outweigh the dangers that are cited to justify them. There is a very grave danger that an announced need for an increased level of security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of censorship and concealment. That I do not tend to permit, so long as it’s in my control.” – JFK (source)
If a scholar wanted to research political, historical, scientific, or any other type of archival work, it would prove difficult and limiting seeing that most of their government’s activities are kept a secret. It is truly impossible to access the factual history of their country. The declassification of classified documents (a small portion) does not occur until decades after that information has been concealed, one great example of that is the UFO phenomenon, once believed to be a “conspiracy theory” by the masses before the substantial release of government documents showing otherwise. You can read more about that and access some of those documents here. Evidence is now pointing to the fact that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office is no different.
The office is supposed to legally protect the inventions of entrepreneurs and companies, some of whom have developed ground breaking technology. Unfortunately, that’s not the case as new documents obtained via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) reveal how the Patent Office has been using a secret system to withhold the approval of some applications.
This 50-page document was obtained by Kilpatrick Towsend & Stockton, LLP, who commonly represent major tech companies that include Apple, Google and Twitter (to name a few). You can view that entire document HERE. (1)
The program delaying patent applications is called the Sensitive Application Warning System (SWAS). Usually, when an application is submitted for a patent approval it requires a couple of examiners who work with the Patent office to go through their process of approval. This process usually takes approximately 1 to 2 years, but applications that are filed in SAWS must be approved from several people, and can be delayed for a number of years.
“There is no official channel to notify an applicant once their patent is placed in the system, and the Patent Office has denied requests to divulge what applications are on the SAWS list.” (source)
The documents also indicate areas of technology that might have a patent application placed in the SAWS program – these include smartphones, internet-enabling systems and more. This information is set to be published in an online journal called “Law360” to inform the public. Tech Columnist Alyssa Bereznak at Yahoo News states that most companies are fully aware of this.
I first came across this recent information in her article, which you can view here, but I felt compelled to add more information.
As you will see below, there is more information that has surfaced prior to these documents that suggest this type of “invention secrecy” goes far beyond these technologies.
One great example (out of many) of delayed patent applications comes from Dr. Gerald F. Ross. He filed a patent application for a new invention he had devised to defeat the jamming of electromagnetic transmissions at specified frequencies. It was not until June 17, 2014 (almost 37 years later) that this patent was granted. (2)
Invention Secrecy Is Still Going Strong
As great as it is to see new information pertaining to invention secrecy come to light, it’s also important to note (as reported by the Federation of American Scientists; see annotated bibliography) that there were over 5000 inventions that were under secrecy orders at the end of Fiscal Year 2014, which marked the highest number of secrecy orders in effect since 1994.(3)
This is all thanks to an act many people are unaware of. It’s called the “Invention Secrecy Act” and it was written up in 1951. Under this act, patent applications on new inventions can be subject to secrecy orders. These orders can restrict their publication if government agencies believe that their disclosure would be harmful to national security.(4)(5)
As mentioned earlier, “national security” has become an excuse and justification for the classification of a large amount of information on a variety of topics that the public is deliberately kept in the dark about. Apparently, many of these projects and inventions go far above and beyond presidential knowledge.
“It is ironic that the U.S. should be fighting monstrously expensive wars allegedly to bring democracy to those countries, when it itself can no longer claim to be called a democracy when trillions, and I mean thousands of billions of dollars, have been spent on projects which both congress and the commander in chief know nothing about.” (source) – Paul Hellyer, Former Canadian Defense Minister.
So what type of technology is under restriction under the Invention Secrecy Act? We don’t really know, but a previous list from 1971 was obtained by researcher Michael Ravnitzky. Most of the technology listed seems to be related to various military applications. You can view that list HERE. (6)
“The 1971 list indicates that patents for solar photovoltaic generators were subject to review and possible restriction if the photovoltaics were more than 20% efficient. Energy conversion systems were likewise subject to review and possible restriction if they offered conversion efficiencies in “excess of 70-80%.” (source)
Secrecy is No Secret
A couple of years before the Invention Secrecy Act of 1951, the National Security Act was created. As a result, a number of intelligence groups and executive bodies followed. None of these groups had any active congressional oversight. The United States has a history of government agencies existing in secret for years. The National Security Agency (NSA) was founded in 1952, its existence was hidden until the mid 1960’s. Even more secretive is the National Reconnaissance Office, which was founded in 1960 but remained completely secret for 30 years. Along with this secrecy is the information these agencies obtained, and continue to obtain until this day.
Special Access Programs are another great example of secrecy. From these we have unacknowledged and waived SAPs. These programs do not exist publicly, but they do indeed exist. They are better known as ‘deep black programs.’ A 1997 US Senate report described them as “so sensitive that they are exempt from standard reporting requirements to the Congress.” (7)(8)
We don’t really hear about black budget programs, or about people who have actually looked into them. However, the topic was discussed in 2010 by Washington Post journalists Dana Priest and William Arkin. Their investigation lasted approximately two years and concluded that America’s classified world has:
“Become so large, so unwieldy and so secretive that no one knows how much money it costs, how many people it employs, how many programs exist within it or exactly how many agencies do the same work.” (9)
Today, it seems to be evidently clear that secrecy has lead to what Dwight Eisenhower warned us about:
“In the council of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex. The potential disaster of the rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.” (source)
What Has All This Secrecy Led To?
The fact that so much information is concealed from the public domain has led to a kind of “breakaway civilization.” A term coined by Richard Dolan.
Someone, or some groups are “in the know.” This or these groups who have had access to information over many decades that the public hasn’t is no doubt living and perceiving the world in a different way from what the masses do. This has led to a world within worlds, a separate civilization apart of our own who have access to knowledge that we don’t. Who are they? What are they doing? Why are they doing it? What do they know?
You can read what Richard has to say about it here.
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“They published it, and they issued it in the summer of 1964, while I was there working in the war room. They titled it ‘An Assessment: An Evaluation of a Possible Military Threat to Allied Forces in Europe.’ . . . I was working in the war room one early morning . . . I’m sitting there nodding off, and this American Air Force full Colonel looked at me and he says, ‘Wake up.’ He went over to the vault . . . we kept classified documents in there . . . the Colonol went over to the vault and pulled out this document and through it on my desk and he says ‘Read that, that’ll wake you up.’ Ladies and gentlemen my life changed. I opened the first page and I couldn’t put it down. . . . I was shocked, I was stunned, by the implications of what I read in that study. . . . The study briefly, and I have to briefly lay this out, the study simply concluded this: They concluded that the planet Earth and the human race had been under some kind of survey or observation going on for hundreds if not thousands of years. They concluded in 1964 that there were at least four different groups coming here, observing us, surveilling us, analyzing us, closely watching us — what we were up to, what we were doing. They concluded that there did not appear to be a military threat involved because the repeated demonstrations of incredibly advanced technology demonstrated to us that if they had been hostile or malevolent, there was absolutely nothing we could do. If they were evil in their intent and they were hostile toward us, it would have been over a long time ago.”
Above is an excerpt of a lecture given by Robert (Bob) Dean, a retired US Army Command Sergeant Major who served for 28 years. In the lecture below, he provides a wealth of mind-altering information that corroborates with what many other whistleblowers have shared.
The lecture was given in July 2009 at the European Exopolitics Summit, which took place in Barcelona and was filmed by Project Camelot.
Dean is one of hundreds, if not thousands, of people with verified credentials coming forward to share what they have experienced during their military careers. With regards to the statement above, former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer has also mentioned the same report that Dean refers to, stating in an interview with RT news that “they decided to do an investigation, and they investigated for three years, and they decided that, with absolute certainty, that four species, four different species, at least, have been visiting this plant for thousands of years.” He also mentions “there’s been a lot more activity in the last few decades, since we invented the atomic bomb.” (source)
“Yes there have been crashed craft, and bodies recovered. . . . We are not alone in the universe, they have been coming here for a long time. I happen to be privileged enough to be in on the fact that we have been visited on this planet, and the UFO phenomenon is
The fact that hundreds of such people, many of whom hold high-ranking positions, have been speaking up about this topic for decades is fascinating. It’s pretty hard to believe that so many people with verified credentials would all lie about something that could so easily damage their careers.
Image of the infamous Phoenix Lights sighting.
Although there is no definitive way to prove to the ‘mainstream’ world that ET is real, we now have hundreds of thousands of documents from multiple countries putting to rest the question “Do UFOs exist?” We know they do from these documents, which show objects are tracked on radar, spotted by the pilots sent to intercept, and in some cases, simultaneously tracked on ground radar.
Information like this, particularly the fact that agencies are working to uncover the truth, shouldn’t really come as a surprise.
The CIA has a long history of putting resources toward studying this phenomenon, in fact, as well as investigating what other countries know about it as well.
Scientists of the PRC and the Soviet Far East have begun joint study of UFO’s. The first meeting of ufologists of the two countries has ended in the small maritime townlet of Dalnegorsk. The Soviet and Chinese specialists on anomalous phenomena have mapped out a program for investigating incidents that are already known and have also arranged to directly exchange video and photographic materials on new similar phenomena. Dalnegorsk has not been chosen by chance as the place for such acquaintance. In the last few years the number of cases of visual observation of UFO’s has noticeably increased there. In just the last four years alone no less than 10 UFO’s have been recorded. Specialists link their heightened interest in places here with the variety and wealth of useful minerals in Maritime Kray. Similar, incidents have also occurred in mountainous regions in China whose climatic conditions and natural landscape resemble our own.
In many cases, these testimony are given by the people involved in the incident, the military personnel mentioned in the actual files. For example, here is one dealing with an incident that took place over the Atlantic, and here is the witness testimony to match it from Graham Bethune, a retired Navy commander pilot. You can read more about that story here.
Ladies and gentlemen, my government, NASA, which many of us in the United States say stands for Never A Straight Answer, proceeded to erase 40 rolls of film of the Apollo Program — the flight to the Moon, the flight around the Moon, the landings on the Moon, the walking guys here and there. They erased, for Christ’s sake, 40 rolls of film of those events. Now we’re talking about several thousand individual frames that were taken that the so-called authorities determined that you did not have a right to see. Oh, they were ‘disruptive,’ ‘socially unacceptable,’ ‘politically unacceptable.’ I’ve become furious. I’m a retired Command Sergeant Major. I was never famous for having a lot of patience.
Listen to the full lecture below.
Who’s Really in Control of Space?
This thing has gotten so highly-classified . . . it is just impossible to get anything on it. I have no idea who controls the flow of need-to-know because, frankly, I was told in such an emphatic way that it was none of my business that I’ve never tried to make it to be my business since. I have been interested in this subject for a long time and I do know that whatever the Air Force has on the subject is going to remain highly classified.”
– Senator Barry Goldwater, Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee (source)
According to Herman Oberth, one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics, “flying saucers are real and . . . they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our Earth for centuries.”
If all of this information is true, it’s quite clear that “Never A Straight Answer” is indeed an appropriate name for NASA. I’ve mentioned it before and I’ll mention it again — the United States has a history of government agencies existing in secret for years. The National Security Agency (NSA) was founded in 1952, but its existence was hidden until the mid 1960s. The National Reconnaissance Office, too, was founded in 1960, but remained completely secret for 30 years.
In the interest of a short read, and given that there is a long lecture presented within this article, I’m going to link to some other related articles that go into more detail regarding the secret space program, as well as the moon landing and film/footage from the moon, which Dean refers to above.
NASA staat voor Never A Straight Answer. Sergeant-majoor is woest dat de overheid dit voor ons achterhoudt
NASA staat voor Never A Straight Answer. Sergeant-majoor is woest dat de overheid dit voor ons achterhoudt
In 1964 wisten we al dat er tenminste vier verschillende groepen waren die naar de aarde kwamen, ons in de gaten hielden en die ons bestudeerden.
Men concludeerde dat ze geen bedreiging vormden omdat ze meerdere keren hadden laten zien dat ze over ongelooflijk geavanceerde technologieën beschikten.
Als ze vijandig of kwaadaardig waren, zouden we weerloos zijn geweest. Als ze kwade bedoelingen hadden, zou het al lang over zijn geweest voor ons.
Dit zijn de woorden van de Amerikaan Robert (Bob) Dean, die 28 jaar in het leger diende en zich opwerkte tot sergeant-majoor eerste klas.
Tijdens een interview met zender RT sprak de Canadese oud-minister van Defensie Paul Hellyer ook over vier buitenaardse soorten die de aarde al duizenden jaren bezoeken.
In andere landen wordt eveneens op het hoogste niveau onderzoek gedaan naar dit fenomeen.
Op de website van de CIA staat een document dat laat zien hoe de spionagedienst informatie verzamelde over een samenwerkingsverband tussen de Sovjet-Unie en China.
Bijna 20 jaar geleden besloten wetenschappers uit beide landen gezamenlijk onderzoek te doen naar UFO’s.
Het gaat hier opnieuw om een document waaruit blijkt hoe serieus overheden in het verleden onderzoek hebben gedaan naar dit fenomeen.
Ufologen uit de twee landen kwamen bijeen in de stad Dalnegorsk. De specialisten wisselden videomateriaal en foto’s uit en werkten aan een programma om incidenten te onderzoeken.
Never A Straight Answer
“Dames en heren, mijn overheid, de NASA, wat volgens veel Amerikanen staat voor Never A Straight Answer (nooit een eerlijk antwoord), vernietigde 40 filmrolletjes van het Apolloprogramma – de vlucht naar de maan, de vlucht rond de maan, de maanlandingen en de maanwandelingen,” zei Dean.
“Ze vernietigden 40 filmrolletjes,” benadrukte hij. “Het gaat hier om duizenden frames waarvan de zogenaamde autoriteiten niet willen dat je ze ziet. Ik ben woest.”
Onderstaande presentatie verzorgde Dean in juli 2009 in Barcelona:
At 1.5m high and 85cm wide, the stela of Montoro is an imposing artefact. It is a stone slab covered in engravings thought to date from the Iron Age. The symbols themselves are all more or less recognisable as letters from extinct languages. But no one can read what the symbols say.
Archaeologist Leonardo García Sanjuán of the University of Seville began studying the stela after reading a short notice on the discovery published in the Montoro Archaeological Museum newsletter. He could see that there was something unusual about it, and went out to see it with his colleague Marta Díaz-Guardamino at Southampton University in the UK.
The slab had first been unearthed by a farmer ploughing his field in Montoro in southern Spain in 2002. He dumped it in a heap of other stones at the side of the field and thought nothing more about it. Two years later, a couple of rangers from the regional government's environmental department discovered it and noticed a series of strange markings covering one of its sides.
The rangers took it to the local museum, where it stayed more or less undisturbed for eight years until García Sanjuán and Díaz-Guardamino came to visit in 2012. They were puzzled to find that the letters – or graphemes – just didn't make any sense.
"It's rare to find something like this – the inscriptions on this stela cannot be read. There isn't a single script that makes sense of them," García Sanjuán told IBTimes UK.
The majority of the symbols were easily identifiable, as they had been taken from a range of different languages. On top of this, some were arranged in a circular or spiral pattern while others were carved in no discernible order.
"They seem to be an assorted collection of graphemes taken from different scripts and put together on this stone," García Sanjuán said.
Deciphering the indecipherable
So what does this strange collection of graphemes mean? To answer this, one of the key problems was first finding out how old they were. This could give the archaeologists some clue about the cultural context in which they were written.
Straight away, the team came up against difficulties. The farmer whose field the stone came from wasn't keen to let the archaeologists start digging up parts of his land to find other contemporary artefacts they could use to estimate the stela's age.
"He had only given us permission to excavate one small pit. We were not very lucky, and did not find any dating material there. So now we have to go by indirect evidence," García Sanjuán said.
The writing includes elements of a north-eastern palaeo-Hispanic script, Graeco-Iberian script, Proto-Sinaitic and Proto-Canaanite inscriptions, epigraphic South Arabian and Phoenician scripts. People from these cultures were all more or less active in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age. The engravings are estimated to have been made between the 9th and the end of the 3rd century BCE.
The stone is remarkable for these peculiar inscriptions, said John Koch, a Celtic language and literature researcher at the University of Wales who was not involved in the research.
"There are a lot of stelae but none of them are like this. You've got these Bronze Age ones that don't have writing on them, and that have pictures of warriors and weapons instead. Then centuries later you've got ones with writing on them - strings of signs in order, sometimes with a line below and above them as well," Koch said.
"But this is completely different. In terms of arrangement it looks like the old warrior stelae. But it has letters and some look like the later ones that have real writing on them."
This stone could fill an important gap in the cultural shift from the earlier pictoral carvings to the later written inscriptions. But even so, it's still not clear how the stela came to be made. Thinking about what was going on in Spain in this period led García Sanjuán and Díaz-Guardamino to two potential hypotheses about the its origin.
Illiterate locals or armies on the move?
The first hypothesis was that the stela was engraved in the early Iron Age, between the 9th and 5th centuries BCE.
"What we have here perhaps would be local people – who were very probably illiterate people – replicating on a stone the signs that they have seen of or been told about, which they probably did not understand," García Sanjuán said. "This would reflect very early contact between local people and people from outside Iberia – most likely Phoenicians coming from the eastern Mediterranean."
The other option is that the markings were made a few hundred years after this in the late Iron Age, between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE. This was a time when the Roman Empire was expanding. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians in the second Punic war, and imperialism began to spread across Iberia.
"If you think for a moment – in the 3rd century BCE, southern Spain was a very busy part of Europe. The Carthaginians had a very powerful kingdom," García Sanjuán said.
The family of the well-known Carthaginian general Hannibal – the Barcas – became established in Iberia around this time with grand expansionist strategies. They wanted to control Iberia and to exploit the iron, gold and silver they expected to find there. But in doing so they upset allies of Rome, and Rome declared war on the Carthaginians in retaliation.
"At that time there were very big armies with thousands of people marching across Iberia. The Romans and the Carthaginians had many foreigners in their armies who were paid to fight for them."
These people had very different ethnic backgrounds. The stone could in some sense be a mark of the diversity of some long-forgotten military unit, or it celebrates the diversity of people fighting together in an army.
The former hypothesis – that of the illiterate locals who were imitating writing – would be the much more exciting one if it is true, said Koch.
"These people could be trying to write something, but I don't think they succeeded. It looks more like they're getting the idea that these stelae should have letters on them. That's part of the status that writing brings," Koch said. "So this could be a way of competing culturally with literate people. They haven't quite found the way to adapt the writing to their languages yet, but they seem to be trying."
But at this stage, with no additional evidence to put the stela in context, these hypotheses remain somewhat speculative. Until more artefacts are found, its true origin can only be imagined. But one thing remains certain – the stela is an exceptional find, and it was made in exceptional circumstances.
"It's a very special stone. Somebody took the trouble of carving it with all these motifs and placing it somewhere. It must have been very important to the people who made it," García Sanjuán said.
The research is published in the journal Antiquity.
This article was first published on August 8, 2017
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