Wil je een videoclip bekijken en stoort het X-files-deuntje jou daarbij. Schakel het deuntje gewoon uit door in deze kolon, helemaal beneden op de 2 witte balkjes in het blauwe cirkeltje te klikken, tot een pijltje verschijnt. Veel kijk- en luisterplezier en bedankt voor jouw bezoek.
The purpose of this blog is the creation of an open, international, independent and free forum, where every UFO-researcher can publish the results of his/her research. The languagues, used for this blog, are Dutch, English and French.You can find the articles of a collegue by selecting his category. Each author stays resposable for the continue of his articles. As blogmaster I have the right to refuse an addition or an article, when it attacks other collegues or UFO-groupes.
Deze blog is opgedragen aan mijn overleden echtgenote Lucienne.
In 2012 verloor ze haar moedige strijd tegen kanker!
In 2011 startte ik deze blog, omdat ik niet mocht stoppen met mijn UFO-onderzoek.
UFO'S - MET HET LAATSTE NIEUWS OVER UFO'S BOVEN BELGIË EN IN ANDERE LANDEN...
UFO's in België en de rest van de wereld In België heb je vooral BUFON of het Belgisch UFO-Netwerk, dat zich met UFO's bezighoudt. BEZOEK DUS ZEKER VOOR ALLE OBJECTIEVE INFORMATIE ww.ufo.be.
Verder heb je ook het Belgisch-Ufo-meldpunt en Caelestia, die prachtig, doch ZEER kritisch werk leveren, ja soms zelfs héél sceptisch...
Voor Nederland kan je de mooie site www.ufowijzer.nl bezoeken van Paul Harmans. Een mooie site met veel informatie en artikels.
MUFON of het Mutual UFO Network Inc is een Amerikaanse UFO-vereniging met afdelingen in alle USA-staten en diverse landen.
MUFON's mission is the analytical and scientific investigation of the UFO- Phenomenon for the benefit of humanity...
Je kan ook hun site bekijken onder www.mufon.com.
Ze geven een maandelijks tijdschrift uit, namelijk The MUFON UFO-Journal.
Since 02/01/2013 is Pieter not only president (=voorzitter) of BUFON, but also National Director MUFON / Flanders and the Netherlands. We work together with the French MUFON Reseau MUFON/EUROP.
UK’s Ministry of Defense Releases Declassified ‘X Files’ to Reveal UFO,
UK’s Ministry of Defense Releases Declassified ‘X Files’ to Reveal UFO,
(Jasper Hamill) The Ministry of Defence has quietly released two final ‘X Files’ which detail the secrets of Britain’s quest to understand the phenomenon of UFOs.
Over the past 11 years, the MoD has declassified 60,000 pages exposing the secrets of a government investigation into unexplained sightings over the UK. In April, the last pair of files were published and made available to the public at the National Archives in Kew, where they must be viewed in person because they have not yet been digitised.
The latest files to be released do not contain a smoking gun which proves the existence of aliens, but they reveal fascinating aspects of investigators’ attempt to understand the phenomenon. They expose bitter arguments between a division that set the policy on UFOs and the Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) resulting in a total breakdown of communications. The team which set policy on UFOs was shown to be cautious and worried about what the public might think of a probe into unexplained aircraft spotted in the skies, whilst the DIS was more open-minded and called for further investigation into the mystery.
Nick Pope, a former MoD UFO investigator, has been studying the files and said they also demonstrate the UK’s influence on the US, where ‘bombshell revelations about the US Navy’s encounters with UFOs have moved this subject out of the fringe and into the mainstream’.
He told Metro: ‘These last two files are particularly fascinating and I can understand why sensitivities over their contents may have delayed their release. ‘They show how a sceptic versus believer debate was raging at the MoD, with a total breakdown in relations between the division that set the policy on UFOs and the Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS), who provided the lead division with scientific and technical intelligence. ‘This all happened a few years after I left, but the documents show the policy division – where I worked – being sceptical and overly-concerned about what the media and the public might think, while the DIS were more open-minded and wanted to conduct more in-depth research and investigation into the phenomenon.’
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Investigators even explored the health ‘consequences’ of close encounters. In the US, UFOs are now refered to as unexplained aerial phenomena (UAPs), a phrase the MoD coined in the 1990s. Pope added: ‘The recent release of the final British government UFO files couldn’t have come at a better time. Interest in UFOs is at an all-time high. ‘If people look at the MoD UFO files and the recent US revelations, one can easily see the UK influence.
‘The most obvious sign of this is the fact that the US military now use the term ‘UAP’ in place of ‘UFO’. We changed the terminology back in the Nineties, because ‘UFO’ was too loaded a term, with too much pop culture baggage. ‘Using ‘UAP’ enabled us to escape from the science fiction connotations of ‘UFO’ and reframe the internal MoD debate about the phenomenon in terms of the defence and national security issue most of us believed it to be. ‘This is exactly what the US military is doing now, and the US Navy in particular is trying to de-stigmatize the issue so that Navy pilots who encounter these mystery objects will make an official report, instead of staying silent, as most do at present.’
Stillness in the Storm Editor: Why did we post this?
Unidentified Flying Objects or UFOs have captivated people for decades. The policy of investigative bodies has been to cover up legitimate reports and encounters. Despite officialdom’s mandate to suppress the truth, reports, anecdotal accounts, and declassified documents continue to spark the curiosity of those who take these things seriously. The preceding information provides food for thought regarding the reality of UFOs and what they might mean. This information is beneficial to consider because it expands ones thinking via the exploration of mystery. A mind captivated by mystery has the power to make leaps and bounds in soul growth, due to the powerful urge to seek the truth resulting in changes to the substructures of being. Thus, a mystery is arguably the best activator for the individual, quickening the mind and stimulating the soul. This information also helps dispel the false reality pushed by the Deep State, which is critically important for the activation of the freedom and justice urges.
President Dwight Eisenhower held a secret meeting with extraterrestrial visitors during the early hours of February 21, 1954, while on a “vacation” to Palm Springs in California, according to UFO and alien conspiracy theorists.
He went “missing” after he was whisked away secretly to Edwards Air Force Base and was not seen until he appeared at a church service in Los Angeles the next Sunday morning.
The official explanation of his mysterious “disappearance” was that he had to undergo an emergency dental surgery.
The abrupt disappearance of the president was so unusual that it fueled speculation about an illness or death in the media. The speculation became so intense that the rumors had to be dispelled by the president’s press secretary, James Haggerty, who told incredulous reporters at a press conference that Eisenhower had damaged a tooth cap while eating fried chicken and had to undergo emergency surgery.
An artist’s representation of Grey aliens who allegedly signed a treaty with the Eisenhower administration
[Image via Shutterstock]
A local dentist was later presented to reporters who claimed he had treated Eisenhower.
But strange rumors began spreading following information leaked by well-placed sources. The rumors alleged that the local dentist was used to provide Eisenhower with a cover story while he rendezvoused secretly with the extraterrestrial visitors at the Edwards Air Force Base.
Significantly, there are no records at the Eisenhower Library — which reportedly has extensive records related to Eisenhower’s health — that he ever underwent dental surgery in February 1954, according to UFO researcher William Moore.
Eisenhower thus became the first American president to have direct contact with extraterrestrials, according to conspiracy theorists. The meeting took place at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California during the early hours of February 21 in 1954. It was the first in a series of meetings that culminated in the signing of a treaty between the U.S. government and an extraterrestrial race called the Greys.
The First Contact meeting, as it is termed in UFO conspiracy theory circles, involved some intrigue. Eisenhower’s secret First Contact meeting on February 21, 1954, is believed to have been with the Nordic aliens, also known as Pleiadian aliens, an advanced extraterrestrial race from the Pleiades star cluster with distinctive Nordic appearance, such as fair hair, blue eyes, and white skin.
The two sides were unable to reach an agreement on the night of the First Contact, and the Greys took advantage of the failure by offering more favorable terms. The offer by the Greys allegedly led to the first treaty between humans and an extraterrestrial race.
According to UFO conspiracy theorists, several pieces of circumstantial evidence add up to support claims that the Eisenhower administration held “First Contact” meetings with extraterrestrial beings. The first circumstantial evidence was the awkward manner in which Eisenhower “disappeared” during the night of February 20-21 in the midst of an unscheduled winter vacation in Palm Springs, California, and the clumsy efforts by officials to explain his disappearance.
One of the first eyewitness testimonies came from Gerald Light, a writer and leading member of the community dedicated to metaphysical research. A letter circulated widely in the UFO and alien conspiracy community, dated April 16, 1954, is alleged to have been written by Gerald Light to Meade Layne, Director of Borderland Sciences Research Foundation. In the letter (see copy here), Light allegedly claimed to have been one of a group of community leaders who was present at the First Contact meeting with extraterrestrials at Edwards Air Force Base.
The group of “community leaders” included Edwin Nourse, President’s Truman’s chief economic adviser, Cardinal James Francis MacIntyre, head of the Catholic Church in Los Angeles at the time, and 80-year-old Franklin Winthrop Allen, a former reporter with Hearst Newspaper Group.
Light claimed in the letter he allegedly wrote to Layne that he recently returned from Muroc Airfield (now Edward Air Force Base). The letter contains a single reference to “Etherians” (presumed to be the aliens), and it includes a comment about “five separate and distinct types of aircraft being studied and handled by our Air Force officials — with the assistance and permission of the Etherians!”
The aircraft are believed to be alien UFOs stored at the facility for reverse-engineering studies.
The letter gives a vivid description of the bewilderment, confusion, and panic among the officials present at the meeting. UFO conspiracy theorists claim that Light’s account reveals uncertainty about how to respond to the aliens and fears due to the Cold War that the aliens could turn to the Soviets if the Americans spurned them.
But it is claimed that Eisenhower finally decided to reject the proposals of the Nordic aliens he met at the First Contact meeting at the Edwards Air Force Base in February 1954, and his administration eventually signed a treaty with the Greys, who offered to transfer their technology exclusively to the United States.
Several whistle-blowers claimed to have seen documents signed at the meetings while others claimed they obtained information from inside sources. The different versions of what allegedly transpired at the First Contact meetings leaked by the whistle-blowers agree on certain major points but differ in specific details.
Grey aliens land in a flying saucer
[Image via Shutterstock]
One of the best-known whistle-blowers, William Cooper, a former Naval intelligence officer who allegedly had access to classified documents, claimed that the First Contact meeting at the Edward Air Force Base in February 1954 was the culmination of a series of events after astronomers discovered a fleet of huge UFOs approaching Earth in 1953. First mistaken for asteroids, they were later determined to be spaceships.
Alien radio signals were allegedly intercepted under Project Sigma just before the UFOs went into high orbit. Project Plato was launched to receive the aliens and hold talks.
But before the aliens approaching in a huge UFO fleet landed, a different alien race contacted the U.S government and warned against the first group of aliens. But talks with the first group failed after they demanded nuclear disarmament and warned that humanity was on a path to self-destruction. They proposed instead to help humans to develop along a peaceful path to spiritual fulfillment.
Because the primary interest of the U.S. government at the time was signing a treaty that gives access to advanced alien technology, the Eisenhower administration rejected the overtures from the first alien group — the Nordic aliens — during the First Contact meeting at the Edwards Air Base and agreed to sign a treaty with the second group — the Greys — during a subsequent meeting at the Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico in 1954.
Elements of the sketchy account given by Cooper were allegedly confirmed independently by other whistle-blowers, including Charles Suggs, a former retired U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant, who claimed that his father, a senior naval officer, had attended the First Contact meeting with the Nordic aliens in February 1954.
John Lear, another independent whistle-blower, was a former air force pilot and the son of William Lear, who built the Lear Jet. Lear also confirmed that two alien races had been involved in the First Contact meetings.
Robert Dean, a former intelligence officer, described Nordic aliens as humanoids with Nordic features, and the Greys as tall humanoids up to 9 feet tall with pale white skin, large eyes, large head, and spindly limbs.
Greys allegedly originated from a star in the constellation of Orion. Other reports claimed they came from a planet in the star system Zeta Reticuli.
Details of the agreement with the Greys leaked by whistle-blowers include non-interference in human affairs in exchange for accommodation on Earth under conditions of secrecy. In return, they would furnish the U.S. government with advanced technology to help the country to stay ahead of enemy nations. The Greys also agreed they would not approach any other nation to make a treaty.
The Greys were housed in an underground facility in Dulce where Phil Schneider claimed he encountered them while working as a geological engineer employed by a private company contracted to build underground bases for the Greys.
Schneider revealed that part of the treaty agreement allowed the Greys to abduct a very limited number of humans for medical research and experiments. But the Greys proved untrustworthy and violated the agreement on abductions.
Most reports of UFO sightings and stories of abductions involved Greys freely violating the treaty with the government, according to UFO conspiracy theorists.
In 1974, Stephen Hawking made one of his most famous predictions: that black holes eventually evaporate entirely.
According to Hawking's theory, black holes are not perfectly "black" but instead actually emit particles. This radiation, Hawking believed, could eventually siphon enough energy and mass away from black holes to make them disappear. The theory is widely assumed to be true but was once thought nearly impossible to prove.
For the first time, however, physicists have shown this elusive Hawking radiation — at least in a lab. Though Hawking radiation is too faint to be detected in space by our current instruments, physicists have now seen this radiation in a black hole analog created using sound waves and some of the coldest, strangest matter in the universe. [9 Ideas About Black Holes That Will Blow Your Mind]
Pairs of particles
Black holes exert such an incredibly powerful gravitational force that even a photon, which travels at the speed of light, could not escape. While the vacuum of space is generally thought of as empty, the uncertainty of quantum mechanics dictates that a vacuum is instead teeming with virtual particles that flit in and out of existence in matter-antimatter pairs. (Antimatter particles have the same mass as their matter counterparts, but opposite electrical charge.)
Normally, after a pair of virtual particles appears, they immediately annihilate each other. Next to a black hole, however, the extreme forces of gravity instead pull the particles apart, with one particle absorbed by the black hole as the other shoots off into space. The absorbed particle has negative energy, which reduces the black hole's energy and mass. Swallow enough of these virtual particles, and the black hole eventually evaporates. The escaping particle becomes known as Hawking radiation.
This radiation is weak enough that it's impossible right now for us to observe it in space, but physicists have thought up very creative ways to measure it in a lab.
A waterfall event horizon
Physicist Jeff Steinhauer and his colleagues at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa used an extremely cold gas called a Bose-Einstein condensate to model the event horizon of a black hole, the invisible boundary beyond which nothing can escape. In a flowing stream of this gas, they placed a cliff, creating a "waterfall" of gas; when the gas flowed over the waterfall, it turned enough potential energy into kinetic energy to flow faster than the speed of sound.
Instead of matter and antimatter particles, the researchers used pairs of phonons, or quantum sound waves, in the gas flow. The phonon on the slow side could travel against the flow of the gas, away from the waterfall, while the phonon on the fast side could not, trapped by the "black hole" of supersonic gas.
"It's like if you were trying to swim against a current that was going faster than you could swim," Steinhauer told Live Science. "You'd feel like you were going forward, but you were really going back. And that's analogous to a photon in a black hole trying to get out of the black hole but being pulled by gravity the wrong way."
Hawking predicted that the radiation of emitted particles would be in a continuous spectrum of wavelengths and energies. He also said that it could be described by a single temperature that was dependent only on the mass of the black hole. The recent experiment confirmed both of these predictions in the sonic black hole.
"These experiments are a tour de force," Renaud Parentani, a theoretical physicist at Laboratoire de Physique Théorique of Paris-Sud University, told Live Science. Parentani also studies analog black holes but from a theoretical angle; he was not involved in the new study. "It's a very precise experiment. From the experimental side, Jeff [Steinhauer] is really, at the moment, the world-leading expert of using cold atoms to probe black hole physics."
Parentani, however, emphasized that this study is "one step along a long process." In particular, this study did not show the phonon pairs being correlated on the quantum level, which is another important aspect of Hawking's predictions.
"The story will continue," said Parentani. "It is not at all the end."
The huge ocean sloshing beneath the ice shell of the Jupiter moon Europa may be intriguingly similar to the seas of Earth, a new study suggests.
Scientists have generally thought that sulfate salts dominate Europa's subsurface ocean, which harbors about twice as much water as all of Earth's seas put together. But the Hubble Space Telescope has detected the likely presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) on Europa's frigid surface, the study reports.
The NaCl — the same stuff that makes up plain old table salt — is probably coming from the ocean, study team members said. And that's pretty exciting, given that the saltiness of Earth's oceans comes primarily from NaCl.
"We do need to revisit our understanding of Europa's surface composition, as well as its internal geochemistry," lead author Samantha Trumbo, of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, told Space.com.
"If this sodium chloride is really reflective of the internal composition, then [Europa's ocean] might be more Earth-like than we used to think," she added.
NASA's Galileo spacecraft, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 through 2003, spotted some odd, yellowish patches on Europa's surface. Subsequently, laboratory experiments performed in simulated Europa surface conditions suggested that irradiated NaCl may be responsible for these "color centers." (Europa lies within Jupiter's powerful radiation belts, and the moon's surface gets bombarded as a result.)
So, Trumbo and her colleagues went looking for signs of NaCl on Europa. They used Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument over four observing runs, from May 2017 through August 2017.
STIS spotted an absorption line at 450 nanometers, which is characteristic of irradiated NaCl. But this signature wasn't spread all over Europa. Rather, the team found it only on the moon's leading hemisphere, the one that's constantly facing Jupiter. (Like Earth's own moon, Europa is tidally locked to its parent planet, always showing it the same face.)
In addition, the NaCl was concentrated in "chaos regions" — complex, disrupted and geologically young areas of the Europan surface where material may be welling up from the ocean below.
Europa's trailing hemisphere gets hammered by sulfur compounds spewed out by another one of Jupiter's many moons, the supervolcanic Io. But the leading hemisphere is shielded from this cosmic rain. So, the composition of the young, relatively pure leading-hemisphere chaos terrain "may best represent that of Europa’s endogenous material," Trumbo and her colleagues wrote in the study, which was published online today (June 12) in the journal Science Advances.
However, it's unclear if this is definitely the case, Trumbo stressed.
"We are confident that the sodium chloride is coming from the interior," she said. "But the extrapolation to 'the interior is chloride-dominated' is less certain."
For example, it's still possible that sulfate salts — such as magnesium sulfate, commonly known as Epsom salt — rule the Europan seas, with NaCl as a relatively bit player. Indeed, experiments on Earth suggest that oceans such as Europa's may start out sulfate-dominated; if you soak meteorites in water, sulfates leach out, Trumbo said.
The balance can tip toward NaCl over time, if certain geological processes prevail. For instance, extensive seafloor hydrothermal systems could do the trick. And Europa may well have such systems; they're widespread throughout Earth's oceans, after all, and also likely exist on the geyser-spewing Saturn moon Enceladus, another icy satellite with a subsurface sea.
People have reported seeing Transient Lunar Phenomena – unusual flashes and other lights on the moon – for at least 1,000 years. Yet they’re still mysterious. Now a scientist in Germany is using a new telescope to try to solve the mystery.
A “lunar flare” example of TLP – seen near the lunar terminator, or line between light and dark on the moon, on November 15, 1953, by Leon H. Stuart in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He caught the flash with an 8-inch telescope.
Image via Leon H. Stuart.
Even though it’s so close and has been visited by both robotic spacecraft and human astronauts, the moon can still be a mysterious place. There is a lot we still don’t know about our nearby neighbor, including what causes unusual flashes of light and other light phenomena on its surface. These brief light displays – also known as Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) – have been seen for centuries, but they’re still not entirely explained. Recently, a professor in Germany announced his new study to try to figure out, at last, what is creating these intriguing lunar phenomena.
Hakan Kayal is Professor of Space Technology at Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) in Bavaria, Germany. He wants to try to find the explanation(s) for these odd light phenomena. He and his team have built a new telescope in a private observatory in Spain. The new telescope started lunar observations in April 2019. It is in a rural area far from light pollution about 60 miles (100 km) north of Seville. As to why it is located in Spain, Kayal said:
There are simply better weather conditions for observing the moon than in Germany.
The telescope has two cameras that observe the moon, remote-controlled from the JMU campus in Germany. If a flash or other light source is detected, the cameras will trigger other actions from the telescope, but only if both cameras make the detection. Photos and video are automatically taken and recorded, and an email is sent to Kayal and his team.
A closer view of the “lunar flare” TLP seen by Leon H. Stuart in 1953.
Image via Leon H. Stuart.
The moon telescope at the observatory in Spain.
Image via Hakan Kayal/Universität Würzburg.
The software being used at Kayal and his team’s telescope is still being refined. Eventually, it’ll incorporate artificial intelligence – estimated to take another year to complete – so that then system will gradually learn to distinguish a moon flash from technical faults in the telescope or from objects such as birds and airplanes passing in front of the cameras. And what about those SpaceX Starlink satellites? They may also have the potential to create headaches for Kayal’s team. Reducing false alarms is a key objective for Kayal. He would later like to use the same kind of cameras on a satellite orbiting Earth, where there is no interference from Earth’s atmosphere. Kayal said:
We will then be rid of the disturbances caused by the atmosphere.
When a flash or other luminous phenomenon is detected, those results can then be compared to those from other telescopes used by the European Space Agency. According to Kayal:
If the same thing was seen there, the event can be considered confirmed.
Unconfirmed sightings of Transient Lunar Phenomena have been reported for centuries. One of the earliest recorded sightings took place on June 18, 1178, when five or more monks from Canterbury reported an “upheaval” on the moon shortly after sunset.
There was a bright new moon, and as usual in that phase its horns were tilted toward the east; and suddenly the upper horn split in two. From the midpoint of this division a flaming torch sprang up, spewing out, over a considerable distance, fire, hot coals, and sparks. Meanwhile the body of the moon which was below writhed, as it were, in anxiety, and, to put it in the words of those who reported it to me and saw it with their own eyes, the moon throbbed like a wounded snake. Afterwards it resumed its proper state. This phenomenon was repeated a dozen times or more, the flame assuming various twisting shapes at random and then returning to normal. Then after these transformations the moon from horn to horn, that is along its whole length, took on a blackish appearance.
Along with flashes, TLP have been reported as gaseous mists, reddish, green, blue or violet colorations, other brightening and even darkenings. There are currently two comprehensive catalogs, one of which has 2,254 events going back to the sixth century. At least one-third of those were seen in the Aristarchus plateau region.
What are the possible explanations for TLP? One problem with finding explanations is that most reports are made by only one observer, or from a single location on Earth, making verification difficult.
That said, current theories include outgassing, impact events, electrostatic phenomena, and unfavorable observation conditions in Earth’s atmosphere. At least some of them are likely caused by gases escaping the surface during moonquakes, according to Kayal:
Seismic activities were also observed on the moon. When the surface moves, gases that reflect sunlight could escape from the interior of the moon. This would explain the luminous phenomena, some of which last for hours.
Plus, we know some flashes are likely caused by meteorite impacts, which still occur quite often on the moon. One such likely event was seen on the night of January 20-21, 2019, when a meteorite hit the moon’s surfaceduring a total lunar eclipse. It was caught in photos and on video as well as being seen by people just watching the eclipse. It was the first known instance of such a flash occurring during an eclipse.
In the 1960s, NASA ran its own investigation of TLP, called Project Moon-Blink. The background was described as follows:
There have been some puzzling reports over the years. Before 1843 astronomers listed Linne as a normal but steep-walled crater about five miles in diameter. In 1866 Schmidt, a famed astronomer, reported that Linne was not a crater at all but looked more like a whitish cloud. Later observers disagreed with both descriptions, saying it was a low mound about four miles across, with a deep crater one mile in diameter in its top. Much later – in 1961 – Patrick Moore, one of the foremost … lunar astronomers, was astonished that Linne appeared to be a normal crater about three miles in diameter. Moore examined it with two telescopes then called another astronomer. He examined it with a third instrument and reported a similar inexplicable appearance. The following night was cloudy, but the next night Linne appeared as Moore had always seen it, a gently rounded dome with a small crater on top. Moore attributed the changes to unusual lighting effects. During the [1950s], several incontrovertible observations have been reported of unusual color activity on or just above the lunar surface. These may be divided into two categories: those events localized to a few square miles of lunar area and those covering a significant portion of the lunar surface. Insufficient evidence exists at present to determine whether these two types of events are similar or dissimilar in nature …
During NASA’s Clementine mission to the moon in 1994, several events were reported, four of which were photographed. But later analysis showed no discernible differences at the sites where the events were seen.
The Lunascan Project in the 1990s and 2000s also cataloged TLP sightings, which can be read about in the website archives.
While this mystery is yet to be fully solved, it seems apparent that there is likely more than one cause of TLP. Meteorite impacts, as have been observed are one, but they don’t explain all the reported sightings. Other causes may point to residual geologic activity on the moon, even though it has long been thought of as a dead world. It will be very interesting to see what scientists like Kayal find in the near future.
Haykan Kayal standing next to the moon telescope.
Image via Tobias Greiner/Universität Würzburg.
Bottom line:Transient Lunar Phenomena have intrigued astronomers for centuries. Thanks to scientists like Haykan Kayal, we might now be closer to finding out just what causes these odd light flashes on our nearest celestial neighbor.
Earth is often struck by solar eruptions, but they tend to have little impact other than beautiful auroras seen around the planet's poles.
But if these bursts of energetic particles were to become powerful enough, they could devastate our planet, wipe out electricity and even destroy the atmosphere.
That's the warning from a group of astronomers that recently discovered our sun is capable of producing the kind of 'superflares' seen on other stars.
Earth is often struck by solar eruptions with minimal impact, but if these bursts of energetic particles were powerful enough, they could devastate our planet. That's the stark warning from a group of astronomers that recently discovered our sun is capable of producing the kind of 'superflares' seen on other stars
Although the researchers said the chances of it happening is low, they added it's 'not impossible', and one described the findings as 'frightening.'
Solar flares occur when large magnetic fields on the surface of the sun collapse. When that happens, huge amounts of magnetic energy are released.
When the sun pours out gigantic amounts of hot plasma during large solar eruptions, it can cause consequences on Earth. In particular, it can affect satellites and communication equipment.
HAS OUR SUN EVER PRODUCED A SUPERFLARE?
Evidence from geological archives has shown the sun might have produced a small superflare in AD 775.
Here, tree rings show that anomalously large amounts of the radioactive isotope 14C were formed in the Earth's atmosphere.
14C is formed when cosmic-ray particles from our galaxy, the Milky Way, or especially energetic protons from the sun, formed in connection with large solar eruptions, enter the Earth's atmosphere.
The studies from the Guo Shou Jing telescope support the notion that the event in AD 775 was indeed a small superflare.
But our sun's solar eruptions are nothing compared to the eruption we see on other stars - the so-called 'superflares'.
Superflares have been a mystery since the Kepler mission discovered them in larger numbers four years ago, and astronomers have questioned whether they could be produced by our sun ever since.
They are typically considered solar eruptions between 10 and 100 times larger that the largest solar eruption observed during the space age.
An international research team led by Christoffer Karoff from Aarhus University, Denmark used observations of magnetic fields on the surface of almost 100,000 stars to answer this questions.
The team used a spectrum for every star of those available for this analysis.
A spectrum shows the colours, or wavelengths, of the light from the stars.
Here, certain short ultraviolet wavelengths can be used to measure the magnetic fields around the stars.
These observations were made with the new Guo Shou Jing telescope in China.
'The magnetic fields on the surface of stars with superflares are generally stronger than the magnetic fields on the surface of the sun,' explained Karoff.
An international research team led by Christoffer Karoff from Aarhus University, Denmark used observations of magnetic fields on the surface of almost 100,000 stars. These observations were made with the new Guo Shou Jing telescope in China (pictured)
The magnetic fields on the surface of stars with superflares were generally stronger than the magnetic fields on the surface of the sun. The range of stars with superflares is shown in red. Stars with the highest energies are in green, and the blue shaded region marks the sun's energy between solar cycle minima and maxima
SOLAR ERUPTIONS AND EARTH
The sun is capable of producing monstrous eruptions that can break down radio communication and power supplies here on Earth.
The largest observed eruption took place in September 1859, where gigantic amounts of hot plasma from our neighboring star struck the Earth.
On 1 September 1859, astronomers observed how one of the dark spots on the surface of the sun suddenly lit up and shone brilliantly over the solar surface.
This phenomenon had never been observed before and nobody knew what was to come. On the morning of September 2, the first particles from, what we now know was an enormous eruption on the sun, reached the Earth.
The 1859 solar storm is also known as the 'Carrington Event'.
Auroras associated with this event could be seen as far south as Cuba and Hawaii, telegraph system worldwide went haywire, and ice core records from Greenland indicate that the Earth's protective ozone layer was damaged by the energetic particles from the solar storm.
'This is exactly what we would expect, if superflares are formed in the same way as solar flares.'
This suggests that the magnetic field of our sun is too weak to produce such superflares, otherwise we would have witnessed them.
However, out of all the stars with superflares analysed, around 10 per cent had a magnetic field with a strength similar to or weaker than the sun's magnetic field.
Therefore, even though it is unlikely, it is not impossible that the sun could produce a superflare, the researchers said.
'We certainly did not expect to find superflare stars with magnetic fields as week as the magnetic fields on the sun,' the continued.
'This opens the possibility that the sun could generate a superflare - a very frightening thought' added Karoff.
If an eruption of this size was to strike the Earth today, it would have devastating consequences.
Not just for all electronic equipment on Earth, but also for our atmosphere and thus our planet's ability to support life.
Plus, evidence from geological archives has shown the sun might have produced a small superflare in 775 AD.
'One of the strengths of our study is that we can show how astronomical observations of superflares agree with Earth-based studies of radioactive isotopes in tree rings.' explained Karoff.
In this way, the observations from the Guo Shou Jing telescope can be used to evaluate how often a star with a magnetic field similar to the sun would experience a superflare.
Around 10% of the stars analysed had a magnetic field with a strength similar to or weaker than our sun's. Therefore, even though it is unlikely, it is not impossible the sun could produce a superflare. Statistically speaking, it should experience a small superflare every millennium. Graph shows flare frequency
The study shows, for example, that the sun, statistically speaking, should experience a small superflare every millennium.
This is in agreement with idea that the event in 775 AD and a similar event in 993 AD were indeed caused by small superflares on the sun.
HOT MESS Scientists have found superflares erupting from older, sunlike stars, not just from young stars (one illustrated with an exoplanet).
NASA, ESA AND D. PLAYER/STSC
ST. LOUIS — It isn’t only young stars that spit high-energy superflares. Older stars, such as the sun, can also send out bursts of energy that could be powerful enough to strip away planetary atmospheres in close orbit, researchers report.
Such superflares can be seen from hundreds of light-years away. Astrophysicists had assumed that only young stars had these outbursts. But a team of researchers has documented superflares erupting from middle-aged stars, each with a similar temperature and radius to the sun. These massive flares can be at least 100 to 1,000 times as powerful as the average solar flares that Earth normally experiences.
But flares from these older stars are rare. “We have found superflares erupting once every 2,000 to 3,000 years in sunlike stars,” says study coauthor Yuta Notsu of the University of Colorado Boulder, who presented the findings June 10 at the American Astronomical Society meeting. By contrast, superflares from younger stars erupt much more frequently, about once every few days.
Using data from the Kepler space telescope, Notsu’s team looked at about 90,000 stars and found 300 that together produced more than 1,000 superflares over 500 days of observation. Adding data from the Gaia space telescope, the team whittled the group down to just 113 stars with a sunlike size and temperature.
With further analysis, the researchers narrowed their field to include only stars with slow rotations, an indication of older age. By comparing superflare frequencies with star age, the scientists predict that the roughly 4.6-billion-year-old sun might experience a superflare 100 times as strong as normal flares in the next 1,000 years. The team also reported the findings May 3 in the Astrophysical Journal.
Such a relatively small superflare would still likely be extremely damaging to society on Earth, knocking out power grids, communication satellites and other electronic systems. Even smaller but still powerful events could occur more frequently and also cause damage, the researchers say.
The closest the Earth may have come to a superflare in the recent past was the 1859 solar flare known as the Carrington Event, which hobbled telegraph stations worldwide. Historical data from tree rings and ice cores suggest that two small superflares erupted and hit Earth in roughly A.D. 774 and A.D. 993.
Astrophysicist Bradley Schaefer of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge says that the research shows that “superflares can lie on a continuum with our solar features.” Still, a superflare from the sun “would be very rare ... and it would be low end.”
Trump says he was briefed on Navy sightings of UFOs
President Donald Trump said he had been briefed on UFO sightings, but didn't particularly believe them. | Sarah Silbiger/Bloomberg via Getty Images
Trump says he was briefed on Navy sightings of UFOs
President Donald Trump said he'd been briefed on Navy pilots reporting increased sightings of unidentified flying objects, adding that he doesn't particularly believe in UFOs.
Speaking with ABC News' George Stephanopoulos in an interview segment released Saturday, Trump raised his eyebrows and grinned incredulously when asked what he made of the reports.
"I want them to think whatever they think," Trump said of the Navy pilots. "I did have one very brief meeting on it. But people are saying they’re seeing UFOs. Do I believe it? Not particularly."
The Navy recently drafted new guidelines for how to report encounters with "unidentified aircraft" in response to reports of sophisticated vessels intruding on Navy strike groups, POLITICO reported in April. Pilots reported seeing objects flying at 30,000 feet with no exhaust plumes and at supersonic speeds, according to The New York Times.
The Pentagon quietly set up a program to research UFOs more than 10 years ago at the direction of Congress. The Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program was largely pushed by former Sen. Harry Reid (D-Nev.) and operated with extremely limited public exposure, though it was not a classified program.
Trump did not seem as eager to act on the reports, telling Stephanopoulos, "We’re going to see."
When asked if he would know of any extraterrestrial life, Trump demurred: "I think our great pilots would know. And some of them see things a little bit different from the past. ... We’re watching, and you’ll be the first to know."
The transcript of a conversation between a US Navy Vice Admiral and a leading scientist discussing a failed attempt to gain access to a highly classified program involving a crashed extraterrestrial craft has been recently released online. The conversation took place on October 16, 2002, and involved the retired Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Vice Admiral Thomas Wilson, speaking with Dr. Eric W. Davis, a scientist working on the feasibility of exotic propulsion systems with EarthTech International, an advanced technology think tank established in Austin, Texas.
In the 15 page document comprising the transcript, summary notes and an accompanying letter, Davis describes what Wilson told him about an April 10, 1997 “briefing” where he (Wilson) received information from former Apollo astronaut Dr. Edgar Mitchell and Dr. Steven Greer (founder of the Disclosure Project) about a classified UFO program that they had codeword information about. At the time, Wilson was a Rear Admiral (upper class); Deputy Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency; and Vice Director for Intelligence (VJ2), for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a position he held from November 1994 to September 1997.
When Wilson inquired into the program’s existence from a regulatory body created for Special Access Programs, he learned it involved a corporate Research and Development effort involving a retrieved extraterrestrial craft but was denied access by three corporate officials working for a major US aerospace contractor.
The 1997 briefing was first publicly discussed by Greer and his associate Shari Adamiak only a month after it occurred and was corroborated by Mitchell over a decade later. In a May 1997 interview with Art Bell on Coast to Coast AM Greer said:
Joint Chiefs of staff level fellow that I briefed while I was in Washington about a month ago … After he looked at all this and heard the witness, he turned to us and said: ‘Well I have no doubt this is true but I am horrified that I hadn’t known about it’…Because of his position. And very, very senior … I can’t say who it was but a very, very senior position…And then they begin to come to grips with well: ‘Who the hell does know about it, what is going on here?’ And then they become frighten[ed].
Years later, Greer released a National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) document containing code words and locations that sparked Wilson’s failed attempt to gain access to the classified UFO program. In a workshop Greer explained the NRO document’s contents and what happened when Wilson investigated it:
“It’s the National Reconnaissance Office document. …..The reason it’s important is not so much for its content… ….. Take note of the distribution list, please. ….. …….’Blue Fire’, which is a code name, 1991, Commander’s Net, Royal Op’s, Cosmic Op’s…so, cosmic clearance…you’ve heard of this? It’s not a myth. It’s real. Maj Op’s, MAJI…It’s MAJIC Op’s. It goes through a whole bunch of them…Nellis Division, all these code numbers and you get down to some really interesting things. … this secret document went to the admiral [Admiral Tom Wilson] prior to our meeting, and he actually recognized one of these entities and made an inquiry, and it was being run by a contractor. ….. And the contractor…one of these corporate contractors…when he called them up, he said, ‘I’m Admiral Tom Wilson…at that time he was Head of Intelligence for the Joint Chiefs of Staff… I want to be read into this project.’ Guess what happened? They said, ‘Sir, you don’t have a need to know.’ This is the guy who’s supposed to give the intelligence briefings for the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States. He was told, ‘You don’t have a need to know’… and Admiral Wilson said, ‘Goddamn it, if I don’t have a need to know, who does?’ They said, ‘Sir, we cannot discuss this with you further’ and they hung up and blocked his line. This all happened before the stand-up meeting I did for [him with] Edgar Mitchell…6th man to walk on the moon…myself, my military adviser, and a few other people met with the Admiral in what’s called a ‘stand-up’ briefing. I was doing the presenting. It was supposed to be 45 minutes.
In 2007 Mitchell began publicly confirming that the briefing had indeed taken place, corroborating what Greer had revealed a decade earlier.
A detailed chronology of articles and interviews referring to the 1997 Wilson briefing is provided by Croatian UFO researcher Giuliano Marinkovic.
The transcript of the 2002 conversation between Wilson and Davis was first discussed in radio interviews by UFO researchers Grant Cameron and Richard Dolan in December 2018. Cameron said he was given the 15 page document, which he shared with Michael W. Hall a former lawyer and Superior Court judge. Hall has given several interviews in March 2019 discussing the document’s origins and authenticity.
Cameron, Dolan, and Hall believe the document is authentic, and its consistency with what Greer and Mitchell had earlier revealed does point to this. I contacted Dr. Eric Davis to comment on the document’s authenticity, and he replied saying: “I have no comment on this.” If the document was a hoax, I see no reason why Dr. Davis would not have said so.
All this leads me to conclude that the document is an authentic transcript of what Dr. Davis and Admiral Wilson discussed back in 2002 about the April 1997 meeting and Wilson’s subsequent investigation. The transcript was very recently released online and are available for public viewing.
The transcript, summary notes, and accompanying letter provide compelling documentary support that the 1997 briefing had occurred, exactly as Greer and Mitchell had reported up to two decades earlier. Importantly, the notes substantiate one of Greer’s major claims that he was regularly briefing senior officials in the Clinton Administration about the UFO coverup – something many UFO researchers had previously dismissed or ridiculed.
The transcript provides a fascinating insight into how a US Navy admiral who was Vice Director for Intelligence (VJ2), for the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the time, was denied access by corporate officials to a classified UFO program, which he firmly believed fell under his field of responsibility.
The briefing and unsuccessful investigation did not negatively impact Wilson’s career. Two years later, in May 1999, Wilson was promoted to Vice Admiral and became the 13th Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), a position he served in until July 2002.
Three months after his retirement, Wilson met with Davis to discuss the 1997 meeting and its aftermath. In the transcript, we learn about Wilson’s perspective on what had happened.
Presumably, the recording and transcription of Wilson and Davis’ conversation were intended for a small audience at EarthTech International, founded by Dr. Hal Puthoff, which was studying exotic propulsion systems, and releasing feasibility studies of them to interested scientists and journals.
In 2009, Davis and EarthTech included some of these exotic propulsion feasibility studies as Defense Intelligence Reference Documents, two of which were first leaked online in December 2017 by Corey Goode who says a confidential DIA source gave him them.
In the transcript, Davis (EWD) describes how Wilson (TW) began by confirming that the April 1997 meeting did take place and involved Greer, Mitchell, and US Naval Reserve Commander Willard H. Miller, who was Greer’s top military advisor.
Miller played a critical role in the various “UFO briefings” Greer gave senior officials and politicians during the Clinton administration:
TW: Confirmed Greer/Miller/Mitchell gave talk in Pentagon Conference room. Adm Mike Crawford, Gen. Pat Hughes (Hughes his boss) were present (others too.) Date April “97. (Ed Mitchell said 4/9/947.) After group broke up, Miller/Wilson talked (privately) 2 hours on UFOs, MJ-12, Roswell, crashed UFOs/alien bodies, etc. TW intrigued – knew about intelligence on US mil/intel UFO close encounters – and foreign gov’t encounters. Seen records. Told Miller. [Transcript/Summary p. 1]
Wilson was here acknowledging that the serving Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Lt. General Pat Hughes, also sat in on the meeting. After the meeting broke up, Miller and Wilson continued to discuss issues that had been raised:
TW: Yes, Miller asked the question on MJ-12/UFO cabal – crashed UFO. Confirmed he called Miller ca. late June ’97 and told that he/Miller was right – there is such an organization in existence. [Transcript/Summary p. 1]
Wilson was here acknowledging that after being informed about the existence of the classified UFO program by Greer and Mitchell in April 1997, he had inquired into the program’s existence, and discovered that MJ-12 was real and that there indeed was a UFO cabal running classified operations involving crashed UFOs. This accounted for why Admiral Wilson later failed to gain access to the crashed UFO program, as explained later in Davis’ summary notes.
Miller subsequently told Greer and Mitchell about what Wilson had revealed to him in June 1997, after he [Wilson] was denied access to the classified program that Greer and Mitchell had told him about earlier in April. Admiral Wilson [TW] was furious that Miller had told Greer and Mitchel about Wilson’s failure to access it, as Davis’ [EWD] transcript make clear:
TW: Very furious – very angry about Miller (facial expression tense, angry voice)
Violated personal and professional trust – especially among intelligence colleagues/Navy officers
There’s Navy camaraderie among officers – brotherhood
Violated that and confidentiality
TW: Miller told Greer their conversation
Who knows whom else he and Greer told. (EWD note – Miller told Ed Mitchell who only told me in 1999)
The significance of all this is that Admiral Wilson did not want the details of what he learned during his investigation of the classified program that Greer and Mitchell had first brought to his attention becoming public. By telling Greer, Commander Miller had in Wilson’s opinion broken trust shared between naval intelligence officers to keep the information confidential. That is why he was so angry.
However, if it were not for Miller taking the risk he had, Greer and the world would probably not have learned the truth of what happened, and how corporate contractors had sidelined Wilson and US naval intelligence over a classified reverse engineering program of a crashed extraterrestrial vehicle.
In part two, I will review what Admiral Wilson told Dr. Davis about the classified UFO crash retrieval program and its significance.
Did The Red Rain Of Sri Lanka Prove “Alien Life” Does Exist?
Did The Red Rain Of Sri Lanka Prove “Alien Life” Does Exist?
Written by:Marcus LowthEstimated Reading Time:6minutes
You might think that should anyone ever find proof of alien life, they would surely shout it from the rooftops as perhaps the most significant discovery in human history. However, it might be that proof of alien “life” has already been found. Until NASA gives it their seal of approval, however, it seems that the official stance on the matter remains unchanged – that Earth is the only known planet to support life.
There have however been several instances that fully support the fact that life does exist beyond the boundaries of our planet. What’s more these instances have been fully tested and backed up with scientific data. We are not talking about fringe scientists operating on the outskirts of discovery here – these are mainstream, academically accepted and serious theorists who have made these claims.
Blood red rain.
On each occasion though, their work and indeed their results, have been brushed aside by NASA with little or no reasonable explanation. Perhaps it is worth bearing in mind the US policy from as far back as the Roswell Incident, that any discovery of any intelligent life that was not indigenous to Earth should be kept top secret. The general population was to be kept ignorant of any findings for fear they may panic and society itself would descend into chaos.
Whether you subscribe to that outlook or not, it was the one that was employed at the time and most likely is still in place to this very day. This begs the question if life were to be discovered to exist outside of our planet, would we be told about it?
The Blood Red Rain of 2012, Sri Lanka
On November 17th, 2012 much of Sri Lanka was lashed by torrential rain. The weather itself was normal for the time of the year. What made the residents of the area unnerved was the fact that the downpour was blood red in color.
The mysterious rain continued for almost two months, leaving puddles of red and an increasingly uneasy population in its wake. So much so that the government was forced to intervene by sending scientists to investigate, and making numerous television statements in an effort to calm people.
The video below is a short news clip regarding the red rain – there are no subtitles, but it gives you a feel of the atmosphere surrounding the events.
Many local residents believed that the rain contained blood and was some kind of ominous warning. When samples of the rain were studied, however, they didn’t contain blood. They contained something far more remarkable – something that appeared to be unknown to modern science.
Professor Godfrey Lewis studied the cells and came to the conclusion that they were, for all intents and purposes, alive, and what’s more, they were replicating themselves – reproducing. He elaborated that this “is a new type of life form” and that it was an “organism that has come from space!”
Further study by Professor Nalin De Silva confirmed this, his research going on to state that this replication was happening despite the cells having no DNA structure – at least none known to modern science.
Theories And Light In The Sky
A multitude of theories was put forward, ranging from the scientific to the superstitious. In the weeks leading up to the start of the red rain, there were strange lights seen in the night sky above. Perhaps the red rain was caused by this UFO and was some kind of alien invasion?
Check out the short news clip of these below.
The case eventually came to the attention of Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe, an experienced astrobiologist, university lecturer in Great Britain, and special advisor to the European Space Agency. He was also a leading researcher into the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the universe.
When Chandra went to Sri Lanka to investigate further, he spoke to an eye witness of the strange lights, farmer, Takiri Bandi. He described seeing a bright light in the sky that seemed to crash to the ground on his land. He had even managed to retrieve some of the debris, which he eagerly handed over to Chandra. This led the astrobiologist to firmly believe what had crashed to Earth that evening had been a meteorite as opposed to an intelligently guided craft. However, he still felt that there was a connection to be found between it and the organisms in the red rain.
He took pieces of the meteorite to be studied and compared them to the cells and organisms in the rain samples he had collected.
The video below is a series of clips from The Unexplained Files that looked into the incident.
Proof of Alien Life?
The results of the tests carried out by Chandra were thorough, unbiased, and perhaps most importantly, they were indisputable.
He concluded, beyond doubt, these organisms – which were replicating themselves despite having no DNA structure – had come to Earth from outer space. Furthermore, they had entered the planet on the back of the meteorite that fell in Takiri Bandi’s farm. Essentially, these organisms were alien life forms.
Chandra took his results and theory to NASA, fully hoping to have it verified and validated. Instead, they outright rejected his findings. When the television show “The Unexplained Files” asked NASA to make a statement into their reasons, they declined to “take part in your project” and only offered, “NASA is not doing, or funding research in that area. It’s on the far edge of things.”
Perhaps of more concern, was that high levels of “alien uranium” were also discovered in the red rain cells – which if they were to come into contact with the human population, might prove to be fatal.
The red rain cells that were taken for study are currently in storage in Sri Lanka, and still appear to be replicating and very much alive.
Gilbert Levin And NASA “Denials” Of Life On Mars
Chandra’s experience isn’t the first time that NASA has publically refuted apparent proof of alien life despite scientific evidence to the contrary.
In 1976 when the Viking probe touched down on the red planet, one of the many experiments that it was to carry out were various tests for signs of life. One of these was designed by Gilbert Levin and would test for signs of organic life in soil samples it would take from Mars.
The experiment, testing devices, and methods had all been pre-approved by NASA – indeed they were on the Viking when it landed so you would imagine NASA had extended faith in the results it would reveal.
When the tests were carried out, Levin claims that organic molecules were discovered within the Martian soil. NASA however, stated that the two other devices aboard the Viking, that were also testing for the same thing, failed to identify such molecules, and his results were treated as little more than an anomaly. Levin has spoken openly about his belief that the results were basically “buried” by NASA.
At least one NASA employee, Chris McKay from NASA’s Ames Research Center, has publicly defended Levin’s results, even going as far as to suggest that NASA’s other two experiment methods may, in fact, be flawed as opposed to Levin’s. He brought attention to experiments conducted in Chile’s Atacama Desert, where the same methods as those on the Viking were used. They again brought back results showing no organic molecules in the desert soil, even though it was they were clearly present.
Check out the short video below features Levin discussing what he believes, is evidence of Life on Mars.
There were various theories as to how they might have come to be there, including that they might have “hitched a ride” with one of the delivery missions to the ISS – although this particular theory was eventually ruled out as a realistic possibility.
One of the leading theories was that “atmospheric currents” had sent the plankton on their way out of the atmosphere and to the ISS. If this were true, then it would suggest that certain species can survive in the vacuum of outer space – maybe even species from elsewhere in the universe that we don’t yet know about. This also lends further credence to the theory of living organisms coming to this planet on a meteorite.
As well as the meteorite that fell in Sri Lanka that Chandra firmly believes brought with it a living organism, there have been other documented cases that seem to show molecular organisms found in the remains of meteor landings.
Before we look at those, however, check out the video below that looks at the discovery of “life” outside the International Space Station.
The Panspermia Theory
In 1984, the Alan Hills 84001 meteorite fell to Earth, remains of which were discovered in Alan Hills, Antarctica. Over a decade later in 1996 following continuous study of the remains, came the announcement that there appeared to be the presence of “Martian bacteria” within it – essentially a huge indicator that not only had life once existed on the red planet but that it might have arrived here on a meteorite.
Given that the theory of panspermia – at least in principal – has all but been proven with the findings on meteorites that have been studied, then should we look at what we “know” of the Earth’s history a little more?
Whether this type of planet seeding is “Mother Nature” whose reach would surely stretch throughout the universe or purposeful targeting is also an interesting question. Even today, various groups have explored the idea of “seeding” Mars with vegetation and woodland by way of “rocket strikes”, which would in turn, should they grow as expected, would begin to terraform the planet to being more favorable for human habitat.
Check out the video below that looks at the Panspermia Theory in a little more detail.
To be clear, your friend and humble narrator does not wear a tinfoil hat, nor does this reporter believe the U.S. government is competent enough to keep proof of alien life secret from the American public. (Just remember, the same government that conspiracy theorists allege is keeping the truth about UFOs under wraps also runs the Defense Finance and Accounting Service.)
Yet a number of credible media outlets have reported that Navy pilots are increasingly reporting sightings of unidentified aircraft, and the service is taking them seriously for a change. Politico's Bryan Bender reported in April that the Navy was working on new guidelines for reporting such aircraft in the wake of increased sightings in military ranges and airspace.
Helene Cooper of the New York Times recently reported that Navy pilots saw a slew of unidentified aircraft in 2014 and 2015 while flying training missions off the East Coast. In fact, a pilot from Virginia Beach nearly collided with one of the unknown aircraft in late 2014.
The strange aircraft had no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes, the New York Times reported. They could fly up to 30,000 feet and they were able to loiter in the area of U.S. warships for 12 hours at high speeds.
The Navy declined to speculate who or what may be flying the mysterious aircraft.
"I would note; however, that, consistent with the wide proliferation and availability of inexpensive unmanned aerial systems sightings of this nature have increased in frequency from 2014 until now," said Joseph Gradisher, a spokesman for the deputy chief of naval operations for information warfare.
But could these strange aircraft actually be long-range Russian or Chinese unmanned surveillance aircraft?
Probably not, according to the Air Force.
"While there is a proliferation of UAV [unmanned aerial vehicle] technology across the globe, we are not concerned that China or Russia have developed a long-range capability about which we are not aware," said Air Force spokesman Maj. Bryan Lewis.
Any drone that could fly from Russia or China to the United States' East Coast would have to be at least as large as an MQ-9 Reaper and the data link used to fly the aircraft would be detectable, said retired Air Force Maj. Gen. James Poss, who served as the service's former assistant deputy chief of staff for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.
"I'd be very surprised if these were Russian or Chinese aircraft operating from Russia or China," Poss told Task & Purpose.
With conventional theories Tango Uniform, your humble Pentagon correspondent went full History Channel and asked defense officials if they had any concerns that extraterrestrials were spying on the U.S. military. (It is important to set the right tone when asking the military about UFOs, so this reporter attempted to be as nonchalant as Russian sailors letting it all hang out.)
For the most part, officials responded with polite silence – and in one case, a very long glare.
From 2008 until 2012, the Defense Intelligence Agency investigated unidentified aircraft as part of the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program, which has been described in the media as the Pentagon's X-Files.
The program was meant to determine if unexplained sightings showed evidence of advanced enemy technology. It produced 38 reports, but a review in late 2009 found the data were of not much value to the DIA, so the program ended, defense officials said.
However, retired Sen. Harry Reid (D-Nev.) said he feels the Pentagon needs to look into unidentified aerial phenomena again.
"Why not?" Reid told Task & Purpose. "I think it's foolhardy to do nothing."
Reid secured most of the funding for the now defunct DIA program that investigated unexplained aircraft sightings. He said he is unsure if the type of unknown aircraft mentioned in the New York Times are extraterrestrial.
"We don't have a lot explanation for what they are," he said. "They can go vertically, horizontally at huge air knots. If you have a jet airplane that goes 700 miles an hour – we've only got one going that fast – these things it's estimated are going 3,000 miles per hour. So try that one on."
SEE ALSO: Declassified Video Purportedly Shows Navy Pilots Encountering Mysterious UFO
Sovershenno Sekretno, a very popular and respected Russian newspaper, published an article in its October 2011 issue. The author is Vladimir Kucharyants, writer and journalist. The title is (in English) Worlds of Professor Ludvig.
Professor Genrikh Mavrikiyevich Ludvig was a highly educated Russian scientist, an inmate of Stalin’s concentration camps, a philosopher, a scholar of ancient languages, daring architect, a teacher, a freethinker who lived in the stifling ideological climate of Communism…a person who did not break down under enormous pressure, torture, and betrayal.
Vladimir Kucharyants was his student in the 1960s, but only in recent years has discovered the scope of Professor’s Ludvig’s knowledge, ideas, and legacy. There is much more that needs to be discovered, and the Russian writer continues his quest. He is still not sure who Genrikh Ludvig really was: a phenomenally educated scientist who possessed encyclopedic knowledge; a mystic; a person who was ordained into secret knowledge.
Those who research the UFO phenomenon and ancient astronauts hypothesis will learn from the Sovershenno Sekretno article that Professor Ludvig was able to study amazing ancient manuscripts during his sojourn in the Vatican’s library (in the 1920s). There he read about extraterrestrials who had visited the Earth in antiquity; subsequently, he began his research of Maya civilization, and interpreted their symbols to be spaceships and spacesuits. In addition, Professor Ludvig mentioned that the library contained manuscripts about alchemy and ancient codes.
The Sistine Hall of the Vatican Library.
(Credit: Maus-Trauden/Wikimedia Commons)
When the NKVD (KGB) arrested him in 1938, Professor Ludvig was accused of being a Vatican (but also Turkish, Polish, German and American) spy. He survived the concentration camps and torture, and carried his incredible knowledge, language skills (he was fluent in 20 languages, including ancient ones), ideas and beliefs with him, through the years full of suffering and ordeals. He was informed on or denounced to the secret police by his wife.
Professor Ludvig prison picture.
(Credit: Sovershenno Sekretno)
Kucharyants mentions that Professor Ludvig showed his students photocopies of the Vatican’s ancient manuscripts ( containing information about extraterrestrials that had visited our planet) with drawings, described to them the hidden essence of ancient myths; he told them of the Fiery Pillar that destroyed an advanced ancient civilization; he showed the students photos of the fortress walls discovered in Babylon, melted with the horrendous temperature and believed that nuclear blasts could cause this.
Professor Ludvig was very much interested in Sumerian civilization and possessed great knowledge about it; he discussed the esoteric meaning of pyramids in Egypt (he considered them to be sort of “energy machines”); he studied the Etruscan civilization; he knew about Cabbala.
A Gulag labor camp.
Professor Ludvig was also an inventor, and designer of military technology. He helped his country, even during his imprisonment. During his days as an inmate of the GULAG, during World War II, he had at least 17 inventions to his name: such as the construction of military airfields in marshy areas; a noiseless underground station for testing aerial engines; a bomb thrower for close distance tank warfare; and many more. His reward was extension of the prison sentence in 1942 for another ten years, after he was denounced for his criticism of Stalin’s policies inside the concentration camps.
Professor Ludvig in the 20s.
(Credit: Sovershenno Sekretno)
Ludvig knew the secrets of herbs and their esoteric medicinal properties, and once this knowledge helped him survive, when he had to cure the wife of the concentration camp commander, or face death.
There is much more information in the Sovershenno Sekretnoarticle (for example, his friendship with another great and highly talented Russian scientist Alexander Chizevsky, whose work I have described in my articles). I urge all those who are interested in the ancient astronauts hypothesis to learn more about Professor Ludvig. I will also try to discover more, although there are few sources available.
Genrikh Mavrikiyevich Ludvig who passed away in 1973, had fantastic intellect, and made incredible discoveries. I am sure his former student Vladimir Kucharyants, who was able to uncover Professor’s notes and writings from the 1930s, will find more documents and materials.
MESMERISING MULTI-COLOURED OCTOPUS CAUGHT SWIMMING IN THE DEPTHS OF THE OCEAN IN SPECTACULAR HD FOOTAGE
MESMERISING MULTI-COLOURED OCTOPUS CAUGHT SWIMMING IN THE DEPTHS OF THE OCEAN IN SPECTACULAR HD FOOTAGE
By Randal Coombs
A pair of rare multi-coloured blanket octopuses have been caught on camera during a night dive off the coast of Romblon, Philippines.
In the incredible high-definition clip, captured on April 5, one of the octopuses puts on a vibrant light show for cameraman, Joseph Elayani, as it glides through the water shifting through the different colours of the rainbow.
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The rapid colour change is thought to be a reaction to the different light levels from the camera, or as a defence mechanism against would-be predators.
The blanket octopus can be seen in the video transforming from pastel blues and purples to glimmering reds and oranges.
At the end of the footage, a second octopus also comes into view.
It is thought to be extremely hard to capture these bizarre creatures on camera in crisp, high-definition as it is rare to come across them in the wild.
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“My adrenaline was so high, I could only think where the buttons were on the camera, and my fingers trembled,” said Joseph.
“I remember when I first heard about this octopus, my great enthusiasm and encountering it in nature was a dream come true.”
“As far as I know it is extremely rare to see them in the wild,” he continued.
PIC FROM Caters News
“In fact, I think that video photography in a relatively wide lens in such good quality (4K) is unique and has not been done so far.
“I would say that maybe the behaviour when the blanket is open is to warn or to protect itself against predators and the colours accordingly.
“I can only note when we first noticed them two octopuses swam close and their colour was more silvery”.
For about a century, scientists and astronomers have been searching for evidence of life beyond Earth using indirect means. For the past sixty years, we have been able to look for it using direct means, using robotic spacecraft to search for biosignatures throughout the Solar System.
And while our efforts have been unsuccessful so far, we can take comfort in knowing that we have barely have scratched the surface. And it's entirely possible that we have been looking in the wrong places. As terrestrial creatures, we can be forgiven for thinking that life is likely to exist on rocky planets with plenty of water.
But as scientists have begun to suspect since the 1970s, the best bet for finding life in our Solar System may actually be beneath the surface of some its many icy moons.
What are "Ocean Worlds"?
By definition, ocean worlds are bodies that have abundant sources of water. Given that 71% of our planet's surface is covered in water, Earth is a good example of an "ocean world". Interestingly enough, Mars and Venus also had oceans on their surface as well, but these were lost as the planets underwent significant changes in their climate.
Because water is essential to life as we know it, ocean worlds like Earth have long been thought to be very rare and precious. But from the 1970s onward, robotic missions have revealed that oceans may also exist beneath the surfaces of icy moons in the outer Solar System. The first to be discovered were Jupiter's largest moons, which are also known as its Galilean moons (after their founder, Galileo Galilee).
Combined with a rich chemical environment that contains elements essential to life (oxygen, carbon, phosphorous, methane, etc.) and internal heating mechanisms, scientists began to speculate that these bodies could support life. In the past few decades, proposals have been made to send robotic missions to these bodies to search for signs of life ("biosignatures").
In 2004, NASA founded the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG), which was charged with identifying scientific priorities and pathways for exploration in the outer Solar System. By 2016, OPAG founded the Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds (ROW) group, which was tasked with laying the groundwork for a mission to explore “ocean worlds” in search for life.
These objectives were published online in a 2019 study titled "The NASA Roadmap to Ocean Worlds" which was led by Amanda Hendrix of the Planetary Science Institute and Terry Hurford of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. As they stated:
“For the purposes of ROW (Roadmap to Ocean Worlds), and to bound the extent of a future Ocean Worlds program, we define an “ocean world” as a body with a current liquid ocean (not necessarily global). All bodies in our solar system that plausibly can have or are known to have an ocean will be considered as part of this document. The Earth is a well-studied ocean world that can be used as a reference (“ground truth”) and point of comparison.”
Ocean Worlds in our Solar System:
At present, NASA has determined that there could be as many as nine ocean worlds within the Solar System, thought it is possible that there could be even more. They include Ceres, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Dione, Titan, Triton, Pluto - a combination of icy moons and icy minor planets.
These worlds are all believed to possess interior oceans which exist between the surface ice and the core-mantle boundary. An interesting feature about these worlds is just how much of them consist of water and ice. On Earth, water accounts for only 1% of the planet's total diameter. But on these moons and minor planets, it ranges from between 55% (Europa) to 90% (Ganymede and Enceladus)
In addition, on Earth, the deepest part of the ocean is located in the western Pacific; specifically, a region known as the Challenger Deep. This region is located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench, and is approximately 11,000 m (36,200 ft) deep. Compare that to oceans that can get up to around 100 km (62 mi) in depth, with more salt water than all of Earth's oceans combined.
How much more? Consider Europa, which is at the lower end of the scale. Its ice layers and ocean water have an estimated volume of about three quadrillion cubic kilometers (3 × 10^18 m³), which is slightly more than twice the combined volume of all of Earth’s oceans. At the other end of the scale is Ganymede, which has an estimated volume of ice and water that is 39 times as much as Earth.
Aside from water, these worlds have also been found to possess volatile compounds (i.e. carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia), biological molecules, and internal heating caused by geothermal activity or the decay of radioactive elements. This combination of water, biological molecules, and energy make these moons possible candidates in the search for extra-terrestrial life.
The dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the Main Asteroid Belt, as well as the largest object between Mars and Jupiter. In fact, when it was discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801, it was the first member of the Asteroid Belt to be observed. For the next two centuries, it would continue to be referred to as an "asteroid".
However, with the Great Planet Debate of the early 2000s, Ceres found itself being reclassified. Like Pluto and other spherical bodies that have not cleared their orbits, Ceres became designated as a "dwarf planet" (or minor planet), in accordance with the resolution passed during the 26th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Based on its size and density, Ceres believed to be differentiated between a core composed of silicate minerals and metals and a mantle composed of ice. In addition, there are multiple lines of evidence that support the existence of a liquid water ocean in Cere's interior, which would be located at the core-mantle boundary.
For instance, scientists have detected significant amounts of hydroxide ions near Cere's north pole, which could be the product of water vapor being chemically disassociated by ultraviolet solar radiation. Several sources of water vapor have also been detected around the mid-latitudes.
These may be the result of surface ice that has sublimated due to comet impacts, or of cryovolcanic eruptions resulting from internal heat and subsurface pressurization.
In addition, infrared data on the surface has indicated the presence of sodium carbonate and smaller amounts of ammonium chloride or ammonium bicarbonate. These materials may have originated from the crystallization of brines that reached the surface from below.
The presence of ammonia, a natural antifreeze that Ceres is known to have, could be how this interior ocean remains in a liquid state. It is estimated to be 100 km (62 mi) deep, and could contain as much as 200 million km³ (48 mi³) of water. This is almost three times as much fresh water that exists on Earth - 35 million km³ (8.4 million mi³).
The odds that this body could support life in its interior? Unclear at this time, but worth a check!
The outermost of Jupiter's Galilean Moons, Callisto is also believed to harbor an ocean in its interior. Like Ceres, this ocean is believed to exist as a result of there being sufficient amounts of ammonia in the interior, as well as the possible presence of radioactive elements whose decay provides the necessary heat.
The existence of this ocean is hypothesized based on the fact that Jupiter's powerful magnetic field does not penetrate beyond the Callisto's surface. This suggests that there is a layer of highly conductive fluid beneath the icy sheet that is at least 10 km (6.2 mi) in depth. However, allowing for sufficient amounts of ammonia, it could be up to 250 - 300 km (155 - 185 mi) deep.
If true, this would mean that Callisto is approximately equal parts rocky material and water ice, which ice constituting about 49-55% of the moon and water ice with volatiles (like ammonia) constituting 25-50% of its overall surface mass. Beneath this hypothetical ocean, Callisto’s interior appears to be composed of compressed rocks and ices, with the amount of rock increasing with depth.
This means that Callisto is only partially differentiated, with a small silicate core no larger than 600 km (370 mi) surrounded by a mix of ice and rock. Not a great bet for finding life, but a mission to explore the interior ocean would be invaluable nonetheless!
Europa is the moon that started it all! For decades, the scientific consensus has been that beneath the surface of this a Jovian (and Galilean) moon lies a liquid water ocean, most likely located at the core-mantle boundary. The mechanism for this is believed to be tidal flexing, where Jupiter's powerful gravitational field causes Europa's rocky, metallic core to experience geothermal activity.
This activity could lead to the formation of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, where heat and minerals from the interior are injected into the ocean. On Earth, such vents are believed to be where the earliest life existed (which is indicated by fossilized bacteria that are dated to ca. 4.28 billion years ago).
In a similar vein, hydrothermal vents on Europa could give rise to similar lifeforms such as extreme bacteria and possibly even more complex lifeforms.
The existence of this interior ocean is supported by multiple lines of evidence gathered by a variety of robotic missions. These include geological models that anticipate tidal flexing in the interior and images taken by probes that revealed "chaos terrain" on Europa, where the terrain is crisscrossed by bands and ridges and is remarkably smooth.
There is also the way that periodic plumes of water have been observing breaching the surface of Europa and reaching up to 200 km (120 mi) in height - over 20 times the height of Mt. Everest! These appear when Europa is at its farthest point from Jupiter (periapsis) and are caused by tidal forces.
Using this data, scientists have developed a series of models to describe Europa's interior environment. Each of these has implications for the possible existence of life and our ability to find evidence of it on the surface.
In the “thin-ice model", the ice shell is only a few km thick - 200 m (650 ft) in some places - and contact between the subsurface and surface is a regular feature. This contact would be responsible for producing Europa's famous "chaos terrain", which are thought to be thin sections of ice sitting atop vast lakes of water.
In the “thick-ice model”, which is more favored, contact between the ocean and surface are rare and only takes place beneath open ridges. Between these two models, scientists estimate that Europa's crust is anywhere between 10–30 km (6–19 mi) thick, while its liquid ocean extends to a depth of about 100 km (60 mi).
Because of this combination of liquid water, organic molecules and chemistry, and internal heating, Europa is considered to be one of the best candidates for finding life beyond Earth.
Another Jovian moon, also one of the Galileans, is Ganymede, which sets the record for being watery! Another thing that sets this moon apart is the intrinsic magnetic field - which is something no other moon (or rocky planet) possesses - and an atmosphere that experiences aurorae.
Like Europa, this moon is thought to have a core composed of metal and silicate minerals, which flexes due to interaction with Jupiter's gravity to create internal heating. This heat is what allows for a liquid water ocean located at the core-mantle boundary.
All told, Ganymede is believed to consist of equal parts rocky material and water ice, with water accounting for 46–50% of the moon’s mass, and 50-90% of the surface's mass.
In addition to other lines of evidence, the presence of an ocean inside Ganymede has been confirmed by readings obtained by robotic missions on how Ganymede’s aurora behaves. These aurorae are affected by Ganymede's magnetic field (something no other moon possesses) which is in turn affected by the presence of a large, subsurface ocean composed of salt water.
According to readings taken by robotic probes, the moon's interior is believed to be differentiated between a solid inner core measuring up to 500 km (310 mi) in radius (and composed or iron and nickel) and a liquid iron and iron-sulfide outer core. Convection in this outer core is what is believed to power Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field.
The outer ice shell is the largest layer of all, measuring an estimated 800 km (497 miles) in radius. If these estimates are accurate, then Ganymede possesses the deepest oceans in the Solar System. As for whether or not these oceans could harbor life, that remains highly speculative.
Here we have a more recent entry to the "Ocean Worlds" club. In 2005, NASA's Cassini mission noted the existence of water jets emanating from this moon's southern hemisphere around a series of features known as the "Tiger Stripes". These stripes correspond to linear depressions in the surface ice, where cryovolcanism forces water through to the surface.
Since that time, scientists have entertained the possibility that Enceladus has a liquid water ocean beneath its icy crust. Based on gravity measurements conducted by the Cassini mission, scientists estimate that it extends to a depth of about 10 km (6.2 mi) beneath the surface and that the surface plumes extend all the way to it.
Analysis of the plumes indicated that they are capable of dispensing 250 kg (lbs) of water vapor every second at speeds of up to 2,189 km/h, which allows them to reach up to 500 km (310 mi) into space. The intensity of these eruptions varies significantly based on changes in Enceladus’s orbit.
When Enceladus is at apoapsis (farthest from Saturn), the fissures through which the eruptions travel are under less pressure, which causes them to open wider. The plumes themselves are believed to originate from subsurface chambers at the core-mantle boundary, where geothermal activity maintains the ocean.
Even more impressive is the fact that spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of methane and simple hydrocarbons in the plumes, as well as hydrated minerals. These elements are all essential to life as we know it and could indicate that colonies of simple lifeforms exist in Enceladus' interior.
Saturn's largest moon is renowned for having a methane cycle that is very similar to Earth's water cycle - where methane exists on the surface as lakes, evaporates to form clouds, and returns to the surface in the form of hydrocarbon rains. All told, Titan contains more hydrocarbons in its atmosphere and on its surface than all of Earth’s oil deposits combined.
At the same time, Titan also has also been found to have prebiotic conditions and organic chemistry on its surface, which could be indicative of life. On top of that, Titan could have an ocean of liquid water beneath its surface that could also support life. Much like Callisto, Titan's interior is believed to be differentiated and composed of equal parts water ice and rocky material/metals.
At the center is a 3,400 km (~2100 mi) core of hydrous rocky material surrounded by layers composed of different forms of crystalized ice and deeper levels of high-pressure ice. Above this resides a liquid ocean up to 200 km (125 mi) thick and made up of water and ammonia, which would allow the water to remain in a liquid state even where temperatures are below freezing.
As with other "Ocean Worlds", the existence of this subsurface ocean is supported by multiple lines of evidence. This includes the fact that the moon's surface is very smooth and young where most features dated to between 100 million to 1 billion years old, an indication of geological activity that renews the surface.
Another indicator is evidence of cryovolcanism, which could be responsible for some of the atmospheric methane. Since the amount of liquid methane on the surface is deemed insufficient for the gaseous concentrations in Titan's hazy atmosphere, an interior source is also thought to play a role.
The case for life on Titan remains highly speculative and would involve extreme lifeforms that are very exotic by Earth standards. Nevertheless, laboratory simulations have led to the idea that there is enough organic material on Titan to start a chemical evolution analogous to what is thought to have started life on Earth.
This moon of Saturn was first studied by the Voyager 1 and 2 space probes as they passed through the Saturn system in 1980 and 1981. It was further studied by the Cassini mission, which conducted five flybys of the moon between 2005 and 2015.
What these missions revealed was a satellite with smooth terrain, which is seen as an indication of endogenic resurfacing and renewal. Combined with models constructed by NASA scientists, it is believed that Dione’s core experiences tidal heating that increases as it gets closer in its orbit to Saturn. This may mean that Dione has a liquid water ocean at its core-mantle boundary.
Neptune's largest moon has long remained a source mystery to scientists. Roughly 55% of Triton’s surface is covered with frozen nitrogen, whereas water ice comprises 15–35% while carbon dioxide ice (aka. "dry ice") forms the remaining 10–20%. Trace amounts of key volatiles have also been discovered in the crust, which includes methane and small amounts of ammonia.
Density measurements suggest that Triton's interior is differentiated between a solid core made of rocky material and metals and a mantle and crust composed of ice. It is theorized that if there are enough radioactive elements in the interior, it could provide enough energy to power convection in the mantle, which may be enough to maintain a subsurface ocean.
The presence of volatile elements further boosts this possibility, and if enough heat is provided from the core, it could be that life may exist in this interior ocean.
Based on data obtained by NASA's New Horizon mission, scientists now believe that Pluto’s internal structure could be differentiated between a core of rocky material and metal that measures about 1700 km in diameter (70% of the planet), which is surrounded by a mantle of ice composed of water, nitrogen and other volatiles.
Once again, the presence of enough radioactive elements in the core could mean that Pluto's interior is warm enough to maintain an interior ocean. As with other Ocean Worlds, this would be located at the core-mantle boundary and is estimated to be 100 to 180 km (62 to 112 mi) thick.
All of the suspects Ocean Worlds of the Solar System have all been explored in the past. Some have been explored more extensively by multiple robotic missions over the course of the past decades. Others, meanwhile, have been explored very rarely or only recently.
The exploration of Europa and other Jovian moons began with NASA's Pioneer 10and 11 spacecraft, which conducted flybys of the Jupiter system in 1973 and 1974, respectively. These provided the first closeup photos of Europa and other Jovian moons, but in low resolution.
The two Voyager probes followed, traveling through the Jovian system in 1979 and providing more detailed images of Europa’s icy surface. These images revealed Europa's "chaos terrain" features, which triggered speculation that the moon might harbor an interior ocean. Geophysical models that looked at Jupiter's gravitational force on the moon and the resulting tidal flexing supported this interpretation.
Between 1995 and 2003, NASA's Galileo probe orbited Jupiter and provided the most detailed examing of the Galilean moons, which included numerous flybys of Europa. It was this mission that was responsible for detecting Europa's weak magnetic moment, which indicated that a layer of highly-electrically conductive material exists in Europa's interior. The most plausible explanation for this was a large subsurface ocean of liquid saltwater.
In 1979, the Pioneer 11 pass through the Saturn system and measured Titan’s mass and atmosphere. In 1980 and 1981 (respectively), Voyager 1 and 2 conducted a more detailed study of Titan's atmosphere and revealed light and dark features on its surface (which would later come to be known as the Xanadu and Shangri-laregions).
Between 2004 and 2017, the Cassini-Huygens mission would provide the most detailed and comprehensive look at Saturn and its system of moons. It was the first robotic mission to observe plumes on Enceladus in 2005, which mission scientists concluded were an indication of an interior ocean and also what was responsible for replenishing Saturn’s E-Ring with icy particles.
The Cassini orbiter also conducted multiple flybys of Titan and took the highest-resolution images ever of Titan’s surface. This allowed scientists to discern patches of light and dark terrain that were Xanadu and Shangri-La features, detect abundant sources of liquid in the northern polar region, in the form of methane lakes and seas.
The European Space Agency's (ESA) Huygens lander touched down on the surface on January 14th, 2005, which made Titan the most distant body from Earth to ever have a robotic mission land on it. While the lander was only able to transmit for 90 minutes, the data is sent back revealed a great deal about Titan's surface.
This included evidence that many of Titan's surface features appear to have been formed by fluids at some point in the past. The lander also provided information about the region it landed in, just off the easternmost tip of the bright region called Adiri. This included the “highlands” that are believed to be composed mainly of water ice and dark organic compounds.
These compounds are created in the upper atmosphere and may come down from Titan’s atmosphere with methane rain and become deposited on the plains over time. The lander also obtained photographs of a dark plain covered in small rocks and pebbles (composed of water ice) that showed additional evidence of possible fluvial activity (liquid erosion).
Only a handful of missions have explored the other Ocean Worlds of the Solar System. These include the Voyager 2 probe, which conducted a flyby of Triton in 1989 as part of its tour of Uranus, Neptune and the outer Solar System. During this flyby, Voyager 2 gathered data that revealed a great deal about the moon's surface and composition, which is still being studied today.
Between 2015 and 2018, Ceres was investigated by NASA's Dawn mission. This orbiter became the first mission to visit a dwarf planet and go into orbit around two destinations beyond Earth - Ceres and Vesta, the second-largest object in the Main Asteroid Belt. In addition to finding evidence of a possible interior ocean, the Dawn mission confirmed that a liquid ocean may have once covered much of Ceres' surface.
Last, but not least, is Pluto, which was visited for the first time in history in 2015 by the New Horizons mission. This mission provided the first clear images of Pluto's surface, revealing things about its surface features, geological history, composition, atmosphere, and hinting at its internal processes.
Future Exploration Missions:
For obvious reasons, multiple missions have been proposed to explore the Solar System's Ocean Worlds over time. Looking to the future, a number of these concepts are either in development or are approaching realization. In addition, next-generation missions that will push the boundaries of space exploration are also expected to play a role in the study of Ocean Worlds.
In 2011, a robotic mission to Europa was recommended as part of the U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey, a report that was requested by NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to review the status of planetary science and propose missions that would advance their exploration goals between the years of 2013 and 2022.
In response, NASA commissioned a series of studies to research the possibility of Europa lander in 2012, along with concepts for a spacecraft that could conduct a flyby of Europa and one that would study the moon from orbit. Whereas the orbiter proposal would concentrate on the “ocean” science, the multiple-flyby proposal would concentrate on questions related to Europa's internal chemistry and energy.
In July 2013, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Applied Physics Laboratory presented an updated concept for a flyby Europa mission (called the Europa Clipper). In addition to exploring Europa to investigate its habitability, the Clipper mission would be charged with selecting sites for a future lander. It will not orbit Europa, but instead orbit Jupiter and conduct 45 low-altitude flybys of Europa.
On January 13th, 2014, the House Appropriations Committee announced a new bipartisan bill that included $80 million worth of funding to continue the Europa mission concept studies. In May 2015, NASA officially announced that it had accepted the Europa Clipper mission proposal, which would launch sometime in the 2020s.
They also revealed that this mission would rely on a suite of instruments that would include an ice-penetrating radar, a short-wave infrared spectrometer, a topographical imager, and an ion- and neutral-mass spectrometer.
In 2012, the European Space Agency (ESA) announced that they had selected the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission concept, as part of the agency's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. This mission will launch in 2022 and arrive at Jupiter in 2029, where it will spend at least three years conducting detailed observations of Jupiter and the moons of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
The mission would conduct several flybys of Europa and Callisto, but would ultimately be more focused on Ganymede. This will be done using a suite that includes cameras, spectrometers, a laser altimeter, an ice-penetrating radar instrument, a magnetometer, plasma and particle monitors, and radio science hardware.
NASA has also made plans in recent years for a Europa Lander, a robotic vehicle that would be similar to the Viking 1 and 2missions that explored Mars in the 1970s using an orbit and lander combination. The mission would also rely on technologies tested by the Mars Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity rovers, particularly those designed to look for signs of past life (aka. "biosignatures").
Like its predecessors, the Europa Lander would investigate Europa’s habitability and assess its astrobiological potential by confirming once and for all the existence of a subsurface ocean. It would also rely on a suite of instruments to determine the characteristics of water within and below Europa’s icy shell.
But of course, the greatest objective of this mission would be to look for evidence of life that could have made its way to the surface. For this reason, the regions where Europa experiences plume activity would be an ideal spot to land in.
While no date has been specified yet for when such a mission would launch or arrive at Europa, the mission is considered of vital importance to future exploration. In all likelihood, it would follow in the wake of the Europa Clipper mission, landing at a site selected by the orbiter.
Titan Mare Explorer/Submarine:
NASA and the astronomical community have also considered a mission to explore the methane lakes of Titan (particularly the largest lakes of Kraken and Ligeia Mare) for signs of possible aquatic life. One concept is the proposal known as the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME), a concept under consideration by NASA in conjunction with Lockheed Martin.
This mission would involve a low-cost lander splashing down in a lake in Titan’s northern hemisphere and floating on the surface of the lake for 3 to 6 months. This proposal was overruled in 2012 in favor of the lower-cost Mars InSight lander instead, which reached Mars in 2018.
Another proposal for exploring the methane seas on Titan is the Titan Submarine, a concept being explored by NASA Glenn Research Center in conjunction with researchers from Washington State University. The plan is to send this vehicle to Titan within the next 20 years, which will then explore lakes like Kraken Mare autonomously for possible evidence of life.
This drone would take high-definition images of Titan's surface to shed additional light on the geology. At the end of the mission, the plane will would attempt a landing on Titan's dunes in order to gather more information on these curious features as well.
There's also the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM), a joint NASA/ESA proposal for the exploration of Saturn’s moons. This concept envisions a hot-air balloon floating in Titan’s atmosphere and conducting research for a period of about six months.
As an Outer Planets Flagship Mission concept, the design of the TSSM consists of three elements – a NASA orbiter, an ESA-designed lander to explore Titan’s lakes, and an ESA-designed balloon to explore its atmosphere. Unfortunately, this concept lost out to the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) in 2009.
Such a mission would be capable of exploring Titan’s atmosphere as well as conducting science on the surface, which would include exploring Titan's mysterious dunes and methane lakes.
James Webb Space Telescope:
Now scheduled for launch by 2021, the JWST will be the successor to the Hubble, Spitzer, and Kepler Space Telescope. As the most advanced space telescope to date and using its cutting-edge infrared imaging capabilities, this telescope will have no shortage of scientific objectives.
These will include probing the early Universe, examine distant stars and exoplanets, and also study the planets of the Solar System. It is this latter respect where the study of Ocean Worlds comes into play. When deployed, the JWST will dedicate some of its mission time to studying Europa and Enceladus.
Using its advanced infrared imaging capabilities, it will look for IR signatures on the surface of both moons to discern the location of “hot spots”, which correspond to of plume activity. Spectra obtained on thee plumes will help determine their composition and look for organic molecules and signs of life.
There's something exciting about the prospect of studying the Ocean Worlds that reside within in our cosmic backyard. On the one hand, these worlds may be the most likely place where we will find evidence of life beyond Earth. On the other, the various missions that are intended to explore them directly are all expected to happen within the next few decades.
For example, the JWST is scheduled to study moons like Europa and Enceladus just six months after it is deployed and has commenced its scientific operations. The Europa Clipper mission is scheduled for the mid-2020s, while missions to Titan are expected to happen by the 2030s.
In other words, if there is life locked away beneath the icy crusts of these moons and minor planets, we will be hearing about it within our lifetime!
BIJZONDERE GRAANCIRKEL IN BRABANT, NEDERLAND, ONTDEKT
BIJZONDERE GRAANCIRKEL IN BRABANT, NEDERLAND, ONTDEKT
De mooiste graancirkels zijn tot nu gevonden in Engeland, maar soms verschijnen ze ook in ons land.
En als dat gebeurt, dan is dit dikwijls in Noord Brabant zoals ook nu weer het geval.
Het blijft een fascinerend fenomeen, die graancirkels en nog steeds jaar na jaar verschijnen ze weer.
Over het algemeen zijn de graancirkels die in Nederland worden aangetroffen wat minder spectaculair dan die in Engeland en de boeren in ons land schijnen ook wat minder geduld te hebben dat die in het buitenland.
Zo werd er vorig jaar een graancirkel ontdekt in Zevenbergen en zoals we toen schreven, maakte de boer er korte metten mee
En nu ontvangen we het volgende bericht van een lezer (dank!) uit Reusel in Noord Brabant over wederom een graancirkel in die provincie.
Het bericht luidt als volgt:
Toen ik met mijn hond ging wandelen zag ik op de hoek Laarakkerdijk, Schepersweijer in Reusel een grote tekening in de vorm van 3 cirkels. Deze stond in het gras.
Ik durf het bijna niet te zeggen want ik ben een nuchtere Reuselse boer maar het leek nog het meest op een graancirkel. Ik durfde er eerst geen melding van te maken omdat ik bang ben voor gek verklaard te worden maar zag op FB dat een boer er een foto van gemaakt heeft met zijn drone.
Zie bijlage. Is dit een UFO waarneming of kan dit ook door bijvoorbeeld windmolens komen? Die staan er enkele in dat gebied.
Tot ver deze lezer.
Nee, het lijkt ons niet dat windmolens dit soort structuren in het graan kunnen veroorzaken. Er is natuurlijk altijd de mogelijkheid dat dit door mensenhanden is gemaakt en in dat geval zouden wij graag horen van diegenen die dit gemaakt hebben.
Wat wij ervan kunnen maken is dat het de stand van 3 hemellichamen representeert. Daarbij zouden we misschien de zon zien met de aarde en daartussen een andere planeet? Het lijkt in ieder geval dat er aandacht wordt gevraagd voor een stand van bepaalde planeten, uitgelijnd op een bepaalde manier.
En dan is er met zoals de meeste graancirkels geen enkele "logische verklaring" met betrekking tot de makers, behalve dat ze door ons onbekende entiteiten of vliegende objecten (ufo's) zijn gemaakt.
We horen graag van lezers wat hun gedachten zijn over deze graancirkel en wat deze zou kunnen uitbeelden. Je kunt ons emailen via redactie (apenstaart) niburu.co
The ancient record is replete with stories about stargates and dimensional portals to other realms. The Sumerians, Egyptians, Native Americans, Mayans and many more ancient cultures all record accounts of some type of device that enables inter-stellar or inter dimensional travel through space and time.
Most mainstream academics dismiss these accounts as pure myth and fail to apply any worthwhile analysis. Instead, they claim these mysterious stories are nothing more than the result of our ancient ancestors’ very active imaginations.
They summarily dismiss even the possibility of the existence of such technology in order to keep their own historical paradigm intact. But, even within their own world of academia, these critics have a formidable foe – the theoretical physicist.
Greatest American Military UFO Experiences via te Nimitz Encounters
Greatest American Military UFO Experiences via the Nimitz Encounters
November 2004, 90 miles of the coast of Mexico near San Diego, California, the Nimitz Carrier Strike Group was conducting routine training and aerial defense exercises when unexplained events occurred.
No one could have predicted what would soon confront the world’s most advanced naval war ships and fighter jets.
Aerial craft would appear that forever changed all those that encountered them. The answers to the question of “what are they?” remains unanswered by the sailors and the US Gov. After years of cloaked secrecy the true story can finally be told. With multiple witnesses from the ships, their first hand testimony is impossible to deny.
Our film features CGI re-creations as told by the sailors and naval aviators that witnessed them. Aside from the historical fictionalized dialog (no one recorded the radio conversations), the story itself is based on the facts of the case, including official US government docs, witness statements, news reports and official timelines.) See www.thenimitzencounters.com for links to the official documents.
Some military personnel have requested their names be removed or remain anonymous, out of respect for their privacy we have changed names and details to protect their identity. All similarities to persons living or dead is unintentional. The producers have made every attempt to verify details and deny any liability for errors or omissions.
FLIR1 is the second of three US military videos of unidentified aerial phenomenon (UAP) that has been through the official declassification review process of the United States government and approved for public release. It is the only official footage captured by a US Navy F/A-18 Super Hornet present at the 2004 Nimitz incident off the coast of San Diego. Like GIMBAL, this footage comes with crucial chain-of-custody (CoC) documentation because it is a product of US military sensors, which confirms it is original, unaltered, and not computer generated or artificially fabricated. While there have been leaked versions on the internet, the CoC establishes the authenticity and credibility that this version is the original footage taken from one of the most advanced sensor tracking devices in use.
The sensor, a Raytheon AN/ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared (ATFLIR) pod, has two imaging modes: mid-wave infrared and visual. It has high resolution and can locate and designate targets at distances exceeding 40 nautical miles. The FLIR1 footage shows what was on display to the fighter pilots in the cockpit of their Super Hornet. Here are the major features and what they mean:
Description of HUD (Heads Up Display) seen in the FLIR1 video as filmed by a US Navy F/A-18 Super Hornet using the Raytheon AN/ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared (ATFLIR) pod.
ANALYZING THE VIDEO
It is important to note that this video was delivered without audio. The filename “FLIR1” appears to reference the fact that this video was captured by a Forward Looking Infrared System (FLIR).
As the video starts, the sensor is in infrared “white-hot” mode—white elements in the display are warmer than the dark, or cooler, areas. The UAP appears as a white shape in the middle of the screen. The chasing aircraft is in a left-hand turn flying Mach 0.55 at 19,990 feet altitude. The UAP is flying slightly above (6 degrees) and 4 degrees to the right of the Super Hornet. Pilot interviews state that the UAP was hovering at 24,000 feet.
Note that there is no visible exhaust plume from the object. Mid-wave infrared images of hovering aircraft, such as the AV-8B Harrier, would clearly reveal an exhaust plume if one was present.
At 0:15, the weapon sensor operator (WSO) changes the zoom from 1.0 to 2.0, making the object much larger on screen.
At 0:18, the WSO changes to TV mode and the zoom resets to 1.0. At 19 seconds, the operator changes the zoom to 2.0. In the visual band, the object appears dark against the bright daytime sky and is clearly oblong shaped.
At 0:41, the WSO changes the image back to IR mode and then resets zoom to 1.0.
At 0:52, the sensor either breaks lock on the object or the object shifts rapidly. The sensor rapidly regains lock.
At 1:11, the WSO changes zoom several times.
At 1:14, the object suddenly and instantaneously accelerates to the left, out of view of the sensor at what appears to be unprecedented velocity without a sonic boom or other associated tell-tale signatures of a conventional craft. The acceleration is so high that the sensor cannot maintain track. This type of flight performance cannot be achieved by any known aircraft.
With the chain-of-custody documentation, FLIR1 shows credible evidence of a flying vehicle that demonstrates characteristics unlike anything we know, understand, or can duplicate. The video along with eye-witness accounts by US navy professionals have allowed us to conclude the following characteristics about the UAP:
• Hovering without a propulsion exhaust plume.
• Extreme maneuverability and startling changes in acceleration.
• Attaining hypersonic velocities, typically referring to speeds over Mach 5 (five times faster than the speed of sound), without an indication of a sonic boom.
It is because we cannot replicate these flight characteristics with existing technology, we believe this is indicative of beyond next generation technologies and necessitates further research.
To read a pilot report that discusses this event in further detail, please click here.
To watch an interview regarding this event with Commander David Fravor, U.S Navy (Ret), who was piloting one of the F/A-18F Super Hornets that day, please click here.
To read an Executive Report that provides additional information on this and other sightings, please click here.
Additional credible footage, reports, and analyses to follow here on the TTS Academy COI.
This report was taken to obtain additional information regarding the 2004 USS Nimitz incident and the possible encounter of an unidentified aerial system while US fighter pilots were on an official training mission off the coast of San Diego. All personally identifiable information has been removed to protect sources and methods.
The "Source" of this report is a highly decorated and recognized expert in aviation and Navy combat flight operations with Top Secret clearance. There are also six "others knowledgable (OK)" that are referenced as being aware of the incident. OK-4 and OK-5, who were assigned to the follow-on cycle from the USS Nimitz on the same day, after the Source's encounter, reportedly saw the same object and were able to obtain brief FLIR footage. TTS Academy has obtained this footage, entitled "FLIR1," which you can watch here after reading this report.
To watch an interview regarding this event with Commander David Fravor, U.S Navy (Ret), who was also piloting one of the F/A-18F Super Hornets that day, please click here.
Saying that he wants the U.S. Navy and other agencies “to think what they think,” the U.S. President acknowledged that the military was saying they were seeing flying objects, but that he was not a particular believer yet.
Interestingly, Trump did seem to acknowledge that there had been a briefing or some other kind of meeting about the matter.
“I did have one very brief meeting on it,” Trump told Stephanopolous. He didn’t elaborate further on the nature of the meeting, or what it might have entailed.
Though little was said on the subject during the exchange, it is a notable first indication of U.S. President’s mindset toward the subject, and the fact that there has been at least limited discussion of the topic at the White House. Not surprisingly, the passing statement about a meeting has been receiving more attention than Trump’s broader statements that indicate an apparent lack of interest in the subject.
The questions followed recent news stories reporting on the fact that the Navy has announced it will institute new guidelines for how to report encounters with aircraft they can’t identify. According to a New York Times piece published in late May, many of these objects have been encountered by Navy pilots, and appear to possess advanced capabilities that include propulsion systems that may help keep them aloft for hours–if not days–on end.
Campaigning leading up to the 2016 U.S. Presidential election saw what was arguably the most public discussion of the UFO subject by a leading contender in the race. However, at that time it had not been Donald Trump making such comments, but Democratic challenger Hillary Clinton, who discussed the issue in a notable exchange with comedian Jimmy Kimmel on his program (there is evidence, however, that the exchange was at least partially intended as a joke by Kimmel).
The recent exchange between Trump and Stephanopoulos appears to be the first time since taking office that Donald Trump has made statements of any particular significance in relation to the UFO subject. And although President Trump doesn’t appear to be sold on the subject himself, he nonetheless expressed faith in the capabilities of Navy and USAF pilots and their testimony about these incidents.
“I think our great pilots would know,” Trump said to Stephanopolous, “and some of them see things a little bit different from the past.”
“We’re watching, and you’ll be the first to know,” he seemed to equivocate.
As I mentioned in my previous article, I noted that I have a new book out right now: Flying Saucers from the Kremlin. The subtitle: UFOs, Russian Meddling, Soviet Spies and Cold War Secrets. I thought, today, I would share with you an early example of how the Russians stuck their collective noses into what was afoot with UFOs in the United States. As well as investigating what appeared to be legitimate, mystifying UFO encounters in the summer of 1947, the FBI also studied the possibility that the Russians were recruiting communists within the United States to provoke fear – and were using aspects of the UFO enigma to heighten that fear. Barely a month after the Kenneth Arnold situation erupted and caused worldwide amazement, FBI Special Agent S.W. Reynolds had a face-to-face chat with Brigadier George F. Schulgen, of the Intelligence Branch of the Army Air Corps Intelligence. The reason was, in part, to address that controversial matter of potential Russian manipulation of the UFO issue. In fact, it was this theory – rather than matters relative to aliens or to highly classified U.S. military programs – that was at the forefront of Brigadier Schulgen’s thinking.
FBI records show Schulgen informed Reynolds that “the first reported sightings might have been byindividuals of Communist sympathies with the view to causing hysteria and fear of a secret weapon [italics mine].” Schulgen’s team suspected that many flying saucer sightings were not what they seemed to be. Rather, they were completely fabricated tales – with no real UFO component attached to them at all, but driven by a Soviet operation to maximize deep concern in the United States. The Russian program had begun. On August 14, 1947, the FBI got word – via newspaper articles contained in “the Los Angeles papers” of the day – that, to quote the FBI, “Soviet espionage agents had been instructed to determine the facts relative to the flying discs. The article carried a Washington date-line and indicated that Red espionage agents had been ordered to solve the question of flying discs, the Russians being of the opinion that this might be some new form of defense perfected by the American military.”
It should also be noted, however, that the FBI was worried that those same Russian agents cited in the L.A. press were actually in the United States for other reasons. Namely, to determine how effectively they – the Soviets – were disrupting the U.S. by conjuring up bogus tales of unidentified flying objects. When questioned by the media on this matter, the FBI stated that it had no information relative to such a story. Uh-huh. FBI Special Agent D.M. Ladd, of the Bureau’s Domestic Intelligence Division said that “in the event any inquiries were made concerning such a story, that the story should be flatly denied in so far as the FBI was concerned.” Nevertheless, behind closed doors elements of the FBI were still speculating on the astounding theory that many UFO reports were complete fabrications; fanciful tales put together at the behest of influential and powerful figures in the Moscow Kremlin – to give it its full name – which is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation.
While addressing the same time-frame – the latter part of the 1940s – we see evidence that the U.S. Government chose to follow the lead of the Soviets when it came to the matter of manipulating the UFO controversy. That’s to say, U.S. Intelligence realized that if the Soviets could theoretically use bogus UFO tales as a means to try and keep the American people in a state of concern, then why couldn’t Uncle Sam do exactly the same – but with their operations aimed at the citizens of the likes of Moscow and Saint Petersburg? Evidence that the U.S. intelligence community entered into the very same realm of mind-games that the Russians initiated, can be found in the pages of a Project Grudge “Technical Report” on UFOs; Grudge being one of the early UFO projects of the U.S. military. The report was prepared by the U.S. Air Force in August 1949. The writer of the lengthy Project Grudge document states in part the following: “Upon eliminating several additional incidents due to vagueness and duplication, there remain 228 incidents, which are considered in this report. Thirty of these could not be explained, because there was found to be insufficient evidence on which to base a conclusion.”
It’s the following words, however, that really stand out. The military made a recommendation that “[the] Psychological Warfare Division and other governmental agencies interested in psychological warfare be informed of the results of this study[italics mine].” Quite possibly, it was this document – more than any other of that particular era – that led the U.S. Government to initiate a highly secret program to manipulate the flying saucer phenomenon and mess with the minds of Soviet Premier, Joseph Stalin, and his goons. Take a look at how the Pentagon defines psychological warfare. It is, in the military’s own words, “The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives [italics mine].”
What this demonstrates, is that the earliest U.S. military-controlled UFO research programs weren’t just about investigating sightings of strange things in the sky. The operations were also focused on creating utterly bogus flying saucer-themed stories; amazing yarns born out of psychological warfare operations and ingenious propaganda. The Russians were doing it to our people, and we were doing likewise to theirs. And what a strange and twisted game it all became.
U.S. Moonbase In 2024 - NASA's Plan for Lunar Stepping Stone to Mars
U.S. Moonbase In 2024 - NASA's Plan for Lunar Stepping Stone to Mars
The Trump administration's decision to ask NASA to land astronauts on the moon in 2024 was driven by its ambitious goal of sending astronauts to Mars in the 2030s, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine told lawmakers in a hearing of the House Science, Space and Technology Committee.
NASA was already planning to land astronauts on the moon in 2028 with the ultimate goal of going to Mars in the 2030s — until just last week, when Vice President Mike Pence announced new plans to have "boots on the moon" in 2024.
Doing so could put NASA on track to land astronauts on Mars in 2033, Bridenstine said at the hearing. However, committee members expressed some doubt over the feasibility and necessity of that accelerated timeline.
"We want to achieve a Mars landing in 2033," Bridenstine said. "In order to do that, we have to accelerate other parts of the program, and the moon is a big piece of that."
Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-Texas, the chairwoman of the committee, questioned Bridenstine about the need for undertaking a "crash program" to rush to the moon in just five years, while criticizing Pence's claim that the U.S. is in a new space race.
"The simple truth is, we are not in a space race to get to the moon. We won that race a half-century ago," she said. NASA's push to put humans on the moon in 2024 may get a financial boost next year.
A new budget amendment gives NASA an additional $1.6 billion in fiscal year 2020, on top of the $21 billion already allocated to the space agency, President Donald Trump announced on May 13.
"Under my Administration, we are restoring NASA to greatness and we are going back to the moon, then Mars. I am updating my budget to include an additional $1.6 billion so that we can return to space in a BIG WAY!" Trump said.
The amendment is a proposal for now, however; NASA won't get the money until Congress, which has the power of the purse, officially signs off. The extra $1.6 billion is designed to help NASA put astronauts down near the lunar south pole in 2024, an ambitious goal that Vice President Mike Pence laid out in March. (Prior to Pence's announcement, the agency had been working toward a late-2020s crewed lunar landing.)
This pioneering mission will help lead to a long-term, sustainable human presence on the moon, NASA officials have said.
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Ik ben Pieter, en gebruik soms ook wel de schuilnaam Peter2011.
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Mijn hobby's zijn: Ufologie en andere esoterische onderwerpen.
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